Parul answered on
May 24 2020
Order No. 31197 Management
People, their intellect and the knowledge are one the most fundamental for the success of any employee. Although, machines and automation are disrupting the market however, organizations would always require people to run such advanced machines and create further automations. Hence, management of people in the organization is becoming all the more critical for growth and survival. Essentially, in order to manage employees one needs to keep them motivated to strive for excellence and engage with the work to deliver that is demanded from them. With reference to the statistics derived in the article in journal, “Business-Unit-Level Relationship Between Employee Satisfaction, Employee Engagement, and Business Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis”, (Harter, J.K., Schmidt, F.L., & HayesT.L., 2002) organization that possess engaged workforce results in 51% higher productivity. More is engagement with the work and the organization more would be the productivity and commitment from the employee as they feel a connection with the company Hence, it is extremely critical for manager to know how to elicit the collaboration and kindle the cooperation of the team and direct performance to accomplish the goals
Term Motivation is made up of word ‘motive’ which means something that activates our mind and direct the behaviour. Motivation is an attribute that directs behaviour in order attain the goals or work until the same is achieved. It is that feeling which drives one to work diligently and pushes to go beyond the defined area of work. Basically motivation provides energy and strength that helps the employee to achieve even the most difficult targets and challenging task. Motivation can come from external factors that facilitate and pushes one to go beyond what is defined and achieve the objective or it can be product of inner zest and passion. Basis the source of this energy, motivation can be divided as Extrinsic and Intrinsic motivation.
Extrinsic Motivation - It is directed towards external events that boost up the spirits and confidence. For instance, it can be categorized as rewards in terms of money, appreciation, mementoes etc. HR practices can be specifically created and implemented that can utilize the external motivators such that they can positively influence behaviour of the employees. This can be explained by the flowchart displayed below, indicating how the motivation i
espective to external and internal is based on the culture from which the employee belongs as the parameters like uncertainty avoidance (security), power distance (authority) etc. comes from comprehending the culture.
Intrinsic Motivation – With reference to “Money Is Not The Best Motivator”, (R. Katzenbach, J. and Khan, Z., 2010), it revolves around the feeling that employee feel competence and sense of being valued. Providing challenging tasks that arouses sense of pride and powe
Theories of Motivation
With reference from "A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for employee retention within organizations", (Ramlall, S., 2004) Theories of Motivation can be
oadly classified into - Content Theory and Process Theory
Content Theory- attempts to resolve the question of "what" motivate an employees and is more inclined towards the needs and desires of the employee. Following are the theories who presents the motivation in perspective of Content.
Maslow's Theory – With reference to principle explained in “A theory of human motivation”, (Maslow, 1943), this theory actually states that behaviour of an individual are directed towards goals, thereby making motivation is a goal-directed behaviour. By targeting the needs at a particular point of time and channelizing the motivation basis’s needs in the hierarchy desired behaviour can be generated. Human have the innate tendency to fulfil his needs. These needs ranges from lower to higher, as the needs at the lower level are fulfilled there is an urge to fulfil the needs at higher level. This theory states that an individual has a propensity to fulfil his need basis the position one is located in the grid. Individual will not urge for the needs at higher level unless his requirements and expectation at present level is not satisfied.
· Self-Actualization - Providing them liberty to be creative and innovative with their work. Providing challenging that excites and engage. Plan for long term goals and career opportunities should be presented that utilise their skills and expertise.
· Esteem Needs - Recognizing employee's contribution and achievements. Placing trust in the work provided by them and valuing them by assigning critical projects
· Social Needs - Facilitating a feeling of belonging to a team and been accepted by reinforcing the dynamics of the team
· Safety Needs - Providing an environment that is physically and mentally secure.
· Physiological Needs - Employees expectation for
eaks, leaves and compensation related issue.
With reference to “Hackman & Oldham's Job Characteristics Model - Video & Lesson Transcript”, (Study.com, 2015), Job Characteristic Theory illustrates the connection between the employee's behaviour to work and the task provided. Basically, this theory synthesizes that conditions of task that are critical for employees to achieve the desired objectives. There are 5 job dimensions that bolster 3 psychological states that results in positive performance and attainment of objectives
· Skill Variety - It can be defined as degree to which a task in hand requires variety of activities in conducting the work that involves the use of variety of different skills and talent of the person
· Task Identity - It can be defined as degree to which a task requires to be completed not just few identifiable pieces are achieved this primarily means performing a task from beginning to end with an output that is visible
· Task Significance - It can be defined as degree to which a large impact of job can be measured on the lives of employees
· Autonomy - It can be defined as degree to which the task provides independence, freedom and authority to employee in scheduling the work and comprehending the procedure that is required to be conducted
· Job-Feedback - It can be defined as degree to which the task completed is provided a clear information about the efficiency and effectiveness of the performance
This theory is related with Maslow's need hierarchy as it builds a relationship between task characteristic and psychological states. Work would be considered meaningful when the employee will feel worthwhile and important after completing the task. Employee should feel responsible for the work done and take the personal ownership for the...