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Please find attached my proposal for the dissertation chapter 1-3,I had sent you the feedbackfrom the lecturer. So what need to be done is chapter 4 &5 and the table included is for question 4.1 in...

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Please find attached my proposal for the dissertation chapter 1-3,I had sent you the feedbackfrom the lecturer. So what need to be done is chapter 4 &5 and the table included is for question 4.1 in chapter 4 that is example of how the table should be and then answer all the questions for chapter 4 & 5 one by one. this is the feedback from my tutorFeedback on Research Proposal

Current research title

Effects of obesity epidemic in the UK among adults from 65 and above; an ecological perspective.

Some material in this section should be in the background e.g. 48 billion pounds spent in the UK…

1.1 This section needs improvement. Each term could be a new sentence

Title

The title could: the influence of lone parenting on the health and wellbeing of the family in the UK

Background

This needs to be improved. The improvement could include: history of the problem, global prevalence of the problem, and prevalence of the problem in the UK, among others. Within the UK, you could talk about prevalence of the problem by gender, age, ethnicity and socio-economic class, etc.

Statement of the problem

This section should address the fact that single parent families are not more prevalent as discussed in the background. However, the impact of this phenomenon on the health and wellbeing of the single parent family is not well known. Because of this, this research sets out to establish the impact of single parenting on the health and wellbeing of children and parents living in single parent families in the UK.

Justification

This could be categorised into effects on the individuals (older persons), effects on the family, effects on the community, effects on institutions such as NHS, local councils, etc.

Significance of the research should focus on benefits of the research. Who will use the findings of your research and for what purpose?

  • Should be introducing the chapter saying, in this chapter, I will talk about…
    • should be titled cause of obesity

2.1.1 Should be 2.2 and could be tilted effects of obesity in older persons

Re arrange the flow in this order: 2.1 Causes of obesity 2.2 Prevalence of obesity and 2.3. Effects of obesity.

The conceptual framework depends on the title.

3.3 should 3.2 and vice versa. 3.3 should say, since the research uses a qualitative strategy, it will use secondary methods of data collection. Specifically, the research will secondary analysis of data / literature …

3.4 the search terms have not been discussed.

There is no 3.5.

3.6 talk about thematic analysis.

There is no inclusion ad exclusion criteria

3.9 limitations, you need to say more on how you overcame the limitations e.g. by working hard, reading widely, getting support from the university librarians, acquiring new skills, etc.

3.10 The summary should say, this chapter has covered the philosophical and procedural aspects of this research. Under philosophical aspects, I have discussed the interpretivist perspective as well as the inductive approach and the qualitative strategy. In the procedure for data collection, I have discussed the secondary method of data collection, thematic analysis, inclusion and exclusion criteria, search terms, limitations, ethics, etc.

You need to improve your paragraphing by leaving one line in between paragraphs.

Overall, the draft is good but there is a mix up. You talk about challenges facing public and private health providers at the begging but along the way, you introduce the effects to individuals, families, communities, institutions, etc. beside this, you introduce cause, prevalence and problems / challenges.

Table of contents:

Chapter 1: Introduction to the research--------------------- XXXXXXXXXX03

1.1.Definition of terms -------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX03

1.2.Background------------------------------------------------ XXXXXXXXXX03

1.3.Research problem ---------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX04

1.4.Research question ---------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX05

1.5.Justification of the research----------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX05

1.6.Significance of the research ---------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX06

1.7.Summary---------------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX07

Chapter 2: Review of Literature--------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX08

2.0. Introduction---------------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX08

2.1. Broad Literature on the topic------------------------------ XXXXXXXXXX09

2.1.1. Obesity problems and challenges----------------------- XXXXXXXXXX10

2.1.4. Obesity prevalence rates in the UK---------------------- XXXXXXXXXX11

2.2. Theoretical framework --------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX12&13

2.3. Conceptual framework --------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX14

Chapter 3: Methodology------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX15

3.1. Research philosophy------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX15

3.2. Data collection ------------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX15

3.3. Research Approach-------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX16

3.4. Search terms-- -------------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX16

3.6. Methods of data analysis ------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX16

3.8. Research ethics-------------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX17

3.9. Limitations of the research ---------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX18

3.10. Summary-------------------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX18

List of References---------------------------------------------------- XXXXXXXXXX19&20

