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I have attached the assignment question, and also the critical literature review which is to be used for this RESEARCH PROPOSAL ASSIGNMENT. I have also attached the assignment example which would help...

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Research Proposal (40%) (Individual Assessment) Assessment Brief
Based on a research gap identified in your literature review, you are to develop a research proposal that addresses this gap. The main objective of a proposal is to present and justify a research idea and explain a suitable practical approach to your study.
1.    Title and abstract
•    Develop a title that is suitable to your proposal. The title needs to be consistent with the proposed research methods and topic.
•    Abstract
2.    Introduction
•    Discuss your chosen’s topic relevance to a cu
ent issue/industry context.
•    Briefly introduce the reader to key issues/topic
•    Explain how your proposed research addresses one or more research gaps.
3.    Research question
•    State your research question.
4.    Research objectives
•    State your research objectives.
5.    Development of research model and hypotheses/propositions
•    Describe and justify the relationships between the different variables/constructs that need to be examined to solve the research problem.
•    Develop adequate research hypotheses or propositions.
•    Illustrate your hypotheses or propositions in a research model.
6.    Research methodology
•    Justify your overall research strategy to the problem you have identified.
•    Provide a detailed description and justification of your proposed research methods
•    Describe and justify your data collection methods.
•    Justify the proposed data analysis.
•    Address ethical issues relevant to your proposed research.
7.    Timescale and resources
•    Propose a realistic timescale to your study (use a table format).
•    Outline required resources for the completion of your studies. 8.    References:
•    Word Count: 2500 +/- 10% (excluding appendices and references)
•    Formatting: Times New Roman/Cali
i/Arial, 12pt, 1.5 spacing, Justified
•    References: Chicago reference style

An empirical investigation of the factors
influencing users’ participation in sharing economy
– Case of ride-sharing services in China

1. Introduction
Within the next four years, the ride-sharing marketing is projected to reach a significant market
size of US$218 billion ( XXXXXXXXXXThe potential benefits to the society
includes improved personal mobility (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2018 Novikova, 2017) following
increasing u
anization and declining car ownership, reduced traffic congestion and reduced
pollutions while the major drivers include rise in the number of internet and smart phone users
and government interventions to reduce CO2 levels in the air. The main purpose of ride sharing
services is to enhance the efficiency of resource allocation by putting in use the underused
esources and allow economies to have a sustainable growth. The ride sharing services, clearly,
provide commuters with several benefits which has given rise to the research area of examining
the willingness of users to accept new technologies including their perceptions, expectations,
intentions to use and actual behaviour (Agag and Ahmad, 2016; Ballús-Armet et al., 2014; Min,
So and Jeong, XXXXXXXXXXThese ride-sharing services have evolved differently in countries,
especially in China. Internet and Mobile penetration in China has been significant following the
government’s effort to support development of information and communications technologies
and related infrastructure resulting in quick adoption of the advancements. This rise in mobile
economy has given rise to highly competitive sharing economy firms who are willing to gain
market share through subsidized money and venture capitalists. China has, thus, attracted several
multinational giants in the ride-sharing industry such as Uber, which however, failed to create its
market share and lost the war to local competitor DiDi.
The struggle of Uber for succeeding in China is a significant example highlighting the
importance of understanding user-acceptance in ride-sharing services. The existing research
studies have limited information on the individual level willingness to take part in ride-sharing
economy in China. The preceding literature has provided evidence that different technologies
would have different factors influencing user-acceptance implying that the user-acceptance
factors investigated in the context of mobile (e.g. Chen et al., 2013; Palau-Saumell et al., 2019)
or e-commerce (e.g. Ardiansah et al., 2020l Fayad and Paper, 2015) may not be able to explain
the behaviour of users towards ride-sharing services. Moreover, since sharing economy is China
is a novel and recent phenomenon, there are barely scholars and researchers who have studied
user-accepted in the particular context of this country. In fact, even specific studies made in the
context of ride-sharing economies may not be in line with the Chinese consumer behaviour,
ecause of the potentially dynamic nature of consumer which is influenced by its personal, social
and cultural factors, suggesting research gap in the context of Chinese users’ acceptance of ride-
sharing services. Thus, this study aims to fill the gap of research in the user-acceptance of ride-
sharing business models in China. In addition, the wide acceptance of technologies and a
growing disruption economy makes the research area interesting for investigation.
