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Wearing on her nerves: Exploring the interrelation between the nervous and muscular systems (HS.AP_1) The aim of this case is to help you integrate the basic knowledge of anatomy and physiology that...

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Wearing on her nerves: Exploring the interrelation between the nervous and muscular systems (HS.AP_1)

The aim of this case is to help you integrate the basic knowledge of anatomy and physiology that you have acquired through your Musculoskeletal and Nervous System modules to clinical scenarios which you may encounter in your future careers as Allied Health professionals.

Thinking

Learning Outcomes

After working through this case in combination with your online content and face-to-face classes, you will be able to:

  1. Identify the structural components of the musculoskeletal system and explain how it protects, supports and moves the body (unit learning outcome 3)

  2. Describe the major anatomical divisions of the central and peripheral nervous systems and relate the sensory, integrative and responsive functions to homeostatic imbalances (unit learning outcome 4)
  3. Describe the key anatomical areas of the brain, the structural organisation and list the associated functions (unit learning outcome 5).
  4. Case Scenario

    Part I – Rise and Shine?

    Chelsea, a 20-year-old woman, awakens one morning to a tingling, numb sensation covering both of her feet. This had happened to Chelsea in the past but normally subsided within a couple of days; consequently, Chelsea was not too concerned. However, about a week later, Chelsea notices that the numbness and tingling not only persists, but has now spread upward to her knees and often feels like she has insects crawling on her legs. By the end of the month, the numbness spreads to the midline of her body. At this point, Chelsea becomes alarmed and makes an appointment to see her doctor the following afternoon.

    The next morning when Chelsea attempts to get out of bed, she comes crashing to the floor. Confused about what has caused her to fall, Chelsea tries to pick herself up, but the muscles of her right leg refuse to engage. She sits in bewilderment as she tries to make sense of what has just happened. Now looking down, Chelsea realizes that she has a deep cut on her knee from her fall. Blood is gushing out of the wound but oddly, Chelsea feels no pain.

    Part II – Diagnosis and Treatment

    Being home alone and unable to stand, panic quickly sets in. Chelsea reaches for her mobile phone, and dials 000. Shortly after, the ambulance arrives and transports her to the emergency room of her local hospital. The medical team doctors decide to admit her for further testing. She is transferred to the neurology unit where she undergoes a series of tests, including an MRI, Nerve Conduction Testing and Electromyography (EMG). Chelsea becomes increasingly concerned when she overhears the neurologists discussing her symptoms and the need to rule out a number of conditions including Motor Neuron Disease, Guillain-Barre Syndrome and Multiple Sclerosis (MS). In the meantime, the doctors prescribe high dose steroids. Chelsea closes her eyes and finds herself hoping for a miracle.

    Upon reviewing Chelsea’s medical history and the results of the various laboratory tests, the neurologists diagnose Chelsea with MS. The results of the EMG and nerve conduction test were normal but the MRI scan results demonstrate abnormalities consistent with MS. They explain to Chelsea that MS is an autoimmune disease and that her own immune system has been attacking the myelin sheath that surrounds the nerves of her central nervous system. She remains in the hospital for a week until sensation is fully recovered in her lower body and strength is restored in her right leg. She is discharged from the hospital and schedules a follow up appointment with the neurologist….all she can do at this stage is hope that her MS progresses slowly.