Chapter 1: Introduction to the research

1.0 Introduction

This research is mainly focusing on the effects of obesity epidemic among adult people aged over 65 and above in the United Kingdom (UK). There is increased concern regarding the number of obese people and effects relating to such obesity epidemic in the UK, mostly elderly people. For this regard, the health care service provider both the public and private are having or facing several challenges to cope with the increased number and challenges of the obesity problem within the UK. For instance, a study has identified that about 48 billion pounds are spent in the UK in order to deal with the health care and social causes related to obesity (Renew Bariatrics Inc., XXXXXXXXXXAnother example is representing that the NHS (National Health Service) in the UK is spending 5 billion pound a year with the purpose of treating the effects of the obesity (NHS Information Centre, XXXXXXXXXXBased on these two examples, it seems that there are different challenges to the health care service provider including the public and private ones in the UK.

1.1 Definition of terms

According to Oxford Dictionaries XXXXXXXXXXEffect is a modification which is the result or penalties of an action or other causes for example the consequences of eating too much sugary things is becoming obese. Epidemic is a spread happening of a transferrable disease in a community. Ecological is in relation to or concerned of relation of living organisms to one another and to their physical environment. Approach is talking to somebody for the first time on a plan or request.

1.2 Background

It has been revealed that obesity problem is one of the most common and significant concerns in the UK. The reason is that the UK is the leading contributor to the obese population in the Europe with an overwhelming contribution of 24.9% (Renew Bariatrics Inc., XXXXXXXXXXSeveral studies have been conducted in the field of the obesity and its challenges for the health care service provider. A study conducted by Renew Bariatrics Inc XXXXXXXXXXshowing that one in four British adults are obese and 62% of adults are classified as overweight. The study has also revealed that the obesity levels in the UK have more than tripled in the last 30 years with having 24% and 26% of British men and women respectively are obese which is the second largest in the world (Renew Bariatrics Inc., 2018).

1.3 Research problem

According to the report of World Health Organization (WHO), the obesity problem is being considered as one of the serious health challenge for the world including the UK. It has been found that the UK has the highest rate of obesity among the developed country in the world. For this regard, it is very much important to conduct a research study regarding the obesity problem among adults and its challenges for both of the public and private health care service provider.

This research is mainly focusing on the effects of obesity epidemic among adult people aged over 65 and above in the United Kingdom (UK). There is increased concern regarding the number of obese people and effects relating to such obesity epidemic in the UK, mostly elderly people. For this regard, the health care service provider both the public and private are having or facing several challenges to cope with the increased number and challenges of the obesity problem within the UK. For instance, a study has identified that about 48 billion pounds are spending in the UK in order to deal with the health care and social causes related to obesity (Renew Bariatrics Inc., XXXXXXXXXXAnother example is representing that the NHS (National Health Service) in the UK is spending 5 billion pound a year with the purpose of treating the effects of the obesity (NHS Information Centre, XXXXXXXXXXBased on these two examples, it seems that there are different challenges to the health care service provider including the public and private ones in the UK.

Most importantly I think the problem of obesity is a very big problem in the U.K as it has effects that include serious health issues, these effects affect all sectors of the society including older persons, and however the effects of obesity have not been understood using theory. This study is being undertaken to understand how obesity affects older persons. To achieve this this research will use ecology theory which shows how obesity affects older person, their families, communities and the society at large.

1.4 Research question

In broader perspective, this study has key question: How does ecological theory explain the effects of obesity in the UK? In order to resolve or find out solutions for the broad question, the researcher has developed some of the following specific questions:

What are the effects of obesity to individuals in the UK?

What are the effects of obesity to families in the UK?

What are the effects of obesity to communities in the UK?

What are the effects of obesity to institutions in the UK?

What are the effects of obesity to wider UK society?

It is hoping that all of the above mentioned questions were able to find out the key rationale for the obesity problem along with the identification, analysis and evaluation of the major effects as well as challenges for the public and private health care service provider in the UK.

1.5 Justification of the research

The increased prevalence of the obesity rates can lead to widening inequalities in health and social care among different communities and ethnic groups in the UK. The rationale is that the obesity prevalence varies by socio-economic and ethnic group and the rising obesity increases the ill-health among disadvantaged communities and other ethnic groups within the country (Gatineau and Mathrani, 2011).