2. Research question
What are the motivating factors and constraints influencing user-acceptance of ride-
sharing services in China?
3. Research objectives
• To investigate the motivations for user user-acceptance of ride-sharing services by
obtaining data from Chinese users through online questionnaire
• To investigate the potential constraints in user user-acceptance of ride-sharing services by
obtaining data from Chinese users through online questionnaire
4. Development of research model and hypotheses/propositions
The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis 1989) and the Diffusion of Innovation
Theory (DIT) are well-accepted among the researcher fraternity (e.g. Liu and Yang 2018; Min,
So and Jeong, 2019; Zhu, So and Hudson, 2017) as the models enabling the understanding of the
perceptions, opinions, attitudes and behaviour of consumers towards the use of technology-
enabled products, services and innovations including the cu
ent area of research, ride-sharing
usinesses. Therefore, it is feasible to test hypothesis which effectively demonstrate relationships
in the variables in the cu
ent research settings. Accordingly, the framework for this research will
e based on “Hypothesis” rather than “Proposition” as though consumer behaviour is dynamic in
nature it can be explained within a specific framework and only the relationship in the variables
will tend to different across different contexts.
Drawing upon these two theories and past observations, it is identified that perceived
affordability could be considered as a motivation for the users since they tend to offer low cost
ecause of their sharing nature from which it can be infe
ed that they save monetary cost for the
users. Therefore, in light of Ballus-Armet et al XXXXXXXXXXand Zhu et al., (2017),
H1: Perceived affordability positively influence the Chinese users’ acceptance of ride-
sharing services.
Perceived convenience is yet another variable that could be considered as a motivator for user
acceptance as individuals can book low cost rides quickly using their smart phones and an
internet connection while they may be at within their houses or in the offices without wo
about parking space and extra time and efforts. Moreover, with shared location with the partner,
it is easier to locate the ride and there is also payment flexibility. Therefore, in light of Zhu et al.,
H2: Perceived convenience positively influence the Chinese users’ acceptance of ride-
sharing services.
There are a growing number of people who are turning towards sustainable consumption because
of their internal environmental awareness and conscientious and/or through social influence
which are the reference groups such as parents, friends, relatives and colleagues. Given the
collectivism society with a culture of guanxi Chinese users are more likely to regard the opinions
of their superiors. Either of the ways, these factors could be considered as encouraging users to
ecome a part of sharing economy and contribute towards environmental protection. Therefore,
in light of Hwang and Griffiths (2017), Mao and Lyu (2017), Wang et al XXXXXXXXXXand Fishman,
Washington and Haworth (2013),
H3: Sustainability concerns positively influence the Chinese users’ acceptance of ride-
sharing services.
H4: Social pressure positively influences the Chinese users’ acceptance of ride-sharing
Furthermore, identifying the constraints from the literature review, it is identified that the most
common risk which technology-based products and services offer to its users is the risk of loss or
mishandling of their financial and personal information which can discourage the willingness to
use these new innovations. Accordingly, in light of Lee, Rahafrooz and Lee XXXXXXXXXXand Zhu et
al., (2017),
H5: Perceived risk to financial and personal information negatively influences the Chinese
users’ acceptance of ride-sharing services.
In addition, sharing products and services may be perceived to be unhygienic and unsafe because
of the use and interaction with strangers and can discourage users to use them. Therefore, in light
of Che
y and Pidegeon (2018),
H6: Perceived concerns towards physical safety and hygiene negatively influence the
Chinese users’ acceptance of ride-sharing services.
