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Wk 8 - Doctoral Research Knowledge Assessment [due Mon]
Test Content
Question 1 0 Points
X squared plus 7 equals 23 (Solve for X)
16
3
5
4
Question 2 0 Points
Identify the co
ect order of operations for calculation of basic math problems.
Rule 1: First perform any calculations inside parentheses.
Rule 2: Next perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.
Rule 3: Lastly, perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.
Rule 1: First perform any calculations inside parentheses.
Rule 2: Next perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.
Rule 3: Lastly, perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.
Rule 1: First perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.
Rule 2: Next perform any calculations inside parentheses.
Rule 3: Lastly, perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.
Rule 1: First perform all additions and subtractions, working from left to right.
Rule 2: Next perform all multiplications and divisions, working from left to right.
Rule 3: Lastly, perform any calculations inside parentheses.
Question 3 0 Points
A “Set” within quantitative theory represents…?
An infinite ordered a
ay of objects
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Any collection M into a whole of definite, distinct objects m (which are called the "elements" of M)
of our perception [Anschauung] or of our thought
Elements of a defined characteristic
Any collection of M into a whole that is representative overall of the nature of the target being
observed
Question 4 0 Points
X minus square root of 9 equals 18 space(Solve for X)
12
31
17
21
Question 5 0 Points
The formula " mu equals begin inline style sum from j to i of end style bevelled X over N" is a common
expression for calculation of the…?
Variance
Range
Mean
Standard Deviation
Question 6 0 Points
Nominal is to Category as Ordinal is to…?
Breadth
Range
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Association
Rank
Question 7 0 Points
The expressed equation of sigma equals square root of sigma squaredwould reflect the __________ of a
population.
The Population Variance which is the square root of the Standard Deviation
The basic representation of constancy in a set of data
The Population Standard Deviation which is the square root of the Variance
A well known inequality that estimates the e
or in statistical calculation
Question 8 0 Points
Given the Variable X measured at a Nominal Level, what descriptive statistical indice would you give if asked
to provide the most representative value of the set?
Range
Modal frequency
Mean
Median
Question 9 0 Points
What particular measure of co
elation would be most appropriate for use with two variables measured at an
ordinal level?
Pearson’s
Contingency Coefficient
Spearman’s Rho
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Chi Square
Question 10 0 Points
A specific score in a distribution of data minus the mean and divided by the standard deviation produces a
value known as a…?
Variability Score
Coefficient of Determination
Beta
Z Score
Question 11 0 Points
left parenthesis 3 comma 5 comma 7 comma 9 comma 11 right parenthesis space union space left
parenthesis 3 comma 6 comma 9 comma 12 comma 15 right parenthesis space
would be co
ectly expressed as…?
5, 6
11, 12
5, 15
3, 9
Question 12 0 Points
All the following are measures of variability or dispersion within a set of data except…?
Range
Standard Deviation
Median
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Variance
Question 13 0 Points
Expected relative frequency probability represents a calculated probability based on large numbers of trials. In
an example of a deck of 52 cards, where you randomly pull cards from the deck and record what they are, you
find that over 1000 random draws, you pull an ACE 76 times. What would be the calculated probability based
on relative frequency?
0.3
0.76
0.076
10%
Question 14 0 Points
In a distribution of data conforming to the characteristics of a Normal Curve, the percentage of cases between
Plus One and Minus One Standard Deviation from the Mean would be…?
99.30%
84%
68%
95%
Question 15 0 Points
If 10 minus Y equals 5, then 5 to the third power (i.e., 5 ) would equal…?3
50
125
150
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225
Question 16 0 Points
If someone scored two Standard Deviations above the Mean on a standardized test where the Mean = 100
and the Standard Deviation = 15, then that person’s numerical score would be…?
160
125
90 Percentileth
130
Question 17 0 Points
Independent trials in relationship to probability theory means that…?
Each outcome has an independent relationship to the whole
The outcome of each trial is dependent upon the previous but not the following
The outcome of each trial is totally independent from each other trial conducted
Influences of trials on the outcome are subtle overall
Question 18 0 Points
The defining characteristics of the Ratio Level of Measurement are…?