Moreover, it has been found that obesity may also result in adverse social impacts such as discrimination, social exclusion and reduced earnings (Puhl and Brownell, 2011; and McCormick et al., XXXXXXXXXXThereby, it seems that the prevalence of the obesity has negative consequences in terms of health and social care services due to adverse impacts or results among the people of different social and cultural backgrounds.

Based on a study of NHS Information Centre (2012), it has been found that inequalities may exist in terms of social care needs among the obese people in the UK. The report has identified that among adults aged 65 and over, support with activities of daily living is more likely be required by those on low incomes and those living in deprived areas in the UK.

It has been revealed that the costs for diabetes and its associated costs increase due the increase in the levels of the obesity among the adults in a country like in the UK. For example, it has been estimated that diabetes UK is required total cost of care for people with diabetes in adult social care settings in England is 830 million pound per year (NHS Information Centre, XXXXXXXXXXIn one study, male and female non-smokers who were obese at age 40 died 6–7 years earlier than their non-obese counterparts (Peeters et al., 2003).

From the above discussion and explanation, it is clear that there are several adverse or negative consequences (e.g. health problems in an individual, mental stress among family members, higher cost of diagnosis & treatment of obese people, and reduce productivity due to lack of skilled workforce in a community & society) of the obesity epidemic along with having some challenges to the health and social care service provider in the UK.

1.6 Significance of the research

This study has key aim of identifying, analysing and evaluating the major effects of obesity epidemic among adults aged over 65 to above and challenges for the public and private health care service provider in the UK. This study has another key purpose of examining and evaluating the major factors or causes which are leading to obesity problem and epidemic among the adults in the UK.

In accomplishing aim and purposes of the study, the researcher has mainly paid attention on collecting secondary data and information with the purpose of identifying current trends of the obesity problems among the adults in the UK. Furthermore, the researcher has collected some data and information from different secondary sources regarding the present and future challenges which may arise due to the obesity problem as well as health risks associated with the obesity among the adults in the UK.

Based on the derived secondary data and information, the researcher has established some conclusions and recommendations regarding the effects of obesity problem among the adults as well as of challenges to the public and private health care service provider in the UK. Thereby, it is saying that this study has significance from different point of views including enriching existing knowledge and understanding about the obesity epidemic with effects among adults and its challenges to health care service sectors; filling-up existing gaps in relating area of obesity problem among adults & its challenges to health care service providers; and identifying ways to overcome challenges relating to obesity problem in the UK. Therefore, the researcher would like to opine that this study has significance to both theoretical and empirical perspectives in the field of the obesity epidemic among adults and its challenges to the public and private health care service provider in the UK.

The benefits from the findings the findings from this research are older persons will live healthily and thereby avoid some complications like Diabetes and other long term condition. The findings from the research will be benefited by older people either male of female for the purpose of controlling their diet and eat healthy foods.

1.7 Summary

The summary of this chapter is the effect of obesity in older people from age 65 and above and it has become a major issue in the U.K. The background talks about the number of people that are obese. The research problem discusses a great concern about the number of people affected and due to this the health provider are having a big challenge regarding this. It also emphasis that effects of obesity have not been understood by using theories so as a result of this the researcher is going to use ecological theory to understand these effects. The research questions are the effect of obesity on individual, families, communities, institutions and wider society. The justification talk about the social impact of been obese while the significance of research aim at identify, analyse and evaluate the major effects of obesity epidemic among adults aged over 65 to above. It also talks about the benefit of the research which will not let them suffer some complicated health issues.

Chapter 2: Review of Literature

2.0 Introduction: The obesity refers to the state or condition of the excess of body fat that leads to ill-health of an individual. The number of the obese population is increasing over the period in the UK. The Royal College of Physicians XXXXXXXXXXdefine obesity as a disorder in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that health may be adversely affected.

A research carried out by the Health and Social Care Information Centre is representing that the obesity levels in England has sharp increase during the period of 1993 to 2011. The report is showing that the number of men and women with body mass indices outside of normal range (Haslam, XXXXXXXXXXAccording to the Department of Health, UK (2009), the trend of increasing the number of the obese adults tends to double by 2050. According to the NICE (2006), if the trend of increasing obesity among the adults and children remains un-changed, there will be 9 in 10 adults obese or overweight by 2050 and for this regard, the cost of overweight and obese individuals to the NHS in the UK is estimated to rise 6.3 billion pound by 2015 and is forecasted to more than double by 2050.

