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3000 wordsAPA 7 th edition referencing guidelines needs to be followedI ll attached the assignment and pls go through it.

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Business Values &
Assignment – 2023

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• Any Assignment submission extension request must come to Azra Fatima (Head: Examination |
Academic) XXXXXXXXXX 5 days before the date of submission with a valid reason and
supported documentary evidence.
• APA 7th edition referencing guidelines needs to be followed.

• Any Assignment submission extension request must come to Azra Fatima (Head: Examination |
Academic) - XXXXXXXXXX 5 days before the date of submission with a valid reason and
supported documentary evidence.
• Similarity between student’s work is strictly not accepted, any student found with similar work will
e graded Zero and fail for the course. However, Plagiarism is an academic offence and will not be
• Any reevaluation request should come in 5 days of grade release. Any late request will not be obliged.
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Assignments submission date on 10 May 2023 at
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• Total 90 marks. 10 Marks for Class Attendance. Final marks will be
converted to 90 marks.

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• Question has to be answered based on the mark allotted for each question with references if
any idea or information is taken from other source.
) If assignment is case based then,
• Executive summary
• Table of content
• Introduction
• Body of assignment (questions related to case need to be answered)
• Conclusion / Recommendation if any
• References (in-text + citation) to be used.

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Business Values and Ethics Assignment
A number of vehicle manufacturers have been found guilty of falsifying their data on car
emissions in order to make the vehicle appear to meet vehicle emission standards set by their
governments. This means that the cars were emitting more pollutants that are damaging to the
environment than scientists had previously thought.
Using the VW case study below and/or the related documentary Hard NOx (Dirty Money),
discuss whether this organisational behaviour is ethically justified from the perspective of
Immanuel Kant (moral duties) and Jeremy Bentham (utilitarianism).
3000 words
Crane, A., Matten, D., Glozer, S., & Spence, L XXXXXXXXXXBusiness ethics: Managing corporate
citizenship and sustainability in the age of globalization. Oxford University Press, USA.
Gibney, A., & Gibney, A XXXXXXXXXXHard NOx. Dirty Money.
VW Emissions Case Study

This case examines the (un)ethical decision -making of the Volkswagen Group leading up to the 2015
emissions scandal, as well as the attempted cover-up. The case focuses on the details of the scandal,
its context and eventual discovery, as well as subsequent investigation and actions taken by
Volkswagen. It draws upon a range of themes, particularly influences on ethical decision-making,
moral development, and organizational culture.
Founded in Wolfsburg, Germany in 1937 as a military vehicle manufacturer, The Volkswagen Group
or ‘VW’, grew over the course of the 20th century into a mass manufacturer of card, moto
ikes and
commercial vehicles, its fame grew with the introduction of classic models such as the beetle, Gold and
Polo. And it thrived due to the acquisition of and investment in a growing number of other well- known
ands, most notably Audi, Seat and Skoda.
By the beginning of the 21st century, the VW group had not only become a global automotive giant but
one of the biggest companies in the world. In 2014 it employed 590,000 employees, generated sales of
Euro 202.5 billion and delivered more than 10 million vehicles to its customers, Alongside its core mass
ands. It boasted a stable of luxury, iconic
ands from Porsche and Bentley to Bugatti and
Lamborghini. It was feted for its social and environmental credentials, emphasizing that it believed in
championing responsible business, with a long-term focus on the benefit of its customers, employees,
the environment, and society.
Yet by the end of 2015, it had become clear that VW had pro-actively engaged in cheating US legislation
concerning vehicle emissions through the manipulation of software in 11 million cars worldwide.
Beyond the environmental damage caused, in due course the scandal would come to cost the company
at least $25 billion, a drop in the company’s share of the European car market, an almost 50% drop in
share price, the resignation of Martin Winterkorn, Chief Executive of the US division, and the a
est of
Rupert Stadler, AUDI CEO.
The origins of “Emissions gate”