Equal intervals between points of that scale and a true zero
Unequal intervals between points and a true zero
Equal intervals between points on a scale but an a
itrary zero point
An a
itrary zero with specified rank ordering of scale points
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Question 19 0 Points
In a 95% Confidence Interval, the true mean has what chance of falling between the Lower Limit and Upper
Limits of the calculated confidence interval?
0.05
5%
0.9
95%
Question 20 0 Points
What is the relationship of the Mean, Median and Mode as Measures of Central Tendency in a true Normal
Curve?
They align Mean, Median and Mode in that orde
They align Mode, Median and Mean in that orde
They are equal
They align Median, Mode and Mean in that orde
Question 21 0 Points
Independent Variable is to CAUSE as Dependent Variable is to…?
Response
Perception
Predicto
Effect
Question 22 0 Points
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The condition of scores being distorted in one direction or the other (towards the ends of the distribution)
within a given distribution of data is known as…?
Kurtosis
Skewness
Discontinuity
Asynchronous
Question 23 0 Points
An extreme score that sets apart in value from the general distribution of values with which it is connected is
known as…?
Outlie
Incongruous data
Champion score
Anomalous indicato
Question 24 0 Points
A Dichotomous Variable represents what level of measurement within the realm of quantitative analysis?
Ratio
Interval
Ordinal
Nominal
Question 25 0 Points
The Standard E
or of Measurement is calculated by what formula?
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egin inline style sum end style X over N
egin inline style sum end style equals left parenthesis X minus mu right parenthesis squared
divided by N
sigma subscript M equals sigma divided by square root of N
sum chi left parenthesis beta minus r right parenthesis
Question 26 0 Points
The logic of causal inference requires an experimental basis where two or more groups are compared on one
or more variables. In simplest form, an “experiment” also requires…?
Random selection of subjects from a population
Random assignment of subjects to treatment and control groups
Matching of subjects on key characteristics
Elimination of subjects that seem resistant to treatments
Question 27 0 Points
To be applicable to meaningful research, a “research question” must be…?
Positive in formulation
Purposeful in direction of what is being asked
Answerable within the scope of chosen research practices, instrumentation and procedures
Legitimate within the scope of existing societal values toward research
Question 28 0 Points
Positivist and Post-Positivist perspectives on research adhere to the perspective of Philosopher of Science
Karl Popper, who held that all stated research hypotheses must be…?
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Simply stated to avoid misinterpretation
Stated in a manner that excludes the self as a means of reducing bias
Self-contained in relationship to the complexity of the study
Falsifiable based upon empirical evidence obtained through scientific procedures
Question 29 0 Points
A Nomethetic approach to research focuses upon the study of…?
Individuals
Children
Non-Methetics
Groups
Question 30 0 Points
Qualitative research with human subjects typically involves __________ and __________ without specific
forms of scaled measurement.
tests, critical items
artifacts, traces
interviews, observations
instruments, interests
Question 31 0 Points
An idiographic method of research focuses upon…?
An individual
A particular contextual setting
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A particular group
A specific problem
Question 32 0 Points
An ethical necessity in conducting research with human subjects is to obtain…?
An indemnification from litigation
Access to sufficient data to complete the study
Applicable evidence that the study was not harmful
Informed consent from participants
Question 33 0 Points
Anything that can be identified as varying in assigned value can be a …?
Perspective
Hypothesis
Variable
Constant
Question 34 0 Points
A single group pretest – posttest research design cannot infer causality of relationship because…?
There are no means of eliminating alternative explanations for the observed changes in contrast to
a treatment effect because there is no random assignments to treatment and control groups
Too few subjects are involved in the research process under this design
There are too few groups to conduct an Analysis of Variance
Co
elation does not equal causation
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Question 35 0 Points
Where “R” = Random Assignment Subjects to Treatment conditions; “NR” = No Random Assignment; “X” =
Treatment and “O” = Observation, which of the following allows for causal inferences to be made regarding
the effect of treatment?