2.1. Broad Literature on the topic: There are different causes or factors responsible for the obesity and these are regarded as contributor factors of obesity. The first and foremost factor of obesity is the excessive accumulation of energy compared with energy expenditure at the human body. Thereby, energy intake is an important contributing factor of obesity.

Obesity is a condition where an individual’s body fat stores are enlarged to an extent that impairs health. Some people are more susceptible to weight gain for genetic reasons. Also a broad range of environmental, social and individual lifestyle factors interact to contribute to causing obesity. However, the main reasons for increasing obesity in the population are the increased consumption of high fat, high sugar foods, increasing levels of alcohol consumption and the reduced levels of physical activity throughout the population (Newson and Flint, 2011).

The obesity problem is much worse and challenging in the UK. One of the foremost reasons is that UK has one in four of the adults with obesity problems and more than half of the adult population in the country are overweight or obese (the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, NICE, XXXXXXXXXXCanoy and Buchan XXXXXXXXXXhave noted that within the UK, obesity prevalence rates increased among the adults by three- to four-fold since 1980s for many different reasons and factors leading to the increased prevalence of the obesity within the country.

The drivers or factors associated with the obesity prevalence and epidemic within a country like in the UK are more complex to identify, analyse and evaluate. The reason is that obesity may relate with different aspects and issues including physical activity, genetic, psycho-social conditions, socio-economic conditions and environmental factors. As an example, Musingarimi XXXXXXXXXXhas mentioned that obesity occurs most specifically when a human body intake more calories than expenditure those from the body which means that the excessive accumulation of fat is one of the prior causes for the obesity problem among people.

Based on a recent census conducted in the UK, it seems that the rapid rise in the obesity levels among the people in the country predominantly being a result of social, environmental and technological changes over the last three or four decades in the UK. One of the key negative implications of changes in the social, environmental and technological changes is leading to intake excessive calories along with simultaneously decreasing the opportunities for the physical activities as well as requirements of physical activities which burn excessive calories (Musingarimi, 2008).

Moreover, it has been found that the sedentary lifestyles among people, heavy marketing and consumption of energy dense foods and fast food outlets etc. are changes the behaviour and attitudes of people and hence encouraging them to intake excessive calories and thereby becoming obese people (World Health Organization, XXXXXXXXXXThe World Health Organization XXXXXXXXXXhas also find out some of the following factors which are contributing to obesity prevalence among adults within a country including in the UK:

Higher level of intake or consumption of sugars, sweetened soft drinks and fruit juices;

Adverse socio-economic conditions;

Higher level of consumption of foods prepared outside of home which contains higher level of fats and protein; and

‘Rigid restrain/periodic dis-inhibition’ eating patterns among the people.

In accordance with the above discussion and explanation, it can be noted that the most common factors or causes which are contributing to obesity problem and prevalence in the UK include: rapid changes in the lifestyle, eating habits and attitudes, socio-economic conditions, environmental conditions, technological changes, decreased in physical activities, genetic, and increased consumption of alcohol etc.

2.1.1. Obesity problems and challenges: Obesity is associated with a number of long term conditions that place a significant burden on the social care system. These include mental health problems, liver disease, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, muscular skeletal disease, some cancers, and respiratory disease (Kings Fund, 2012; NHS Information Centre, 2012; and Marchesini et al., XXXXXXXXXXObesity is not just a cosmetic problem for many but a serious risk to health. The strain to the NHS and the cost to the wider economy are enormous given the associated health risks, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, some types of cancer, gout and gall bladder disease. Being overweight can also cause problems such as sleep apnoea (interrupted breathing during sleep) and osteoarthritis.

There is an important link between obesity and social care. Obesity is a contributory factor to the development of long term conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, severe obesity can result in physical and social difficulties which impact on social care. Increasing obesity prevalence along with the growing needs of an ageing population, the rise in non-communicable diseases associated with obesity, and rising public expectations for service intervention and treatment present significant challenges and cost implications to both the health and social care systems (Kings Fund, 2012).

One of the well-known adverse impacts or consequences of obesity problem is economic consequence which has adverse impacts to both the healthcare sector and the wider economy. The obesity problem may have direct economic consequences in terms of costs for preventive, diagnostic and treatment services related to obesity. Similarly, the obesity problem may have indirect economic consequences in terms of income lost from decreased productivity, restricted activity and absenteeism of workforce etc. (Musingarimi, 2008).

