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REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS</o:p> </o:p> 1. How are the reproductive systems of males and females similar? How do they differentiate during embryological development? Which embryonic ducts are...

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1. How are the reproductive systems of males and females similar? How do they differentiate during embryological development? Which embryonic ducts are retained in males? In females? Which two sexual structures in both sexes evolved from the same embryonic tissue?

2. What are the roles of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in males? In females? Which type of feedback mechanism is involved?

3. List the changes, in chronological order, that occur in the ovary during the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle. State where each of the female hormones involved is produced and what affect each has on ovulation and development (or destruction) of the endometrium.

4. Trace the route that an egg travels as it is produced, released and then passed through the human female reproductive tract. What happens if the released egg is not fertilized?

5. What are the roles of the cremaster and dartos muscles in maintaining optimum temperature conditions for sperm?

6. What physiological processes are involved in the movement of sperm (emission) and eventual release of sperm (ejaculation) from the male during sexual excitement? Which components of the autonomic nervous system are involved in each of these two processes? Trace the route that sperm travel as they are produced, mature, and then pass through the male reproductive system. Know the male structures and their functions involved in these processes.

7. Which hormones are involved in parturition? Which type of feedback mechanism is involved?

8. Recognize how various methods of birth control can be used by males and females; specifically know how they are used AND how they prevent conception or implantation.

9. Define menopause and state several characteristics of this event. Do males experience menopause?

10. State the characteristics of some of the common diseases of the human reproductive systems.


1. Define fertilization. What is the immediate structure that results from fertilization? What is its genetic condition (i.e., its ploidy)?

2. State how many, and which type of, cells are produced by gametogenesis for females and then for males. REFER to lecture/lab worksheet.

3. Where are gametes produced in human females? In human males? [Be specific.]

4. List the general sequence of pre-embryonic development, using the terms zygote, cleavage, morula, blastocyst, blastocoel, gastrula, gastrulation, and embryo. State at which stage cellular differentiation occurs and at which stage tissue differentiation occurs.

5. Which structures in a blastocyst aide in its implantation into the endometrium? What is the function of the hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)?

6. What do the 3 primary or “germ” tissue layers (ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm) develop into?

7. What are the 4 extra-embryonic membranes? What does each become?

8. How do gases, nutrients, and wastes move between the mother and the embryonic/fetal placenta?

9. Know the general characteristics of a human embryo and fetus by week and trimester. Distinguish, by week and month, between when the heart begins to beat in the embryo and when it can be distinguished (heard) in the fetus using a stethoscope. Review how fetal blood circulates. How does this differ from blood circulation of an adult?

10. What roles do the hormones estrogen, progesterone, prolactin and oxytocin play in parturition and/or lactation?

11. Which type of feedback mechanism is involved in parturition, sexual excitement, and lactation?

12. Which hormone stimulates the production of milk gland development? Of milk secretion after birth?

13. What is colostrum? What is its role in immunity?


1. What are the diploid “precursor” cells for human gametes? Compare and contrast male and female gametes. How many of each is produced by a primordial cell?

2. State the different stages of meiosis.

3. Review the processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis. Know the structures associated with each step in these processes. Which divisional process (i.e., mitosis or meiosis) is responsible for the generation of gametes in humans?

4. What is the genetic condition of each type of gamete cell? Of a zygote?

5. Recognize definitions of the following terms – allele, dominant trait, genotype (heterozygous and homozygous), phenotype, recessive trait, and X-linked trait.

6. From which parent does a male child inherit an X-linked trait? Can female offspring inherit X-linked traits? Can they “express” these traits?

7. How many chromosomes do humans have? Which are somatic? Which are sex chromosomes? How do X and Y chromosomes differ regarding the information that they carry?

Answered Same DayDec 06, 2021


Rimsha answered on Dec 10 2021
62 Votes
Running Head: BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT        1
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    Both male and female reproductive systems are homologous that is they both consists of gonads, which produce gametes. They differentiate at the gonad primordial stage under the influence of protein product of Y-chromosome. Mesonephric duct is retained in male and paramesonephric duct is retained in female. Gonads and gametes are produced from the same em
yonic tissue.
    In the male, Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) stimulates the interstitial cells and Sertoli cells of Leydig in the testes. This results in the facilitation of production of the sperms. The negative feedback system occurs in male. On the contrary, in females, LH and FSH facilitate production of estrogen and progesterone, which regulate ovarian and menstrual cycle. The positive feedback system occurs in female.
    The follicular phase starts on the first day of menstruation. Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates the ovary to produce follicles, which bead on the surface. Each follicle consists of immature egg and follicle stimulates the lining of the uterus to thicken. In ovulation, mature egg is released. The Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone prompts to the pituitary gland to raise the level of LH and FSH. In luteal phase, egg bursts and follicle ruptures, thus releasing progesterone to thicken the uterus.    
    The ovaries produce egg cells, which are transported to the fallopian tube where the fertilization occurs. The fertilized egg moves to the uterus where uterine line is thickened. The fertilized egg is implanted into the thickened uterine lining and it develops further. If fertilization does not occur, uterine lining sheds in menstrual flow.
    The cremaster muscle covers the testis and moves it to promote the motility of sperms. It lowers and raises the testes to control its temperature. On the contrary, dartos acts to regulate the temperature of the testicles. This is helpful in the promotion of spermatogenesis. It contracts and expands the scrotal skin to maintain optimal temperature.
    Movement of the sperm occur by flagellar movement. Ejaculation of sperm is done by forcible ejection of seminal fluid. Sympathetic nervous system is included in the emission and ejection. The path of sperm movement includes sperm cells passing through a series of duct for ejaculation. Sperms leave the testes and pass through the epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct and finally, the urethra.
    Oxytocin, along with the high levels of estrogen, results in the release of a group of hormones called prostaglandins. These hormones result in the ripening of the cervix. Level of relaxin hormone increases during...

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