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should be 6-8 pages long and formatted according to APA guidelines. I provided you with the research paper I did please read it to do an intervention proposal. Please answer all questions and bullets....

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Research Pape
Annotated Bibliography        2
Research Pape
Substance Abuse-Vape Pens in Youth
Table of Contents
Introduction    3
Bibliography 1    3
Bibliography 2    4
Bibliography 3    5
Bibliography 4    6
Bibliography 5    7
Conclusion    8
References    10
Youngsters in the USA are becoming less likely to smoke cigarettes, while electronic cigarettes and cannabis usage are rising. Adult cigarette smoking has been associated with higher absorption and persistence when the use of marijuana is present. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential co
elation between cannabis usage and the frequency and prevalence of tobacco, e-cigarette, and double usage of products among young people in the United States.
Bibliography 1
To stop the escalating trend of teenage smoking cigarettes, effective preventative measures are required. We ca
ied out a non-equivalent contrast group prototype research that was somewhat experimental in nature to examine the efficacy of the "Teenage Engaged Strategies for Changing Adolescent Norms" (YES-CAN!) initiative in lowering the hazards associated with teenage nicotine smoking. A cutting-edge peer-led project called YES-CAN! assists older teenagers in creating and distributing short storytelling prevention films and associated prophylactic training for young people. Individuals in the group with comparisons who did not participate in the study, as well as those in the high school and middle school initiatives, filled out pre- and post-surveys measuring behavioral goals, rebellion, understanding, mindsets, subjective harm, and normative views related to vaping. Positive smoking attitudes exhibited substantially higher declines while vaping knowledge and the reported number of peers who vape displayed considerably greater rises among high school students as opposed to people who did not participate from pre- to post-program. The awareness of vaping among middle school pupils rose much greater among the program's participants than among people who did not participate. The results of this research show the fact that the YES-CAN! approach has the potential to lower teenage nicotine vaping hazards. This adds to the increasing amount of data demonstrating the effectiveness of peer-led strategies for promoting teenage health. It is necessary to conduct a large-scale statistical control study to assess the efficacy of the YES-CAN! initiative in halting the rise in juvenile nicotine vaping that has marked the last ten years. To make sure that exposure and/or participation may not unintentionally encourage vaping by heightening views that others vape, future research should track the impact of programs on perceptions of the widespread nature of vaping.
Bibliography 2
Offering a variety of flavour-infused e-cigarettes appeals to both novice and seasoned smokers. Research has demonstrated that the addition of flavorings to e-cigarettes can lessen what people think is the harshness of nicotine, leading to higher inhalation, enhanced delivery of nicotine, and increased appeal—all of which can encourage youngsters to explore. The US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) has voiced concerns about the attractiveness of some flavour-infused e-cigarettes (like JUUL) to young people who might not be aware of the devices' addictive nature or who may not have tried nicotine-containing products before. The NYS TCP (New York State Tobacco Control Program) has made preventing juvenile electronic cigarettes initiation a top focus. The former Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Gottlieb has called young electronic cigarettes usage an "epidemic." One public health goal in New York State (NYS) is lowering e-cigarette usage among teenagers. May 2020 saw the passage of a state-wide ban on flavored electronic cigarettes, except for tobacco flavoring. This study looks at how young people's usage of nicotine products changed when the state implemented a flavor ban on vaping.
After the ban, more than ninety-five percent of smokers still reported using e-cigarettes without a tobacco flavor, with fruit flavors becoming the most prefe
ed at every period. In conclusion, Almost all young people in New York State kept vaping flavors that were prohibited there. While the incidence of child vaping for more than 30 days declined dramatically between 2020 and 2021, increasing compliance with flavor restrictions may lead to an even larger decline. To better advise future compliance and limitations, it is crucial to continuously analyze attitudes, use patterns, as well as access at the individual, retail, and demographic levels.