Among the personal factors, it is identified that the confidence or perceived ability of individuals
to comfortably use technology for booking rides also encourage them to be a part of sharing
economy. In this context, it can be argued that individuals with a habit of using smart phones for
making online purchases or ordering food online will be more comfortable from the use of ride-
sharing apps, Accordingly, in light of Palau-Saumell et al., (2019),
H7: Habit positively influences the Chinese users’ acceptance of ride-sharing services.
5. Research methodology
5.1 Research Strategy
A quantitative research strategy will be employed in this proposed study as the research seeks to
investigate consumer behaviour expressed through attitudes, opinions and perceptions towards
the rise-sharing apps in China. According to Chrysochou XXXXXXXXXXresearch methods explaining
consumer behaviour (or user acceptance in this instance) frequently use quantitative research
strategies such as questionnaires. It is because the main aim of such studies is to improve the
efficiency and effectiveness of ongoing practices in particular field. Hence, the choice of
quantitative strategy in this instance is based on the ability of the study to produce outcomes that
can be generalised on a sizeable population in order to improve the existing industry practices
and encourage more user-participation. With the choice of quantitative strategy, the research
will be able to obtain data using a larger numerical population as against the qualitative strategies
that, although allow uncovering of new themes and opinions in the industry, utilises small
sample population which does not meet the purpose of this study. Limited experience of
esearcher in the specific field also makes the choice of empirical strategy over qualitative one
more suitable (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, XXXXXXXXXXThe quantitative research work in this
instance represents positivism philosophical assumptions made by the researcher and aspects of
deductive approach to data collection (Saunders et al., 2003).
5.2 Sampling and Recruitment
Since, collecting data from entire population of China will be problematic to perform; a small
selection from the target population will be made to test the hypothesis. Sampling facilitates
educed time and efforts and increases data accuracy while allowing management of the target
population (Dennis, et al., XXXXXXXXXXAccordingly, the sampling criteria or the target population is
defined as below:
(i) Chinese Graduates studying in university in large cities Beijing, Shanghai and
Shenzhen as they are believed to be more familiar with smart-phones, internet and
ide-sharing apps
(ii) Having age 18 years and above
In order to be respondent, the target population should meet all of the above criteria. Further, to
educe sampling e
ors non-probability self-selection sampling method will be used implying the
participants who meet the requirements of target population will become respondents. This
method is convenient and can attract relevant respondents. To improve response rate, another
important aspect for reducing sampling e
ors; the researcher will also use personal contacts and
network to approach individuals who will be then requested to further forward the data collection
tool to their personal network (Valerio, et al, XXXXXXXXXXThis is called convenience snowballing to
ecruit participants. In this manner, the study intends to obtain data from 200 participants.
5.3 Data collection methods and procedure
The proposed study will perform obtain primary data from the identified sample population
(discussed above) using online questionnaire technique. Questionnaires are used in descriptive
esearch and allow obtaining data for executing a quantitative analysis (Saunders et al., 2003).
The questionnaire, containing close-end self-administered questions, will take approximately 3
minutes to complete. The questionnaire will be administered using Qualtrics and the data will be
downloaded in MS Excel format for testing hypothesis and infe
ing conclusion. The
questionnaire will be structured so that deviation from the themes or identified hypothesis is
avoided, thus, maintaining the empirical nature of the investigation. The questionnaire will be
adapted from past studies and will aim explicitly to answer research question and achieve
objectives as formulated in this study. Ordinal five- point Likert scale (Strongly disagree-agree)
will be used to measure the responses. The process of data collection will start with posting of
Qualtrics questionnaire link on WeChat and Sina Weibo. This link will include participant
information sheet and consent form and a written informed consent will be necessary for starting
answering questionnaire questions. One of the key advantages of using online questionnaire is
that participants are able to take part in the study as per their own convenience and availability
without any
Answered 4 days After May 24, 2023


Sanjukta answered on May 27 2023
28 Votes
Research proposal
1. Title
The future of supply chain is digitization
•    Abstract
The importance of the sustainable supply chain has been quite overshadowed at the beginning of the pandemic of the covid-19 out
eak by the supply disruption and supply shortage, while after the recovery of the supply, sustainability is quite discussed and in the supply chain management it is often discussed.