    ◄ AT3: Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology testJump to XXXXXXXXXXJump to XXXXXXXXXXWelcome to BMA XXXXXXXXXXHow to navigate Moodle Special consideration guidelines for BMA XXXXXXXXXXStaff information Tutorial Attendance (Zoom XXXXXXXXXXLibrary resources Week 1 - Introduction to terminology and anatomy Topic 2 - Human body and homeostasis Topic 3 - Cells: The factories of the body Topic 4 - Tissues and the integumentary system (AKA the skin XXXXXXXXXXTopic 5 - Bones and joints Topic 6 - The muscular system Topic 7 - Nervous tissue Flag Race Assessment task Topic 8 - Brain and spinal cord - structure and function Topic 9 - Autonomic nervous system and neural pathways Week 1 Lesson - Introduction to terminology and anatomy Week 1 - Additional Resources Topic 2 Lesson - A toolbox for the human body Topic 2 Worksheet Topic 2 - Additional Resources Topic 2 reflection on learning objectives Topic 2 - Feedback video Topic 3 Lesson - Cells: the factories of the body Cell organelles Topic 3 Worksheet Topic 3 - Additional Resources Topic 3 reflection Topic 3 - Feedback video Topic 4 Lesson - Tissues and the integumentary system Topic 4 - Additional Resources Topic 4 Reflection Topic 4 - Feedback video Topic 5 Lesson - Bones and Joints Topic 5 - Additional Resources Topic 5 Reflection Topic 5 - Feedback video Topic 6 Lesson - The Musculoskeletal system Topic 6 - Additional Resources Topic 6 Reflection Topic 6 - Feedback video Topic 7 Lesson - The nervous system Topic 7 - Additional Resources Topic 7 Reflection Topic 8 Lesson - The brain and spinal cord Topic 8 - Additional Resources Topic 8 Reflection Topic 9 Lesson - The autonomic nervous system Topic 9 - Additional Resources Topic 9 Reflection Topic 2 Post-class Consolidation - The human body and homeostasis Topic 3 Post-class Consolidation - Cells Topic 4 Post-class Consolidation - Tissue and the integumentary system Topic 5 Post-class Consolidation - Bones and Joints Topic 6 Post-class Consolidation - The musculoskeletal system Topic 7 Post-class Consolidation - The nervous system Topic 8 Post-class Consolidation - The brain and spinal cord Topic 9 Post-class Consolidation - The autonomic nervous system BMA1011 Reading list Worksheet and tutorial summary - Topic XXXXXXXXXXWorksheet and tutorial summary - Topic XXXXXXXXXXWorksheet and tutorial summary - Topic XXXXXXXXXXWorksheet and tutorial summary - Topic XXXXXXXXXXWorksheet and tutorial summary - Topic XXXXXXXXXXWorksheet and tutorial summary - Topic XXXXXXXXXXWorksheet and tutorial summary - Topic XXXXXXXXXXHow to use your anatomy workbook Anatomy Workbook Answers for Part 2 of workbook Answers for Part 3 of Workbook Answers for Part 4 of Workbook (Upper limb XXXXXXXXXXAnswers for Part 4 of Workbook (Lower limb XXXXXXXXXXRegional Terminology Games to learn anatomy Axial Skeleton Upper limb Lower limb Animated anatomy slides from Zoom tutorials Topic 3 Quiz Topic 4 Quiz Topic 5 Quiz Topic 6 Quiz Topic 7 Quiz Topic 8 Quiz Topic 9 Quiz Topic 3 dropbox Topic 4 dropbox Topic 5 dropbox Topic 6 dropbox Topic 7 dropbox Topic 8 dropbox Topic 9 dropbox Flyer reflection (3% XXXXXXXXXXAT3: Musculoskeletal anatomy and physiology test HS.AP_01: Assignment Dropbox for Student Response iSAP ASK report: Template for assignment News forum Questions for your educators Discussions with your classmates

  5. Application of Scientific Knowledge

    Read the case provided (“Getting on her nerves”) before attempting to answer the following questions. When completing this section, use the rubric provided to assist you in constructing appropriate answers.

    TOTAL WORD COUNT (1000 words, excluding references)

    We have created a template to assist you in completing this assignment. Please answer the questions below using the template which you can find by clickingthis link here.

    Download templatehere

    QUESTION 1: (approx. 275 words)

    Briefly describe what Multiple Sclerosis is and outline the physiological mechanisms that are thought to underlie the neuronal damage associated with this disease.

    Hint: You will need to research this question - consult Google Scholar or Pubmed Ovid to consult scientific literature. Try not to get bogged down in detail - use reviews and general medical websites if you are finding the detail overwhelming

    QUESTION 2:Chelsea experiences a range of symptoms from altered sensation to decreased motor control. Using your understanding gained from the Moodle lessons, together with some research on the effects of multiple sclerosis, answer the following questions. In your responses, you must includeboth written text and original diagrams(created by you) - these diagramscan be hand-drawn (and inserted as a photo from your phone) or created on the computer.

    a) Describe the neuronal pathways that allow sensation in a healthy individual. How (and where) are these affected by Multiple Sclerosis? (approx. 225 words)

    Hint: Part of this question should be answered almost entirely based on what you have learnt in your Moodle lessons and tutorials (particularly in topic 9). However, you will also need to research this question and apply what you have read to what you now know about the nervous system. Consult Google Scholar or Pubmed Ovid to consult scientific literature. Try not to get bogged down in detail - use reviews and general medical websites if you are finding the detail overwhelming

    b) Describe the neuronal pathways that allow motor control of skeletal muscle in a healthy individual. In your answer, be sure to include the events that occur at the neuromuscular junction and within the muscle fibre itself to allow muscle contraction. How (and where) are these affected by Multiple Sclerosis? (approx. 225 words)

    Hint: Part of this question should be answered almost entirely based on what you have learnt in your Moodle lessons and tutorials (particularly in topics 6 and 9). However, you will also need to research this question and apply what you have read to what you now know about the nervous system. Consult Google Scholar or Pubmed Ovid to consult scientific literature. Try not to get

    c) Explain how myelin affects conduction velocity (the speed of action potential transmission along the axon). How is this affected by Multiple Sclerosis? (approx. 75 words)

    Hint: Part of this question should be answered based on what you have learnt in your Moodle lessons and tutorials (particularly in topic 7). However, you will need to apply your understanding of what happens in MS to answer this question in full.