There are different consequences of obesity problems within the UK which include:

Chronic conditions in terms of Type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, breast cancer, endometrium and colon, orthopedic disorders and osteoarthritis (Kopleman, 2007);

Social consequences and impacts in terms of discrimination and bias in health and social care services (Puhl and Brownell, 2011);

Psychological consequences and impacts in terms of low or no self-esteem, emotional distress, anxiety and depressions (Musingarimi, 2008); and

Economic consequences to both of the healthcare sector and the wider economy (Musingarimi, 2008).

2.1.2. Obesity prevalence rates in the UK: The obesity problem and prevalence varies among population depending on some aspects such as sex, age, ethnicity and socio-economic conditions and some other aspects. Obesity prevalence rates are typically higher in women than men. Age is a significant risk factor since individuals are likely to become more obese as they grow older, with the slowing of the metabolism and decreased participation in physical activity. Some ethnic groups are likely to be more (or less) obese and overweight than others. In most high income countries, those in higher socio-economic groups tend to have lower prevalence rates than those in lower socio-economic groups. According to the WHO Europe Regional database, in the UK, 62.3 percent of adults (those aged 16 and over) are overweight. Of these overweight adults, 24.4 percent are obese (WHO, 2007).

Gender difference is one of the foremost aspects regarding the obesity prevalence among population in the UK. However, the rate of obese men and women are almost similar in England. The Department of Health XXXXXXXXXXhas predicted that the obese men will rise compared with obese women for the next few years and consequently, for the first time, more men than women will be obese in England, UK. Socio-economic class is another common and important aspects relating to the obesity prevalence in the UK. A study has identified that people with higher socio-economic groups having lower obesity and overweight rates compared with other socio-economic groups (Office of National Statistics, 2003).

Minority ethnic group is closely connected with the obesity prevalence in the UK. It has been found that obesity rates are higher among some ethnic groups compared with in general population in the country. A study carried out by the Office of National Statistics XXXXXXXXXXrepresenting that in 2004, among the ethnic minority groups, Black Caribbean and Irish men had the highest prevalence of obesity (25 percent each) compared to the 23 percent in the general population. For women, obesity prevalence was higher in Black African (38 percent), Black Caribbean (32 percent) and Pakistani ethnic groups (28 percent) and lower in Chinese women (8 percent) than for women in the general population. Furthermore, the function of age is most vital aspects relating to the prevalence of obesity among people in the UK. Data from the 2005 Health Survey for England indicate overweight and obesity levels peaked in individuals between 55-74 years of age with 77.4 percent of adults being overweight or obese compared to the general population rate of 65 percent. At older ages (beyond 74), obesity and overweight begin to decline (Musingarimi, 2008).

2.2. Theoretical framework

The obesity and its associated disorders are becoming great concern all over the world. It has been found that many genetic, physiological, socio-economic and behavioural factors are responsible for the obesity problem among an individual. Several authors and scholars have established different theories on obesity. A brief description and explanation of some common and prominent theories of obesity given below:

Lay theory of obesity: This theory of obesity is based on the individual opinion regarding the cause of obesity. According to this theory of obesity, people have better understanding on the causes and consequences of obesity. By investigating and examining the lay theory of obesity, researchers may gain a better understanding of why obesity rates are on the rise while at the same time they may be able to identify effective ways to address this public health crisis (Thibodeau and Flusberg, 2016).

Theory of planned behaviour: This theory mainly focusing on the relationship between beliefs and behaviour. This theory states that attitude toward behaviour, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control shape an individual’s behavioural intentions and behaviour (LaMorte, 2016).

Ecological theory of obesity: The ecological theory states that driving force for the increasing prevalence of obesity in populations is the increasingly obesogenic environment rather than any pathology in metabolic defects or genetic problems within individuals (Shodhganga, 2015).

Theory of Thermogenesis: This theory states that our bodies produce heat by a process called thermogenesis. This production requires energy which utilizes our metabolism and burns calories. The theory revolves around ramping up this heat production function with the idea that if we are able to increase our thermogenetic capacity, our bodies will metabolize excess calories or body fat as heat rather than tucking them into storage (Shodhganga, 2015).

