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ESSAY INFORMATION  Due Date: Monday, March 14, 11:55 pm  Theme: Human impacts on organism biodiversity  Length: total 3 pages, double-spaced, font style: Arial, font size: 12 o Approx. 1 page:...

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 Due Date: Monday, March 14, 11:55 pm
 Theme: Human impacts on organism biodiversity
 Length: total 3 pages, double-spaced, font style: Arial, font size: 12
o Approx. 1 page: Information about your assigned
organism (classification, facts, habitat, etc.)
o Approx. 1 page: How have humans impacted the organism? (cu
situation, alive, extinct, causes, etc.)
 Minimum 4 in-text citations (from 4 peer reviewed sources)
 Reference section containing the 4 peer reviewed sources (from journal articles,
not Wikipedia!)
 Upload to Moodle as PDF file!
 Read 'Essay Guidelines’ below for important information (References’ style,
Grading ru
ic, etc.)


Plagiarism is a form of cheating in which a writer either deliberately or inadvertently
passes off as his or her work the words or ideas of another person (see section 3.8
Academic Integrity Policy, StFX Academic Calendar). Plagiarism is a serious offense in
the academic world!!!
Plagiarism can be avoided by learning how to properly paraphrase, summarize and cite.

Paraphrasing and Summarizing

What are the differences among paraphrasing and summarizing?
These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ
according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing.


Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words.
A paraphrase must always be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased
material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat
segment of the source and condensing it slightly.

A paraphrase is...
 Your own rendition of essential information and ideas previously expressed
y someone else, but presented by you in a new form.
 One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to
ow from a source.
 A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a
single main idea.

Paraphrasing is a valuable skill because...
 It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.
 The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp
the full meaning of the original.

Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including
only the main point(s). Once again, it is always necessary to attribute
summarized ideas to the original source.

In science, a summary is a
ief account that gives the main points of a piece of
writing. It omits minor details that do not affect communication of the main points.
The summary must be in the summarizer’s own words and should not include
interpretation of the original work. A summary is significantly shorter than the
original and takes a
oad overview of the source material.

To reiterate: all paraphrased ideas and summarized ideas must always be attributed to
their original source, usually through citing a reference to the source.

Do not include quotes, graphs, figures and tables in your essay!

It is great to have many ideas to write about, but it is also important to organize those
ideas in a logical way that your reader can understand. Without an effective organization,
your essay can become confusing, and your main idea can get lost on the reader. Taking
a few minutes to outline your essay before you begin writing will help you organize your
ideas and group them effectively throughout your essay.

The Importance of an Outline

The first step in writing an essay is to create an outline. An outline is a general plan
of the material that is to be presented in an essay. The outline shows the order of the
various topics, the importance of each, and the relationship between the various parts.
It will also immediately help create the paragraph topic sentences, since each idea in the
outline should have a co
esponding paragraph.

A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with one topic.
Paragraphs in scientific writing build ideas about the topic that lead to a conclusion.
A well-constructed paragraph consists of a topic sentence, supporting sentences
and a concluding sentence.

Topic sentence
 Expresses the main topic of a paragraph
 Is the first sentence of a paragraph
 Is the most general sentence in a paragraph
Supporting sentences
 Develop, explain and support aspects of the main topic of the paragraph
 Contain facts, examples and details
 Collectively explain why the conclusion of the paragraph is true
 Build the support of the conclusion step-by-step, using linking words or
phrases e.g. first, furthermore, however, therefore etc.
Concluding sentence
 Is the last sentence of the paragraph
 States the conclusion supported by the arguments and information in the
earlier sentences
 Can also be used to prepare the reader for the following paragraph

Example paragraph (with numbered sentences)

1. A collection of fossil animals discovered off the coast of Florida suggests
that the deep-sea animals found today may have evolved earlier than
previously thought, having survived several periods of mass extinction. 2.
Previously, researchers believed that the present-day deep-sea animals,
including sea urchins, sea stars, sea cucumbers, evolved in the relatively
ecent past, after at least two periods of mass extinction caused by changes
in their oceanic environment. 3. Similar to how mammals proliferated after the
extinction of the dinosaurs, the spiny-skinned deep-sea taxa were thought to
have diversified after earlier species went extinct after changes in cu
temperature, and oxygen levels. 4. However, the new fossils predate the
oldest records of the present-day fauna. 5. This evidence shows that the
deep-sea animals have lived in deep waters for much longer than previously
thought. 6. The fact that the fossil groups appear to have survived several
drastic changes in oceanic climates also suggests that deep-sea biodiversity
may be more resilient than shallow-water life forms, and therefore more
esistant to extinction events than initially thought.