Bibliography 3
Vaping, often known as electronic cigarettes, has become a general category of ingested aerosol instruments since the first experience with the American market in 2007. Previously, these items were disposable, shaped like regular cigarettes, and intended to provide the consumer with a hit of nicotine. The more recent models are rechargeable, seem to be customary cigarettes, and can deliver a variety of medications, like nicotine and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the psychoactive component of maryjane). The markets in the United States for vaping merchandise joining THC and nicotine have developed altogether. Youngsters have started utilizing merchandise containing nicotine at an unprecedented rate recently. The accessibility of a wide range of products that included THC or cannabidiol (CBD, a Non psychoactive component in marijuana), changes in the general public's understanding of hazards, and an increase in grown-up, especially youthful grown-up, weed use have all occu
ed at the same time that more states in the United States have made it legal the recreational use of pot. The effect of vaping products on general health has been a subject of conversation as the business scene has changed. There is reason for stress over the use of nicotine-containing items by youngsters, even on the off chance that some of them might help grown-up smokers quit and lower risk whenever used as a full replacement for customary cigarettes rather than as an extra source of nicotine. The effects of moving weed usage trends, for example, the rise in THC-containing vape products, should likewise be carefully considered. This is especially true given that the present products are more potent than those from previous decades. Despite the increasing acceptance of pot usage, changes in state regulations, and the development of the bootleg market, little review has been done on the effects of these phenomena on general health.
The juvenile vaping pandemic has persisted for a longer time frame. Between 2011 and 2015, middle and secondary school kids in the United States increased their usage of e-cigarettes, or vaping, items by 900%; however, between 2017 and 2018, this trend reversed itself. Over 5.2 million youth in the US reported being involved in weed starting around 2019. Among them were 10.5% of middle school understudies and 27.5% of secondary school students. Grown-up cu
ent usage, then again, didn't change between 2014 and 2017. In 2018, 3.2% of American grown-ups (8.1 million) reported utilizing e-cigarettes now, with 7.6% of those people aged 18 to XXXXXXXXXXmillion) reporting cu
ent use. Marketing, scrumptious flavors, and the accessibility of very discreet devices that dispense nicotine are some of the elements that influence youngsters' use of these items. Recent technological advancements have additionally helped; "unit mods," like Juul, are readily hidden and frequently resemble USB streak drives. As well as delivering nicotine as nicotine salts, unit mods likewise let users inhale high nicotine levels more serenely and with less uneasiness than older-generation e-cigarettes that use free-base nicotine. Since nicotine is extremely addictive and can disable mental health, which continues until the mid-20s, elevated levels of the medication ought to be of concern to youthful people.
Bibliography 4
I work at a school called Roosevelt Union Free School District in Nassau County New York where this has become an epidemic of vape pens and substance abuse. The community is also a low poverty and criminal due to substance abuse. Research has shown that youngsters who use e-cigarettes are more likely to change to customary cigarettes; it is obscure, however, how probable it is that these youngsters would have used tobacco items before the rise in vaping. This study aimed to ascertain on the off chance that youngsters who used e-cigarettes between 2014 and 2018 were probable smokers before the accessibility of e-cigarettes. Utilizing propensity scores obtained from strategic regression and observing the Future twelfth grade information (United States, XXXXXXXXXX), we projected the extent of cu
ent smoking. Models that included sociodemographic, familial, liquor, and school-related factors as well as a linear temporal trend projected smoking for every year that followed. We examined the yearly projected prevalence of smoking and the prevalence of present e-cigarette usage among non-smokers across tertiles of smoking tendencies. The observed and predicted rates of smoking were compared up to 2014. After that, predicted rates were consistently higher than real prevalence. The use of e-cigarettes by youngsters has developed rapidly, and among adolescents who don't smoke, it is very normal. However, since e-cigarettes became widely available, the percentage of Twelve students who smoke cu
ently has decreased faster. Youth who resemble pre-vaping smokers are the principal gathering of those utilizing e-cigarettes, which suggests e-cigarettes might have taken the role of customary cigarettes. Vaping is generally associated with kids who don't smoke but would have presumably smoked before e-cigarettes were introduced. The drop in youth smoking rates has accelerated since e-cigarettes were introduced. Even with their effects on kids, e-cigarettes may be a valuable device for hurt reduction at the populace level.
Bibliography 5
For tobacco users wanting to kick their dependence on conventional cigarettes, numerous researchers hail electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, as a revolutionary development. Since they hit the market, these smokeless gadgets have gained fame among users of all ages, especially teenagers. Their proponents guarantee that they are safer than customary smoke detectors. This study examined the patterns of e-cigarette use after first experience with the US, emphasizing the largest increase in teenage e-cigarette use to date. It likewise tried to comprehend the inspirations and attitudes underlying teenagers' rising e-cigarette use.