At this study, the researcher has adopted the ecological theory of obesity with the purpose of identifying, analyzing and evaluating the major effects of obesity epidemic to an individual, family, community and institution level in the UK.

2.3. Conceptual framework

The obesity prevalence varies among population depending on the function of sex, gender, ethnic group, psycho-socio condition, socio-economic condition, environmental factor, technological changes, lifestyle & habits and some others factors. For this regard, it seems that the obesity prevalence depends on many different factors. This investigative and analytical study is based on the identification, analysis and evaluation of the obesity prevalence among people and its challenges to an individual, family, community and institution in the UK. The following conceptual framework has been developed for this study:

Figure: 2.1. Conceptual framework of the study


Source: Self-compilation

2.5 Summary

The summary of this chapter is about literature review, talk about what individual writers says about the topic of obesity and the factors contributing to obesity, the consequences of consuming alcoholic. It also mentioned the frame work about lifestyles and habits that can easily lead to being obese and some theories that individual behaviour shapes them to whom they are or become.

Chapter 3: Methodology

3.1. Research philosophy

According to Saunders et al XXXXXXXXXXresearch philosophy refers to a particular way of collecting, analysing and using data about issue or problem under the research study. There are four major philosophies such as positivism, realism, interpretivism and post-positivism.

At this study, the researcher has followed interpretivism philosophy (a philosophical stance that interprets the elements of the issue of a study with integrating human interests) in order to collect, analyse and use data and information about the obesity problem among people from an ecological theory perspective in the UK. The rationale is that this study is focusing on the causes and consequences of obesity epidemic among people to an individual, family, community and institution level. For this regard, it is much needed to interpret each of the elements associated with the obesity problem and prevalence and how these affecting people from an individual, family, community and institution level in the UK.

3.2. Methods of data collection

A researcher may collect either qualitative, quantitative or both data depending on the type of the research issue or problem. If the researcher collects qualitative data, it is known as qualitative method. If the researcher collects quantitative data, it is known as quantitative method. If the researcher collects both qualitative and quantitative data, it is known as mixed method (Saunders et al., 2012).

3.3. Research approach

Research approach refers to the plan and procedure that consists of the steps of broad assumptions to detailed methods of data collection, analysis and interpretation (Creswell, XXXXXXXXXXIn terms of developing theories about the research issue, research approaches are mainly two types such as inductive and deductive approach.

At this study, the researcher has used deductive approach (an approach of developing specific theory/assumption from general observation of research issue) with the purpose of developing more specific theories and assumptions about the causes and consequences of obesity among people along with the identification and analysis of key challenges to an individual, family, community and institution level in the UK. It has been revealed that multiple factors and causes are contributing to the prevalence of obesity among people based on the ecological theory and for which it is necessary to develop more specific assumption on what driving obesity prevalence among people in the UK. Therefore, it is believed that the use of deductive approach was most relevant and appropriate to develop specific theories and assumptions on obesity among people along with challenges to an individual, family, community and institution in the UK.

3.4 Search terms

This investigative study is focusing on collecting secondary qualitative data about the causes and consequences of obesity among adults as well as key challenges to an individual, family, community and institution level in the UK. The researcher believes that the use of secondary method to collect data and information about the research issue would be relevant and appropriate in order to draw or develop key theories and assumptions regarding the causes and consequences of obesity among people as well as different challenges to an individual, family, community and institution level in the UK. Therefore, at this study, the researcher has adopted qualitative method in order to collect all related data and information about the issue under the investigation.

3.6. Data Analysis

Data collection either from primary or secondary source is an important aspect in research methodology. A researcher may collect data from primary source which is known as primary research. On the other hand, data collect from secondary source, the research is known as secondary research.

At this research study, the researcher has collected data and information about the obesity prevalence among people and its challenges to an individual, family, community and institution level in the UK from secondary sources. The secondary data have been collected through review of documents such as reports, articles in journals, books and websites etc. Therefore, the researcher would like to opine that the use of review of documents was most relevant and appropriate to collect secondary data and information about the causes and consequences of obesity among people and challenges to an individual, family, community and institution level in the UK.

