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Afghanistan War (1979) https://www.e-ir.info/2014/10/09/why-did-the-soviet-union-invade-afghanistan-in-1979/ 1.Explore the reasons why the crisis came about. You must ensure that you look at range of...

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Afghanistan War (1979)

https://www.e-ir.info/2014/10/09/why-did-the-soviet-union-invade-afghanistan-in-1979/

1.Explore the reasons why the crisis came about. You must ensure that you look at range of perspectives. And how it unfolded

2.Construct a timeline of events.

3.Explain why the superpowers were involved in the crisis and evaluate the role they played. Connect their reasons for becoming involved with their ongoing rivalries e.g. ideological, economic, the arms race, space race, sport, propaganda, espionage.

4.Evaluate the short- and long-term consequences of the crisis.

5.Explain why the crisis didnotresult in a war between the superpowers.

108, 109 & 137 and make note of first point and look into détente – textbook

The Soviets sent 75,000 troops into the capitol of Afghanistan,

Why the soviets went in in the first place and what they were trying to achieve

Americans financed the mujahedeen and they became al-Qaeda

6 main slides –

·1stslide – context

During the time of the Cold War on the 24th of December 1979, the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan. The intention was to sustain the communist government of the People’s Democratic part of Afghanistan (PDPA) against an increasing ‘insurgency’. This was due to the fear of losing communist proxy in Afghanistan as America had been going to Middle Eastern countries and successfully turning them capitalist. The Soviet Union sent over 100,000 soldiers to fight, however, the Mujahideen was greatly supported through military resources by America.

·2ndslide – timeline events – main events talk about

·3rdslide – range of perspectives break down into 3 perspectives – Afghan, America and soviets

·Before the USSR invaded Afghanistan, the Soviets were alarmed that Mohammad Daoud Khan, the current President, was shifting towards a more ‘western-friendly’ leadership which was perceived as undermining communist ideologies. Furthermore, the suppression of political tensions between opposing parties, led the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA), to overthrow their King in the coup of 1973. This ended ‘monarchical rule’, thus creating a semi-socialist republic sympathetic to the Soviet Union[1]. However, subsequent reforms were not effective as they alienated the Islamic conservatives and largely anti-communist population, which made little progress. As a result, insurgencies, known as the Mujahideen, developed within the tribal and urban groups against the government. This led to the tensions between both parties to escalate to the point where in 1978 the PDPA started the Saur Revolution, which seized power in a military coup. This created a distinct division between the afghan people and started a civil war. However, the Mujahideen were defeating the PDPA, which caused them to collapse, the Soviets noticed this and in order to restore the rise of communism, the soviets invaded.

·Soviet perspective

·The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) were led to the Afghanistan War through ‘ideological presumptions’, which provided credibility to a foreign policy that was strained, vague and poorly informed.

·military aid - explain why they did it (maybe something to do with resources and oil in Afghanistan) – supported rise and expansion of communism + ‘protect the world against America’ – with HA relations were deteriated

·- invaded from fear of an Islamic revolution and US secret meetings with Amin. (think about why this wouldn’t be in their best interest to have it?)

·US– military aid – explain why they provided it – support rise of capitalistic views + ‘protect free world’ – geopolitical reason, access to resources and trade??

·- states that the Afghanistan had no strategic importance to the US, the US was supported by Amin, the leader at the time as he had western views.(The Cold War textbook – Allan Todd) – HA pro-western had influence from higher powers

·

·4thslide – rivalries

- Arms race

- Space race

- Economic – hunger for resources and trading relations to do with oil

·5thslide – why were they involved

·6thslide – short term consequences

-Displacement of Afghanistan people after the war

·7thslide – long term consequences

-US and Australian troops in Afghanistan there to reconstruct and advise

-Signed peace accords by DRA, USSR, US and Pakistan

·8thslide – why the crisis did not result in war

·9thslide - reference



[1]https://asiafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Afghanistan-StateofConflictandViolence.pdf

Answered Same Day Aug 03, 2021

Solution

Tanaya answered on Aug 04 2021
138 Votes
STAGE 2 MODERN HISTORY, 2020
ASSESSMENT TYPE 1: HISTORICAL SKILLS
COLD WAR CASE STUDY AFGHANISTAN WAR (1979)
AFGHANISTAN WAR (1979)
Table of Contents
1. Reason for the Crisis    3
2. Timeline of Events    3
3. Involvement of Superpowers    4
4. Consequences of the War    5
5. Wars between the Superpowers    5
Bibliography    7
1. Reason for the Crisis
The main reason behind the invasion of the Soviet Union was the increase in the USSR activities with the active involvement of the domestic affairs in Afghanistan. This occu
ed at the end of the PDPA regime that has emerged in the year 1978. However, the situation has failed in procuring widespread support in terms of the socialist reforms. According to many researchers, the invasion was ca
ied out by the Soviet Union on the pretext of upholding the friendship treaty in between Soviet and Afghanistan[footnoteRef:1]. The Soviet at the middle of the night organised a military invasion and an airlift in Kabul. [1: Paul Marantz, Blema Steinberg, John Sigler, and Shmuel Sandler. Superpower Involvement in the Middle East: Dynamics of Foreign Policy. Routledge, 2019]
The USSR quickly realised that the Democratic Republic in Afghanistan was gaining political stability that became the concern of Kremlin’s as were not much aware of the Afghan politics. Moreover, according to the Soviet’s ambassador Aleksandr Puzanov, the USSR has slowly been set aside from the earlier reservation in terms of the new regime. In addition, the Taraki regime wanted to engineer Afghanistan in towards a new era, which had the ability to transform into a modernist nation. However, there was a contrast, which existed in between the Marxist-Leninist ideologies, which affected the influence of the religious and cultural traditions. This resulted in the proliferation in the rural opposition as well as backlash.
2. Timeline of Events
In the year 1978, 27 April: The Democratic Party in Afghanistan seized power. However, it resulted in split and infighting within the party.
5 December 1978: The Friendship Treaty was signed in between the USSR and Afghanistan with the aim of building the military support as well as the Soviet economy.
In March 1979: The USSR initiated massive military aids against the DRA involving several advisors with the murder of the Afghan ambassador[footnoteRef:2]. [2: Paul Marantz, Blema Steinberg, John Sigler, and Shmuel Sandler. Superpower Involvement in the Middle East: Dynamics of Foreign Policy. Routledge, 2019]
December 1979: The Politbureau fearing the growing revolution amongst the Iranian Islamism decided to invade Afghanistan after the secret meeting...
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