The widespread favorable impressions around e-cigarette usage and their recent presentation put us in danger of fixing years of progress in tobacco reduction and moving instead toward a new habit with unidentified long-haul health gambles. A huge measure of evidence indicates that the number of e-cigarette users in the United States has increased fundamentally, especially among teens. This research looked to understand the general misconceptions around these new electronic delivery methods as well as the variables adding to the wide surge in e-cigarette usage among teenagers in the US. Furthermore, this research endeavored to enumerate the health advantages and dangers linked to e-cigarette usage, as consumers should possess accurate knowledge regarding the health consequences of e-cigarette use.
There are several reasons why e-cigarettes are more desirable than conventional cigarettes, like their moderation, wide selection of flavors, straightforwardness of use, and virtual entertainment influence. Grown-ups and teenagers who use e-cigarettes have changing feelings about them too. The former gathering might use them due to the innovative device's fashionable appeal, while the latter gathering might be attempting to move from conventional/combustible cigarettes (c-cigarettes) to electronic cigarettes to stop.
It is pivotal to remember that e-cigarettes are a relatively new phenomenon, hence there are very few long-haul studies that can pinpoint the potential health dangers of involving them in the future. More intensive research on the drawn-out health effects of e-cigarette usage is required. Furthermore, given the rising prevalence of e-cigarette use the consideration of e-cigarettes in the present tobacco-free legislation and regulations is pivotal, as teens (10 and 19 years old) use them. We conclude by expressing that more regulations are required to stop teenage access to and usage of e-cigarettes.
Asdigian, N. L., Riggs, N. R., Valverde, P. A., & Crane, L. A XXXXXXXXXXReducing youth vaping: A pilot test of the peer-led “Youth engaged strategies for changing adolescent norms!”(YES-CAN!) program. Health Promotion Practice, 24(5), XXXXXXXXXX.
Sapru, S., Vardhan, M., Li, Q., Guo, Y., Li, X., & Saxena, D XXXXXXXXXXE-cigarettes use in the United States: reasons for use, perceptions, and effects on health. BMC public health, 20(1), XXXXXXXXXXhttps: XXXXXXXXXXx
Schneller, L. M., Kasza, K. A., Hammond, D., Bansal-Travers, M., O'Connor, R., & Hyland, A XXXXXXXXXXE-cigarette and tobacco product use among NYS youth before and after a state-wide vaping flavour restriction policy, 2020–2021. Tobacco Control, 31(Suppl 3), s161-s166.
Sokol, N. A., Feldman, J.M (n.d.). https:

M4 Written Assignment: Intervention Proposal
Intervention Proposal which entails you outlining an Intervention framework on the at-risk category you chose to write about in your Research Paper from Module 3. This paper is due week 14 of the course. An Intervention Proposal specifically lists core components of a treatment program as detailed below. Your paper should be 6-8 pages in length.  Please do not forget to choose scholarly sources and to document your sources carefully and using APA citation style.
Building upon your work that you submitted in Module 3/Research Paper.  You are being asked to propose an intervention or prevention strategy to address the youth risk that you identified in your own community.  This can involve developing a new program* or implementing an already-existing program. Your proposal should include the following:
1. An overview of the youth risk in your community (you may summarize information from your previous paper in this section)
2. A description of your intervention or prevention strategy
· What are the goals of your program (what specifically do you hope to accomplish)? 
· Explain how the strategies will work to address the category of youth risk that you are targeting. What activities will be ca
ied out?
· Explain your rationale for choosing the intervention or prevention strategy
· Identify where your program falls on each of the following: the risk continuum; the approach continuum, and prevention-treatment continuum
· Which of the "5 Cs" are addressed and how?
· For already-existing programs, describe the evidence base that supports the effectiveness
Answered 2 days After Nov 17, 2023


Bidusha answered on Nov 20 2023
7 Votes
Research Proposal        2
The World Health Organization (WHO), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the American Cancer Society (ACS) have all released plans and statements in recent years about the use of electronic cigarettes, also known as vape pens, mods, or e-cigarettes, and the potential health risks associated with them. According to data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, youth in grades 8 through 12 are using e-cigarettes but have never smoked traditional cigarettes. Furthermore, according to 66% of those youngsters, the liquid they smoke is "just flavoring" (NIH 2016). The long-term consequences of electronic cigarettes remain unclear, despite the fact that they are "less harmful" than smoking traditional cigarettes, according to the ACS. But according to the CDC (2018), teens and young adults shouldn't use e-cigarettes since the liquid's nicotine is very addicting and can stunt adolescent
ain development. Electronic cigarettes come in a variety of forms, such as pipes, cigars, and "tank" devices, but they all work in the same way. An e-cigarette's primary parts are the heating element, battery, and vape liquid compartment (Bratsis 2018). Together, these components heat the e-liquid so that the user may inhale the vapor or mist into their lungs. While flavorings and nicotine are the common ingredients of e-liquid, several
ands may also include marijuana. Thus, the purpose of this work is to investigate and analyze the physiological and developmental impacts of teens' and young adults' regular e-cigarette usage among youth at Roosevelt, New York. The author of this work proposed a quantitative descriptive study in which college students were asked to respond to a survey on their opinions and experiences with electronic cigarettes in relation to the potential health risks.
