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Associations between Quantitative and Qualitative Job Insecurity and Well-being De Witte et al XXXXXXXXXXinvestigated the association of employee’s perception of quantitative and qualitative job...

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Associations between Quantitative and Qualitative Job Insecurity and Well-being

De Witte et al XXXXXXXXXXinvestigated the association of employee’s perception of quantitative and qualitative job insecurity with job satisfaction, and psychological distress in the Belgium banking sector.

Job insecurity is defined as the employees’ concerns about their work-related future. There are two kinds of job insecurities, the quantitative job insecurity and the qualitative job insecurity. The quantitative job insecurity is about the treat to the continuation of the job in the future. The qualitative job insecurity is about threat to the various valued aspects of the job, such as job content or working conditions.

Data collection and respondents

In total, there were 69,000 employees working in the 63 Belgian banks affiliated to the sector’s joint industrial committee in 2001. As questioning all employees would be too expensive, the researchers decided to survey a sample of 15,000 employees (roughly 21%).

All the 63 banks participated in the survey. About 21% of employees in each bank were invited to participate in the survey. Within each bank, the respondents were selected at random with no particular quota for gender, age or employee level. The survey was based on addresses which had been provided by the banks (name, language, address) and each randomly selected employee received a personalized envelope through regular mail, sent to him/her by the employer. The completed questionnaire needed to be returned (free of charge) through the internal post within each bank. The researchers travelled to each bank to collect the completed survey.


Quantitative job insecurity was measured with four items developed by De Witte XXXXXXXXXXon a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). Sample items were “I feel insecure about the future of my job”’ and “I am sure that I will be able to keep my job” (reverse coded). Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) equalled .89.

Qualitative job insecurity was measured with ten items from the 17 item measure that was originally proposed by Ashford, Lee, and Bobko XXXXXXXXXXThese job features concerned four broad dimensions previously distinguished to describe the various characteristics of a job: job content (autonomy, skill utilization, and specific tasks), working conditions (workload and quality of working conditions), employment conditions (wage, working hours, and opportunities for promotion), and social relations at work (relations with colleagues and supervisors, respectively). Respondents had to indicate whether each of the job features would likely improve or deteriorate in the near future (1 = strongly deteriorate; 5 = strongly improve). We recoded the items so that a high score reflected qualitative job insecurity. Cronbach’s alpha equalled .87.

Job satisfaction was measured with one item: “Overall, how satisfied are you with your current job?” (1 = very dissatisfied; 5 = very satisfied).

Psychological distress was measured with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg, XXXXXXXXXXA sample item was “Have you recently lost much sleep over worry?” Responses varied from 1 (“less than usual”) to 4 (“much more than usual“). Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was .89.

Control variables. The following social demographics and work-related factors were included: gender (0 = men; 1 = women), age (1 = 18–24; 2 = 25–34; 3 = 35–44; 4 = 45–54; 5 = 55+), education (0 = no education beyond high school; 1 = education beyond high school), extra income (0 = no partner with extra income; 1 = partner with extra income), children (0 = no children; 1 = children), occupational position (0 = white-collar worker; 1 = executive), working hours (0 = part-time; 1 = full-time).

Instructions for answering the questions

Use at least four academic sources in English to answer the questions. The sources can be books or peer reviewed journal articles or a combination of both books and peer reviewed journal articles. The academic sources as well as responding to the questions will be around 2000 words in total.

Q1: Sample size

The sample size for this study is fifteen thousand employees selected from a total of 69,000 bank employees (about 21% of the employees). Is a sample of this size necessary? Give your reasons.

Q2: Sampling method

What is the current method of sampling? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current sampling method?

Q3: Measures of variables

Give your comments on the reliability and validity of measures of the variables.

Q4: Collection of data on social demographics

The purpose of this research is to find the associations between quantitative and qualitative job insecurity and well-being. However, data on variables such as gender, age, education level, extra income were also collected. What is the purpose of collecting data on variables such as gender, age, educational level etc.?

Q5: Research design

What research design is used for current research? What are the positive and negative side of the current research design?

Answered Same Day Apr 22, 2020 BUACC5931


Soumi answered on Apr 25 2020
139 Votes
Table of Contents
Q1: Sample size    3
Q2: Sampling method    3
Q3: Measures of variables    4
Q4: Collection of data on social demographics    5
Q5: Research design    6
References    7
Q1: Sample size
    A sample is the representation of the population that is directly involved in the research and is directly related to the impact of the research issue. Hence, they are also affected with the outcomes that result from the research investigation. As mentioned by Vittinghoff and Neilands (2015), since the sample represents the population and is its subset, therefore, it cannot be too small in size. It is so because since the impact of the research issue is imposed upon the sample of the population, therefore, it is not possible to study an effect that is imposed upon such a small size of sample. In fact, often, it has been noticed that due to a sample being quite small in a research, the impact of the research variable are not even expressed properly on the sample. Consequently, it prohibits from studying the research issue adequately.
As supported by Malterud, Siersma and Guassora (2016), since the sample represents a population, all the characteristics of the members of the sample should be a reflection of all the characteristics of the population it represents, with very minor variations. Hence, for example, if the pattern of the sample is studied, then the population must depict a similar pattern, with only slight variation. Hence, if a sample size is too small, it is highly likeable that there might be a number of groups within the population, which might have a variety of characteristics, all different from one another, thus, imparting to them an individualistic characteristic.
Thus, these might not serve as a representation of the population as a whole, and rather, form groups in it. Therefore, when in the mentioned study by De Witte et al. (2010), sample size was taken to be about 21% of the 69000 bank employees, then the sample size fulfilled the criteria of these 15000 employees being sufficient for representing the entire bank employee population. Hence, this sample size is necessary for the research.
Q2: Sampling method
    In the cu
ent research by De Witte et al. (2010), the sampling method of simple random, probability sampling technique has been used. There are a number of sampling techniques, out of which two of the most commonly used ones are probability and non-probability sampling techniques. As mentioned by Maximova, Moffatt, Ma, Nussinov and Shehu (2016), a simple random, probability sampling technique is used when the researcher wants to sample the participants randomly, without being selective about their specific characteristics, knowledge or designation. Hence, their sampling technique is known as probability, because in this type, every participant has the probability of receiving an opportunity to respond in the investigation. Given the fact that in the research by De Witte et al. (2010), there were 69000 staffs employed in the 63 banks of Belgium, therefore, it is not possible to select them individually. Besides, in order to avoid the chances of being more biased towards any particular bank and not focusing upon the other, this technique has been the most appropriate.
    The advantages of simple random, probability sampling technique are:
· It is quite easy to implement
· The samples are selected without any bias, leaving no scope for selective decision-making, while selecting them
· It is also...

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