3.7. Methods summary

Data analysis is one of the most vital and important tasks for the researcher in order to prepare a standard and informative research report. There are several techniques both of statistical and non-statistical techniques which could be used to analyse data. The use of a particular technique depends on the data type i.e. qualitative and/or quantitative data. At this study, the researcher has collected qualitative data and in order to analyse these data, the researcher has used non-statistical technique like narrative analysis of the secondary qualitative data and information.

3.8. Research ethics

Saunders et al XXXXXXXXXXhave mentioned that there are several ethical issues (e.g. research code of conduct, acknowledgement & citation, transparency, authenticity, reliability and validity etc.) which need to follow and maintain by the researcher during the entire process of research completion. At this study, the researcher has followed and maintained all related ethical issues during data collection, analysis and preparation of research report. For instance, the researcher has followed academic code of conduct to complete the study. Also, the researcher has personally collect data and information about the research issue from secondary sources. Moreover, the researcher has acknowledged and cited authors and scholars’ contributions of which research works have been used at this research report.

3.9. Limitations of the research

In order to collect secondary data and information as well as analyse them with the purpose of preparing a standard and informative research report in the field of the obesity prevalence among people and its challenges to an individual, family, community and institution level in the UK; the researcher has faced some challenges. For instance, firstly, the researcher has very limited time to complete the study and thereby lack of time to conduct review of literature and collection of secondary data and information was one of the key limitations at the study. Another example is depicting that the researcher has lack of previous experiences on data analysis and report preparation and thereby lack of previous experience was another common limitation at the study. Moreover, limited access to the secondary sources of data and information was another key limitation at this study. Despite of having some limitations, the researcher was able to overcome those with the constructive support and feedback from the supervisor and also from peers.

3.10 Summary

This chapter talk about the way and manner data were collected for this research and the researcher use qualitative data and so as to analyse these data. Also the use of qualitative data about the causes and consequences of obesity among adults as well as key challenges to an individual. It also talks about ethic issues that show the transparency and reliability which the researcher needs to go with during the whole process and also follow academic code of conduct and accordingly the limitation of the research as the researcher has limited time to complete the research.

List of References

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Musingarimi, P. (2008). Obesity in the UK: a review and comparative analysis of policies within the devolved regions. London: International Longevity Centre.

Department of Health XXXXXXXXXXForecasting obesity to 2010. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsStatistics/DH_4138630.

Canoy, D. and Buchan, I XXXXXXXXXXChallenges in obesity epidemiology. Obesity Reviews. Vol. 8 (Suppl 1), pp. 1-11.

Gatineau, M., Hancock, C. and Dent, M. (2013). Adult disability and obesity. London: Public Health England.

Haslam, D. (2014). Obesity in the UK: analysis and expectations. National Obesity Forum, UK.

Haslam, D., Sattar, N. and Lean, M XXXXXXXXXXObesity – time to wake up? British Medical Journal, Vol. 333, pp XXXXXXXXXX.

Kopelman, P XXXXXXXXXXHealth risks associated with overweight and obesity. Obesity Reviews. Vol. 8 (Suppl. 1), pp. 13-17.

LaMorte, W. W. (2016). The theory of planned behavior. Boston: Boston University School of Public Health.

McCormick, B., Stone, I. and Corporate Analytical Team (2007). Economic costs of obesity and the case for government intervention. Obesity Reviews. Vol. 8, pp. 161–164.

Muller, M. J. and Geisler, C. (2017). Defining obesity as a disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 71, pp. 1256–1258.

Thibodeau, P. H. And Flusberg, S. J. (2016). Lay theories of obesity: causes and consequences [Online]. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/adiposity-epidemiology-and-treatment-modalities/lay-theories-of-obesity-causes-and-consequences [Accessed date 18 July 2018].

Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approach. 4th edition. California: SAGE Publications, Inc.

NICE (2006). Obesity: Guidance on prevention, identification, assessment and management of

overweight and obesity in adults and children. Nice Clinical Guideline No 43. London: National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence.

Peeters, A., Barendregt, J. J., Willekens, F., Mackenbach, J. P., Al, M. A. and Bonneux, L XXXXXXXXXXObesity in adulthood and its consequences for life expectancy: a life-table analysis. Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 138, pp. 24–32.

