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1. Use HW3.xlsx, EBM to answer this question. Economic Development agencies often attempt to target particular industries in an effort to help rural areas growth, in particular, targeting those...

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1. Use HW3.xlsx, EBM to answer this question. Economic Development agencies often attempt to target particular industries in an effort to help rural areas growth, in particular, targeting those sectors that support the rural economy. Doing so requires some analysis of the rural economy. Suppose the Ne
aska Department of Economic Development is interested in identifying such sectors for the southwestern Panhandle region of the state. See the map below.
In EBM, both employment and output data has been collected at the state and panhandle region.
a. Use the Economic Base Model to identify sectors that comprise the panhandle’s economic base by using the employment data. Determine what the total Basic employment level is AND what the Economic Base Multiplier is. How many additional jobs will the region experience if Basic employment increases by 500 jobs?
. Next use the Economic Base Model to identify basic sectors for the panhandle by using the output data. Which sectors (if any) does the model using the output data indicate as Basic that the model using employment data does NOT indicate as Basic? Using your economic intuition, what might these results be suggesting about these sectors? (hint, think about productivity…output per worker).
Save your Excel file.
2. Use HW 3.xlsx, Shiftshare to answer this question. Reconsider the Panhandle region from a shift-share perspective. Use the data provided to determine which industries that region has a competitive advantage.
a. Out of over 400 sectors, how many are competitive? List those sectors below.
. Given the number of competitive industries, how might you assess the economic prospects for this region? Why (
iefly explain your reasoning)? (For this last question, there are a number of good responses…I’m mostly interested in how you support your assessment – that said, don’t stray too far from your model results ).
Save your Excel file.
3. In HW 3.xlsx LV Samsung and iphones, there is data on global sales (shipments) of Samsung Galaxy and iphones from 2010:1 To 2019:4. This data came from Statista (you have access to this data through the UNO li
ary). I seasonally adjusted the data and converted it to billions of units sold per quarter.
Use a Lotlka-Volte
a equation system to study the competitive behavior of these two firms based on the data provided. Follow procedures in the Unit 8 videos. Forecast these shipments using your estimated parameters for the period 2020:1 to 2023:4. Who appears to be winning?
Once you do this, address the following. Do they compete? Is there a Predator-Prey relationship and if so, who’s the predator and who’s the prey? Do they cooperate to their mutual advantage? Support your answer.
Once you determine the answer to the type of competition, see if you can develop a rationale for what your model is telling you (no single right answer here…I’m just trying to see how you are thinking about the results).
    Save your Excel file.
4. Essay. When comparing National with Regional Input-Output models, the issue of “leakages” often comes up. Explain below (type please and be
ief), what a “leakage” is. Also explain the impact that a leakage has on an economy’s multipliers and what this means for measure of economic impact. (limit your response to one or two paragraphs and keep it to less than a page in length).
Save your files and turn both in on Canvas.

Chapter 2
Unit 6: Regional Economic Analysis and Economic Impact
Unit 6 – Regional Analysis EBM and Shift Share.xls
Unit 6 – Export Shift Share.xls
Unit 6 – IO.xls
    Economic Base Theory and Practice
    Shift-share Models and Regional Growth
    Shift-share model for international export analysis
    Economic Impact Models
Regional Economics
Economic Base Theory
Economic Base Theory
Economic Base Theory – Formal Model…
Formal Model…
    Let consumption vary with income:
C = bY
= marginal propensity to consume out of Y
    Monetary Inflows from selling exports:
exogenously determined export income
    Monetary Outflows from buying imports:
MO = iY
i = marginal propensity to spend on imports
Formal Model…
Operationalizing the Theory
Operationalizing the Theory
The Export Base Multiplie
Operationalizing the Theory
So how do we determine what the Basic Industries are?