Topic sentence= 1
Supporting sentences= 2, 3, 4, 5
Concluding sentence= 6

The Importance of Linking Words
Linking words create the flow of logic and transition from one sentence to the
next, e.g. previously, similar to, however, this, due to the fact.

Essay Introduction
The introduction should be one paragraph. It should introduce the topic and main
idea and preview the rest of your essay. The introduction will also include your thesis

The body is generally made up of many paragraphs. Each paragraph supports and
develops (adds detail to) your main idea. To guide your reader, each body paragraph
should begin with a clear topic sentence.

The conclusion is one paragraph. It summarizes the body paragraphs and concludes
the essay.

What follows is a
ief list of qualities that make your writing strong*.
1. Focus: A well-focused essay deals with one main topic and does not stray from it.
Though you may write an essay of many paragraphs with many different arguments
and pieces of evidence, everything in the essay should ultimately focus on your main
2. Development: An essay is well developed when every claim you make is supported
y evidence of some kind. Depending on the kind of essay you are writing, this
evidence might be examples from personal experience, details, facts, statistics,
easons, or other arguments. A well-developed essay does not claim anything to be
true without offering evidence to show why or how it is true. In science, this means
using scholarly scientific work as evidence to develop logical support for the ideas
you present.
3. Organization: Strong essays are well organized into paragraphs. Each paragraph
focuses on a single idea and displays a logical strategy for conveying its information.
This one idea is conveyed in a single topic sentence, followed by further supporting
statements. Each paragraph should be unified by intelligent use of transitions and
key words. Similarly, a good writer uses transitions to link paragraphs into an
organized sequence, primarily through the effective use of concluding sentences of
paragraphs. The result is a sequence of paragraphs that is logical and serves to
support the essay’s main idea.
4. Grammar & Spelling: Strong essays display co
ect sentence grammar,
punctuation, sentence structure and spelling.
5. Citations and References: In-text citations and their co
esponding references are
critical in scientific writing because they indicate the source of ideas. In this way, the
entire set of evidence that leads to an idea in one piece of writing can be traced back
to the original experiments that gave evidence in support of that idea. Citations and
eferences are also important for giving credit wherever another writer’s words or
ideas are used (avoiding plagiarism!). In order to make citations and references
easily traceable, they have strict formatting rules to ensure all the key information is
included. See ‘Example Essay’ below demonstrating in-text citations and reference
*See Grading Ru
ic below

 3 pages (including Reference section)
 Double-spaced, font style: Arial, font size: 12
 Approx. 1 page: Information about your assigned organism (classification, facts,
habitat, etc.)
 Approx. 1 page: How have humans impacted the organism? (cu
ent situation,
alive, extinct, causes, etc.)
 Minimum 4 in-text citations (from 4 peer reviewed sources)
 Reference section containing the 4 peer reviewed sources (from journal articles,
not Wikipedia!)
 Upload an electronic PDF file into Moodle using the ‘Essay Submission’, by the
 Late essays will receive a 20% deduction per day.

Critical: your file must be in PDF format only!!! Other formats
Answered 2 days AfterMar 05, 2022


Ayan answered on Mar 08 2022
29 Votes
Human Impacts on Organism Biodiversity         5
Table of Contents
Introduction    3
Discussion    3
Information about Snowshoe Hare    3
Impacts of Humans on Snowshoe Hare    4
Conclusion    5
References    5
Humans are negatively harming the world's biodiversity in a variety of ways, all at the expense of the natural environment, by the things they do to acquire what they want. This easy describes the impacts of human on the species of snowshoe hare with valid information on the particular animal genetics later describing how humans affect them.
Information about Snowshoe Hare
Snowshoe hares created in the boreal woods that stretch through Alaska and Canada and into the lower 48 states, where there is a lot of winter snow. To match the snow, they develop long white guard hairs all through the colder time of year. In the late spring, they lose their white coats for co
oded earthy colored covers that blend in with the trees and soil. Hunters like lynx, coyotes, foxes, wolves, pine martens, and flying predators depend on their mysterious shading to keep them stowed away. A hare with the inaccurate shading coat stands apart like the sovereign in his new robes.
The pineal organ in the cere
um identifies varieties in sunlight length and conveys a message to the hare to modify coat tone. During the harvest times, more limited days cause the coat tone to change from
own to white. Pineal organs make melatonin, a chemical that impacts our waking and dozing cycles as well as our reactions to occasional day lengths. Snowshoe hares are nea
y species with a lot of chance to find out about their nature and get understudies and the overall population associated...

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