The preceding literature has provided a lot of evidence in terms of the negative impact of the pandemic on the supply chains all across the globe. Additionally, it has been also stated that going forward in the upcoming times also there can be some more significant disruptions concerning the supply chains and for better visibility the future supply chain is digital as it will be providing the firms with greatest amount of visibility into each and every aspect of the supply chain
2.    Introduction
It has been observed that as stated in the literature review that the global supply chain has been highly affected by this pandemic. There are some major changes witnessed in the supply chains as well as it is also highlighted that the fate of the supply chain in future is independent and also digital. The pandemic till date continues for offering a lot of challenges for the supply chains all across the globe. Furthermore, in the previous year also the national lockdowns even or slow temporarily the raw materials flow and the finished goods that disrupted the manufacturing also. It will be allowing the firms in terms of seeing every stage of their supply chain in real-time and they will not have to rely on the historical data for making decisions. This particular study’s main aim revolves around filling the gap of research in accepting the fact that the future of supply chain is digitalised and this is even more evident after the pandemic.
3.    Research questions
How digitization can help the supply chain that is affected by the pandemic?
4.    Research objectives
The major objectives of the research work are as follows:
· To investigate the ways by which digitization and can help the supply chains all over the globe to improve
5.    Development of research model and hypotheses/propositions
It is needless to say that the digitization of the supply chain will be enabling the firms for addressing the new requirements of the consumers, the challenges on the supply chain side along with the remaining expectations in the enhancement of efficiency (Agrawal and Rakesh 2018, 012073).
The Flexible Model with regards to the supply chain is used by a lot of researchers for understanding the ways by which the businesses across the globe has the ability of meeting the peaks of high demands along with the long periods where the demand is low (pandemic). There are three elements a supply chain that is considered by the researchers as a part of this model such as accurate stocking algorithms, part segmentation and flexible planning. It is will be perfect to test the hypothesis which will highlight relationships in variables in the present research settings. As per the model that is suggested earlier the framework for this research will be based on hypothesis rather than proposition because the supply chain behaviour is dynamic after the pandemic and only the relationship in the variables will tend to differ across various contexts. It can be stated that digitization can be regarded as one of the major element for enhancing the supply chain in the future despite of any kind of pandemic or problems (Sanders et al., 2019, 230).
H1: Digitization will improve the supply chain management in future despite of any kind of pandemic or problems
With the introduction of the digital supply chain management, the supply chains across the globe have seen and will see a lot of efficiency and also improved visibility in future. On the other hand digitization of supply chain over the traditional supply chain will empower the sourcing, planning along with the logistics teams for collaborating, automating and also leveraging analytics. Furthermore, it has also proven for driving growth, optimizing costs. Further, digital supply chains assist structure and keep up with better associations with providers which can assist with relieving wellsprings of inte
uption. These more adaptable connections work to coordinate both inward and outer information frameworks so there is steady two-way dividing among providers, organization pioneers, and all partners (Pundir et al., 2019, 0170).
Advanced supply chains are likewise substantially more client driven. Not in the least does the utilization of ongoing information examination benefit organizations, however gives a more exact forecast of courses of events and permits clients to more readily follow the items that they request. This upgraded deceivability can further develop client connections.
Throwing light on the above-mentioned discussion it can be stated that the digital supply chains will be extremely helpful as it will be helping to utilizing the integrated planning that will also help to prevent and reducing waste along with it maximizing the efficiency within...

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