A swath of environmental legislation was formulated and implemented at the turn of the 21st century,
for example the Environmental Protection Act was passed in Demark in 1992, while the
Environmental Act was passed in the UK in 1995, and the Canadian Environmental Protection Act
was introduced in 1999. This new legislation included in many cases, heightened scrutiny and control
of the environmental impact of automobiles. This was perhaps most apparent in the US, where the
introduction of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments precipitated a tightening of light-duty vehicle
emission standards designed to reduce environmentally damaging emissions, such as ca
on and
nitrogen. When introduced in the noughties, this legislative shift led to pressure on a automotive
manufactures for a new generation of vehicles which adhered to new emissions standards. However,
commercial pressures necessitated that such alterations would not compromise on performance and
efficiency, which would heighten the running cost and [potentially impact sales.
VW, at a presentation to US regulators in September 2008, promoted their response to the legislation:
a generation of re-designed diesel automobiles, which met the country’s pollution laws, thus minimizing
the smog, soot, and harmful emissions long attributed to diesel engines, while not compromising on
performance. Regulators satisfied, this new generation of diesel cars were put on sales to the general
public by VW, who were hoping to finally crack the US car market.
However, unbeknownst to US regulators, this new generation of vehicles did not meet the newly
imposed emissions legislation as it had proved too difficult to design vehicles which would allow the
equired balance between emissions and performance. Instead, VW engineers had designed ‘defeat
devices’, which ensured that, when fitted to VW’s cars, the vehicles passed the regulatory, lab-based
emissions test. These defeat devices could detect when such a test was being performed through the
measurement of factors such as steering patterns, atmospheric pressures and engine use, and would
accordingly alter emissions controls to switch on fume cleaning technology. However, when used on
public roads, some models would pump out nitrogen at up to 409 times the legal limit.
Uncovering the problem
In early 2014, transport campaigners Peter Mock and John German set out to prove to Europe that clean
diesels cars could exist; the US had appeared to achieve a fantastic result: diesel cars that could pass its
strict emissions test without compromising performance. A 1,300-mile test journey was undertaken
from San Diego to Seattle using a number of car models to prove their point. Despite all the models
having lab-based emissions test, the VW’s tested gave some unusual result, appearing to emit dangerous
levels of toxins, some at 35 times the legal limit. As a result of this the US Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) launched an investigation in May 2014. Volkswagen, after repeating the test themselves,
asserted that the results we caused by a minor software e
or, which was easily fixable through the issue
of a product recall. This denial continued for over a year after the EPA had first launched its
investigations until August 2015 when VW finally came clean to senior officials, the EPA, and the
California Air Resources Board, admitting that the automotive manufacturer had deliberately misled
US regulators through the alteration of vehicle software to cheat emissions test VW’s confession was
allegedly only precipitated by both bodies threatening not to certify the company’s 2016 diesels models.
Over the following month, the company revealed further details regarding exactly how the software
worked to the US regulators and the regulators devised its response to the news before, finally, in late
September, news of VW’s wrongdoings
oke to the public.
Initially, when news of the unethical decision-making relating to emissions fixing of XXXXXXXXXXVW diesel
cars in the United States
oke, public dismay was evident. However, Michael Horn, head of US
operations, assured a congressional committee that the wrong doings were the result of ‘a couple of
software engineers’ and Dr Winterkorn, VW CEO, publicly stated that he was aware of no wrongdoing
on his part. However, the case spiralled, with VW being forces to admit the cars in Europe were also
affected later in 2015, increasing the total number affected to 11 million diesel cars across a number of
the firm’s
ands: VW, Audi, Seat, Skoda, as well as 800,000 petrol cars being affected. Eventually,
after investigation by US regulators, it became apparent that the fault did not lie with a small number
of rouge software engineers but was in fact a far larger conspiracy involving senior figures within the
company and extensive attempts to cover up the wrongdoing.
The roll call of unethical decision-makers
As part of a plea bargain with the US Government, an agreed statement of facts between the US
Department of Justice and VW in 2017, and investigations by German authorities, it became clear that
the conspiracy had most likely started as early as 2006, when company executives met in Wolfsburg to
discuss the intentional inclusion of software that would defeat emissions testing in its vehicles.
Accordingly, on top of mangers sanctioning the use of these defeat devices in millions of cars that were
delivered to customers over a six-year period, from 2009 to 2015, engineers at the company were
encouraged to hide their usage, despite objections.
The scandal appears to have become even murkier when a cover-up operation began in
Answered 1 days After May 09, 2023