    As a general rule: If an LQ is greater than 1, then it is considered Basic
    Idea: if an industry in a region has an employment share bigger than the larger economy’s, then it is presumed that the region is producing more in that region than local residents require. Therefore much of that production is exported out of the region
LQs and Economic Base Analysis
Shift-Share Model
    Suppose we are interested in industry and regional employment growth over the XXXXXXXXXXperiod
    The shift-share equation is as follows. For an employment change for industry i in region j:
ΔEij = {Eij2009(US2019/US2009 – 1)}
+ {Eij2009(USi2019/USi2009 – US2019/US2009)}
+ {Eij2009(Eij2019/Eij2009 – USi2019/USi2009)}
    Terms in the {..}s of the equation:
    First term: Share component
    Is the nation growing or shrinking?
    Second term: Mix component
    Is the industry relative to the nation growing or shrinking
    Third term: Competitive component
    Is the regions industry growing faster or slower than the national industry
Shift-Share Example
    Consider the data below
    Let’s calculate the shift-share components in Excel and address what the numbers tell us about this city’s economy
aska Shift Share
    Here we try to determine if an economy’s export growth is due to
The industries it has that are exporting
The countries it exports to
Some other local (export competitive) factors
    It’s a very useful modeling tool as states
    try to increase domestic growth though international trade
    Determine how national trade policies can impact the local economy
Shift-share and export analysis
The Model….
The Model
    Suppose we have data for the period 2015 (t) to 2019
    The shift-share equations are as follows:
The Model
Impact Analysis
    How do we assess, measure, and strategize about the economic impact of industries, events, or other activities within a regional economy?
    Impact of the College World Series on Omaha
    Impact of a new poultry processing plant in Eastern Ne
    Impact of Epply Airport on the city and state,
Input Output Model
Theory of IO: Start with the Circular Flow View of an Economy
Goods & Services
Consumption Spending
Labor, Capital
Wages & Salaries
Circular Flow View of an Economy
    Economic Impact – Measuring Consumption Spending through the circular flow….
Direct injection
Goods & Services
Consumption Spending
Labor, Capital
Wages & Salaries
IO Model
    The IO model is centered on the idea of inter-industry transactions:         
    Industries use the products of other industries to produce their own products.
    For example - automobile producers use steel, glass, ru
er, and plastic products to produce automobiles.
    Outputs from one industry become inputs to another.
    When you buy a car, you affect the demand for glass, plastic, steel, etc.
IO and Circular Flow of an Economy
    IO – Business-to-Business Transactions
Direct injection
Goods & Services
Consumption Spending
Labor, Capital
Wages & Salaries
IO Models
    To better understand the mathematics here, consider a small IO model of a given economy
    Suppose 3 sectors: electric power production, coal production, and chemical production
    (Technical note)
    This example is what is refe
ed to as an “open” IO model
    Simply put, it’s one where both final demand and productive inputs (like labor) are determined outside the model simulation
    There is something called a “closed” IO model – it’s more complex.
    For example, household income (from labor supplied) – a portion of final demand, is endogenous.
IO Models
    Below is a simple “transactions table” describing our economy….
    Tables like this one do exist at various levels of detail
    Based on real world survey data
IO Models
    Each column represents a Leontief (fixed proportions) production function
    It’s like the supply side of the model
    How to make what we want to make
    Each cell in each column (excluding the total) tells us how much it takes from a given industry to produce one dollar’s worth of output from a given secto
    So, e.g., it takes 40 cents from the coal sector to produce one dollar’s worth of electricity
IO Models
    Each row represents how much output from each sector is required by other sectors
    It’s like the demand side of the model
    Consider coal. The data tells us that 40 cents worth of every dollar’s worth of coal production must go to meet the needs (demands) of the electricity production secto
     By looking at the rows for our data (matrix), we can depict how much production from each sector will be necessary to meet demand in our economy
IO Models
    The shaded 3x3 matrix in our table is often called the “direct requirements matrix”
    It is critical to our analysis
    Let’s call this matrix A:
IO Models
    Let’s assume that our best forecast for next year’s economy is that
    Consumers will demand $100 million in electric power (E) – again this is final demand
    $30 million in coal (Cl) – final demand
    $40 million in chemicals (Ch) – final demand
    Let Y be the co
esponding a
ay of final demand:
IO Models
    In order to meet this demand, it must be the case that the following conditions be met
IO Models
    Putting this in matrix form…letting x’=[E,Cl,Ch]…
IO Models
    After a little bit of matrix alge
a, we have (note, I is the 3x3 identity matrix….)