Table of Contents
Abstract    2
Introduction    4
Problem Statement    4
Research Question:    5
Literature Review    5
Research Proposal    8
Findings    10
Discussion    15
Conclusion    15
Everybody in elementary, middle, and secondary school has been exposed to a wide range of extracu
icular activities. Sports and video games are two examples of ho
ies; other, more "unsafe" pursuits are additionally included. For the older generation, smoking cigarettes was a typical practice among college and secondary school students (Office of Adolescent Health, 2016). Numerous initiatives have been launched in the previous several decades to address the drug and smoking problems. Underage smoking (smoking by age 21) was at an unequaled low up to this point. Regretfully, a fresh danger could be drawing closer. Vaping, or
eathing in the vapor from electronic cigarettes, has become more and more typical among college and secondary school students in recent years. There isn't nearly as much study on the long-term physiological and developmental effects of vaping on the lungs as there is on the effects of smoking cigarettes. The question of whether vaping is pretty much as dangerous as cigarette smoking and assuming regular e-cigarette usage increases the gamble of drug misuse in the future are two areas that require further investigation.
Problem Statement
Associations like the World Health Association (WHO), the American Cancer Society (ACS), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have issued plans and statements in recent years about the use of electronic cigarettes, otherwise called vape pens, mods, or e-cigarettes, and the potential health chances associated with them (CDC 2018). The Public Institute on Drug Abuse issued an information showing that teenagers in grades 8 through 12 (about ages 10 to 19) who have never smoked cigarettes are presently utilizing e-cigarettes. Furthermore, as indicated by 66% of those teens, the fluid they were smoking was "simply enhancing" (NIH 2016). The American Cancer Society states that while electronic cigarettes are "less destructive" than customary cigarettes, their long-term consequences are not understood. However, as per the CDC, teens and young grown-ups shouldn't use e-cigarettes since the fluid's nicotine is very i
esistible and can stunt adolescent mental health (CDC, 2018). Electronic cigarettes come in a variety of structures, including pipes, stogies, "tank" devices, and even devices that resemble USB ports. Nevertheless, they all perform the same capabilities. They capability by transforming fluid nicotine into a vapor or fog that the user might inhale. An e-cigarette's essential parts are the heating element, battery, and vape fluid compartment (Bratsis, 2018). For a person to inhale the vapor or fog into their lungs, the operation of these pieces together warms the eliquid. While flavorings and nicotine are the normal ingredients of e-fluid, several
ands may likewise include maryjane. This report means to propose a research study on the physiological and developmental effects of regular e-cigarette use in young grown-ups and adolescents.
Research Question:
What physiological consequences result from regular e-cigarette use in teenagers and young adults, and how does it impact their development?
Literature Review
The terms "e-cigarettes," "electronic cigarettes," or "vapor cigarettes" were used to find the publications that made up this review of the literature. The years 2019–2023 were used for the study and discoveries that were made.
Remarkably, numerous teenagers use e-cigarettes often, yet many are unaware of the ingredients in the fluid. Researchers Olmedo, Goessler, Tanda, Grau-Perez, Jarmul, and Ahe
era (2018) looked into what metals transfe
ed from the heating coil of an e-cigarette to the vape fluid in the e-cigarette tank and figured out what metal concentrations in e-cigarette fluid and aerosol samples were caused by metallic coils. A few studies suggest that the aerosol that e-cigarettes emit contains destructive elements including lead, nickel, and chromium. This unfavorably affects health, like cellular
eakdown in the lungs, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular illness, neurotoxicity (Sokol et al., 2021), and respiratory disease (Sokol et al., 2021). This study means to determine whether utilizing an e-cigarette increases the gamble of exposure to destructive metals. The study employed a 15-metal panel for...

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