R rightwards a
ow X rightwards a
ow O
R rightwards a
ow X rightwards a
ow O R rightwards a
ow _ rightwards a
ow O
N R rightwards a
ow X rightwards a
ow O N R rightwards a
ow _ rightwards a
ow O
N R rightwards a
ow O rightwards a
ow X rightwards a
ow O
Question 36 0 Points
A Cross-sectional method studies an issue of interest at…?
Several points in time
Continuously
A single point in time
Over a duration of time
Question 37 0 Points
In the context of qualitative research design, the primary instrumentation to be used is…?
Surveys
Observation protocols
The researche
A quality research matrix
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Question 38 0 Points
Name a qualitative research design that focuses in-depth upon a single case example of the phenomena
eing studied that can be an individual person, an event, a group, or an institution.
Phenomenology
Case study
Ethnographic analysis
Na
ative analysis
Question 39 0 Points
Which of the following analysis methods cannot be applied to experimental research?
T-tests
Regression analysis
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
None of the above
Question 40 0 Points
The issue of “generalizability” is an aspect of…?
Internal validity
Research realism
External validity
Field experience
Question 41 0 Points
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What research method describes the structures of experience (AKA meanings) as they present themselves to
consciousness, without recourse to theory, deduction, or assumptions from other disciplines?
Case study
Grounded theory
Quasi-experimental
Phenomenology
Question 42 0 Points
A quasi-experimental research design that looks much like an experiment but lacks randomized assignment of
subjects to treatment conditions is known as…?
Inte
upted Time Series Design
Nonequivalent Control Group Design
Ad Hoc Design
Repeated Measure Design
Question 43 0 Points
Three common and well known methods of data collection for Qualitative Research Designs are…?
Interactive interviewing, written descriptions by participants, observation
Surveys, psychometric tests, rating scales
Video recording, computer files, Internet
Spatial recording, artifact review, non-specific archeology
Question 44 0 Points
A design method in quantitative research that is used to control for order of effects without having all possible
orders is called…?
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Chi Square
Analysis of Covariance
Latin Squares
Repeated measures
Question 45 0 Points
Intrinsic changes in subjects that take place over time and are not related to treatment effects is known as…?
Bias
Maturation
Experimental variance
Non-treatment effects
Question 46 0 Points
Time focus of a research design can involve assessing a condition and looking backwards to subject history,
or assessing a condition and looking forward to the effects the come manifest over time. This is known as…?
Retrospective, Prospective
Inward, Outward
Artifactual, Speculative
Focused, Unfocused
Question 47 0 Points
A quantitative design that involves multiple independent variables and combines all levels of the independent
variables with all other levels is know as…?
Split design
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Factorial Designs
Covariate Design
ANOVA
Question 48 0 Points
One reason given for Mixed Method Research is to
ing richness and detail to the study exploring specific
features of each method. This purpose is refe
ed to as…?
Triangulation
Complementarity
Development
Expansion
Question 49 0 Points
A qualitative method where data is collected and the themes and concepts based on data analysis emerge
during the study…?
Phenomenology
Ethnography
Grounded Theory
Hermeneutics
Question 50 0 Points
A cross between a cross sectional design and longitudinal design is known as…?
A reversal design
A single case design
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A sequential design
Matched pairs design
Question 51 0 Points
The four basic “levels of measurement” are…?
Category, rating, scale, numerical
Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, Ratio
Continuous, Dichotomous, Symmetrical, Non-Symmetrical
Direct, Indirect, intrusive, non-intrusive
Question 52 0 Points
The extent to which a measurement strategy actually measures a definable theoretical construct or trait is
known as:
Internal Validity
External consistency
Construct Validity
Criterion Validity
Question 53 0 Points
A means of determining the agreement among judges or raters when a given set of these are assessing or
evaluating a particular defined and observed phenomenon (e.g., performance of participants on a given
ehavioral task).
Test-Retest Reliability
Judge/Rater Validity of Circumstance (J/R VC)
Split-half reliability
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Inte
ater Reliability
Question 54 0