The matrix (I-A)-1 is refe
ed to as either the “multiplier matrix” or the “Leontief inverse matrix”
It will be comprised of elements that are positive and many will be greater than one
The result: x will be much larger than our initial set of Ys.
IO Models
    After some alge
a (again, inverting the 3x3 matrix is cumbersome), we have
Therefore, we would forecast next year’s production of electricity, coal, and chemicals to be $179 million, $131.6 million, and $84.2 million, respectively.
For each sector, this is called “Gross Output”
IO Models
    Why are these levels so much larger than our original demand levels?
    The multiplier effect:
    With increased demand for, say, electricity, electricity suppliers need to buy more coal and chemical inputs. This increases demand from these sectors (an indirect effect). Thus, these sectors demand more electricity, and so on and so on……
IO Models
    Now this multiplier effect is very useful from a simulation perspective.
    Suppose we wanted to know what would happen if consumer demand were $200 million next year instead of $100 million?
    In effect, what is the impact of a $100 million increase in consumer electricity demand.
    Let’s use our IO model to find out….
IO Models
    Notice that we have…..
Notice that we essentially have our first column of our (I-A)-1 matrix multiplied by 100.
If we summed our x a
ay, we’d have $261.3 million. What does this mean?
IO Models
    To see the implication, suppose we summed the first column in our matrix, we’d have 2.613.
    This says that for every $1 increase in consumer demand for electricity
Answered Same Day Aug 08, 2021


Komalavalli answered on Aug 10 2021
124 Votes
a) Total Basic employment level is 9140.039811
Economic Base Multiplier
= total Basic employment level/ South Panhandle Employment
Economic Base Multiplier is 0.22981
If Basic employment increases by 500 jobs the region will experience 0.22981*500 =115 additional jobs.
) Sign manufacturing sector, Pipeline transportation, warehousing storage, owner occupied dwellings, Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment rental and leasing, Limited service restaurants, Commercial and industrial machinery and equipment repair and maintenance, Personal and household goods repair and maintenance there are the industries that the model using the output data indicate as Basic that the model using employment data does NOT indicate as Basic. Result suggests that this sector is experiencing increase in productivity i.e output per worker is high in this sector compared to other sectors.
There are around 192 industries are competitive they are listed in below table.
    Oilseed farming
    Grain farming
    Greenhouse, nursery, and floriculture production
    Sugarcane and sugar beet farming
    All other crop farming
    Beef cattle ranching and farming, including feedlots and dual-purpose ranching and farming
    Poultry and egg production
    Animal production, except cattle and poultry and eggs
    Commercial hunting and trapping
    Support activities for agriculture and forestry
    Extraction of natural gas and crude petroleum
    Sand and gravel mining
    Drilling oil and gas wells
    Support activities for oil and gas operations
    Electric power transmission and distribution
    Natural gas distribution
    Water, sewage and other systems
    Construction of new health care structures
    Construction of new manufacturing structures
    Construction of new power and communication structures
    Construction of new educational and vocational structures
    Construction of new highways and streets
    Construction of new commercial structures, including farm structures
    Construction of other new nonresidential structures
    Construction of new single-family residential structures
    Construction of new multifamily residential structures
    Construction of other new residential structures
    Maintenance and repair construction of nonresidential structures
    Maintenance and repair construction of residential structures
    Maintenance and repair construction of highways, streets,
idges, and tunnels
    Other animal food manufacturing
    Beet sugar manufacturing
    Dehydrated food products manufacturing
    Animal, except poultry, slaughtering
    Meat processed from carcasses
    Bread and bakery product, except frozen, manufacturing
    Tortilla manufacturing
    Other snack food manufacturing
    Coffee and tea manufacturing
    Spice and extract manufacturing
    Bottled and canned soft drinks & wate
    Manufactured ice
    Fiber, yarn, and thread mills
    Cut and sew apparel contractors
    Leather and hide tanning and finishing
    Manufactured home (mobile home) manufacturing
    All other miscellaneous wood product manufacturing
    Fertilizer mixing
    Other plastics product manufacturing
    Other concrete product manufacturing
    Copper rolling,...

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