Ayan answered on May 10 2023
4 Votes
Table of Contents
Introduction    3
Background on Vehicle Emissions Scandal    4
Ethical Theories    5
Immanuel Kant's Moral Duties    6
Jeremy Bentham's Utilitarianism    6
Analysis of VW Case Study    7
Kantian Perspective    8
Utilitarian Perspective    9
Comparison of Kantian and Utilitarian Perspectives    10
Implications for Future Business Practices    11
Conclusion    12
References    14
    In recent years, the global car sector has seen a growing number of crises and conflicts. One such controversy that has garnered international notice is the Volkswagen (VW) and other major automakers' involvement in the vehicle emissions issue. These automakers have been found accountable for fa
icating emissions data in an effort to satisfy governmental vehicle emission rules. This resulted in the creation and marketing of automobiles that release more toxins than previously believed by experts, seriously harming the environment. The number of crises and disputes in the global auto industry has been on the rise recently. The participation of Volkswagen (VW) and other significant automakers in the car emissions problem is one such topic that has drawn attention on a global scale. In an effort to comply with regulatory car emission regulations, these automakers have been held responsible for falsifying emissions data. This led to the development and marketing of cars that gravely affects the environment by releasing more poisons than previously thought by scientists.
    In this essay, Immanuel Kant's moral duties and Jeremy Bentham's utilitarianism will be used to explore the ethical ramifications of the Volkswagen controversy. The background information in this article will cover the circumstances su
ounding the car emissions scandal, its effects on the firm and its stakeholders, and the moral concerns raised by the corporation's actions. Outlining the VW crisis and its effects on the corporation and its stakeholders will be the first section of the report. Immanuel Kant's moral obligations and Jeremy Bentham's utilitarianism, the two ethical theories that will be utilized to analyze the incident, will then be
iefly discussed. In this essay, the VW crisis will be examined from both angles and its ethical ramifications will be critically assessed. A summary of the key conclusions and suggestions for more study will be provided at the end of the publication. Overall, the purpose of this essay is to add to the continuing discussion regarding the obligations that businesses have to the environment and their stakeholders as well as their place in society. In order to better understand these concerns and illustrate the need for increased openness and accountability in corporate behavior, the VW crisis offers a fascinating case study.
Background on Vehicle Emissions Scandal
    Founded in Wolfsburg, Germany in 1937 as a military vehicle manufacturer, The Volkswagen Group or ‘VW’, grew over the course of the 20th century into a mass manufacturer of card, moto
ikes and commercial vehicles, its fame grew with the introduction of classic models such as the beetle, Gold and Polo (Gibney & Gibney, 2018). In order to comply with government-set vehicle pollution requirements, automakers falsified data on emissions, which is known as the "Dieselgate" controversy. When Volkswagen (VW), one of the biggest automakers in the world, received a notice of violation from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for
eaking the Clean Air Act in September 2015, the controversy first came to light. The notification claimed that VW had put software on its diesel engines to evade emissions testing, making it seem as though their cars truly generated less pollution (Che, Katayama & Lee, 2023). Investigations were started in Europe, Asia, and South America when the VW crisis swiftly spread to other nations. Worldwide, it was discovered that 11 million automobiles were equipped with the illicit software. Audi, Porsche, and BMW, among other significant automakers, were impacted by the scandal. For the firms involved, their stockholders, and the larger car industry, the discoveries had major ramifications.
    The scandal had a serious effect on VW. The business's image, which was formerly seen as impenetrable, was damaged, and it was forced to pay billions of dollars in penalties and settlements. Sales and stock prices both fell significantly as a result of the incident. In the wake of the scandal, Martin Winterkorn, the previous CEO of VW, resigned, and numerous other senior officials were also made to quit the organisation. The scandal had enormous effects on the environment as well. The diesel engines' unauthorised software allowed the vehicles to spew up to 40 times the permitted amount of pollutants, which increased air pollution and harmed the environment. The crisis made clear the necessity for more stringent laws and accountability in the automotive sector.
    Important ethical issues about the obligations of businesses towards the environment, society, and their consumers were also
ought up by the VW incident. In the incident, the corporation deliberately misled consumers and authorities in order to boost profits at the expense of stakeholders' health and safety. The controversy has prompted demands for more accountability and transparency in corporate behavior, with authorities and customers urging businesses to accept responsibility for their acts and implement adjustments to avoid future crises of a similar nature. In general, the VW crisis serves as a warning about the risks of corporate wrongdoing and the significance of moral leadership and ethical business practices. The controversy has had a huge impact on the business and the sector, and it serves as a reminder of the need of corporate social responsibility and ethical business practices.
Ethical Theories
    Immanuel Kant's moral obligations and Jeremy Bentham's utilitarianism are two ethical frameworks that may be utilised to analyse the VW issue. These two ethical theories give contrasting viewpoints on the moral ramifications of the company's actions and shed light on the obligations that companies have to their stakeholders.
Immanuel Kant's Moral Duties
    Immanuel Kant's ideas about moral obligations are based on the categorical imperative, which holds that people should always act in a way that is applicable to everyone. Kant felt that people should be considered as ends in themselves rather than just as means to a goal since they have intrinsic value and dignity. This viewpoint argues that the VW controversy represents a
each of the moral obligations the firm has to its stakeholders. Individuals have a...

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