    QUESTION 3: (approx. 100 words)

    Steroids and Copaxone are used to treat Multiple Sclerosis. Why are they used and how effective are these treatments?

    Hint: You will need to research this question. Try not to get bogged down in detail - use reviews and general medical websites if you are finding the detail overwhelming

    QUESTION 4: (approx. 100 words)

    Thinking about your chosen degree, consider how you might potentially have to deal with Multiple Sclerosis?Depending on your chosen career, this might either be as the condition itself, or via direct dealings with patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis. In your answer,be sure to state what degree/specialisation you are enrolled inand then briefly discuss what you think your future role might entail.

    Things to note:

    The expected word count for this part of the iSAP assignment (Application of Scientific Knowledge) is 1000 words. The approximate word counts provided for each question are to be used as a guide only. You may choose to write more on one question and less on another, however, your overall word MUST NOT exceed 1100 words for these 4 questions in total.

    1. Word counts do not include references or in-text citations.

    2. Use your Moodle Lessons and face-to-face class work as a guide for the level of detail required.

    3. Some questions will require additional research whereas others will rely on your Moodle lessons and your prescribed text. Irrespective of where your information comes from (literature or Moodle lessons), be sure to reference appropriately using APA or Vancouver referencing format. Refer to the rubric for hints on the level of referencing required.

    4. Upon upload, your report will be run through the Turnitin plagiarism system and will generate a similarity report. Please note, given the nature of the assignment, your similarity score might be higher than you expected - there are only a certain number of ways you can discuss neuronal pathways!! If Turnitin identifies areas of your report that do require further attention, you are able to re-write these sections and re-upload your assignment. Once you are happy with the Turnitin report, please click “submit” to ensure that your final assignment is registered as received.

    5. Once the due date for the first report (ie Application of Scientific Knowledge Report) has passed, an Expert’s Application of Scientific Knowledge Report will be released. This report will allow you to make comparisons between what you have written and what the “expert” was expecting. You will need to construct a second, reflective assignment at this time. More details of this are described in the section on the Comparative report which will be available shortly.

Answered Same Day May 27, 2021 BMA1011 Monash University

Solution

Tanaya answered on May 30 2021
137 Votes
Student ID number: Put your student ID here
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is known to be a long-lasting disease that is observed to affect the spinal cord,
ain and the optic nerves. Further, it also affects the balance, vision, body function and muscle control. The impact and symptoms of MS are found to vary from one person to the other. In case of mild symptoms, no treatments re required while in case of the issues where the individual finds it difficult to perform the task can need medical assistance (Lassmann & van Horssen, 2016).
MS happens when the immune system of the individual attacks the myelin sheath of the nerve fi
es. The myelin sheath is the fatty covering of the nerve fi
e without which the nerve loses its functionality. They can form scar tissue. The neural damage results in the inability of the
ain to send signals to the body appropriately. As a result, the individual having MS may suffer from a condition like trouble walking, blu
ed vision, muscle spasm or weakening of the muscles, pain and tiredness. Usually, the symptoms start at the age of 20-40 years. The MS attacks can occur and relapse, and with time, it can become noticeable worse.
Further, with time, the time is taken for the recovery of the condition also increases (Guo, Lozinski & Yong, 2019). According to healthcare professionals, the autoimmune condition MS can occur due to various reasons. It can be due to genetic combination, which is accelerated by smoking. Further, a viral infection like Epstein-Ba
virus and Herpesvirus results in affecting the immune system. These infections may result in triggering the disease and can cause relapses. In addition, MS can also occur due to a lack of Vitamin D. The vitamin D has the capacity to strengthen the immune system and protecting people from MS.
The neural pathway is a passage within the central nervous system that connects with the other neural pathways. The neural pathways help in communicating information with the different other areas of the nervous system. The neural pathway is made up of structural and functional units called a neuron, which consist of a cell body, dendrite and axons. The axon takes the impulse ca
ying it away from the cell body (van den Hoogen, Laman & Hart, 2017). The most of the neural pathway constitutes of axons and the connections of axons, which bunches together in the form of nerve tracts.
The shorter pathways for neuron constitute the grey matters while the longer neural pathways are constituted by the white matter. The macroscopic examination of the
ain reveals that the corpus callosum helps in connecting the two cere
al hemispheres. Within the neural...
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