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Answered Same DayNov 09, 2020

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Amar answered on Nov 29 2020
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Running Header: Effects of Obesity Epidemic in the UK among Adults from 65 and Above: An Ecological Perspective
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Effects of Obesity Epidemic in the UK among Adults from 65 and Above: An Ecological Perspective
Effects of Obesity Epidemic in the UK among Adults from 65 and Above: An Ecological Perspective
Chapter 4 – Results
4.1. Introduction
This section presents the findings from evaluating the underlying factors, trends, implications, and consequences pertaining to the obesity epidemic amongst the people in United Kingdom (“UK”).
4.2. Results Summary
    Author and title
    Theme 1
    Theme 2
    Theme 3
    Theme 4
    Johnson et al. (2015)
    Body Mass Index (“BMI”)
    overweight / obesity in specific age
    Obesity trends in UK
    Lack of intervention leads to obese / overweight individuals
    Vassard et al. (2016)
    Family impacts on obesity
    Child obesity from family related factors
    Population focussed survey
    Impact of family formation
    Ash et al. (2017)
    Family based interventions on obesity
    Strategy for obesity interventions
    overweight / obesity in specific age
    Family impacts on obesity
    Ash et al. (2017)
    perceptions / perspectives on obesity
    Perceiving Childhood Obesity
    Strategy for obesity interventions
    Obesity trends in UK
    Appleton et al. (2017)
    Strategy for obesity interventions
    overweight / obesity in specific age
    Obesity trends in UK
    perceptions / perspectives on obesity
    Zilanawala et al. (2015)
    Racial / Ethnic Patterns Obesity Risks
    Body Mass Index (“BMI”)
    overweight / obesity in specific age
    Lack of intervention leads to obese / overweight individuals
    Davidson et al. (2018)
    Strategy for obesity interventions
    Lack of intervention leads to obese / overweight individuals
    perceptions / perspectives on obesity
    overweight / obesity in specific age
4.3. Research Question #1: What are the effects of obesity to individuals in the UK? – Results
In case of UK, the overall prevalence concerning obesity amongst boys can be noted in being ~11 per cent during the year 2000, and the was at the at the levels of ~16 per cent during the year 2009 (Johnson et al. 2015; Zilanawala et al. 2015; Antonopoulos et al. 2018). Further it has been projected in reaching close to 25 per cent during the year 2020. Amongst girls, prevalence can be noted to be ~11 per cent during the year 2000, and about 13 per cent during the year 2009 (Johnson et al. 2015; Zilanawala et al. 2015; Antonopoulos et al. 2018). Further it has been projected in reaching close to 20 per cent during the year 2020 (Johnson et al. 2015; Zilanawala et al. 2015; Antonopoulos et al. 2018).
In essence, obesity impacts people spanning across all income levels as well as demographics in case of UK and data in this context reveals certain levels of disparities (Johnson et al. 2015; Zilanawala et al. 2015; Antonopoulos et al. 2018). To take an example, data relating to UK illustrates certain levels of disparity in terms of social class amongst the adult women and with predominant levels of differences in terms of prevalence amongst the lower and the upper level income women as has been estimated by the year 2020 (Johnson et al. 2015; Zilanawala et al. 2015; Antonopoulos et al. 2018).
The overall impacts from obesity in case of individuals can be stated to be as follows –[i] chronic conditions like that of coronary heart diseases, type II diabetes, cancers pertaining to colon, endometrium and
east, osteoarthritis, and various orthopaedic disorders (Johnson et al. 2015; Zilanawala et al. 2015; Antonopoulos et al. 2018), [ii] social consequences in terms of discrimination as well as bias (Johnson et al. 2015; Zilanawala et al. 2015; Antonopoulos et al. 2018), [iii] psychosocial consequences in terms of emotional distress, lower self-esteem, depression and anxiety (Johnson et al. 2015; Zilanawala et al. 2015; Antonopoulos et al. 2018), and, [iv]economic consequences within the context of healthcare domain as well as the larger economy (Johnson et al. 2015; Zilanawala et al. 2015; Antonopoulos et al. 2018). Various economic consequences with respect obesity shall include both direct costs like that of diagnostic, preventive, as well as the treatment related services affiliated with obesity, as well as indirect costs like for example the income that of lost due to decrease in productivity, absenteeism, restricted activity, etc. (Douglas et al. 2015a; Douglas et al. 2015b; Zilanawala et al. 2015).
4.4. Research Question #2: What are the effects of obesity to families in the UK? – Results
Obesity in the context of families relates primarily to how family contexts impact the obesity amongst children. In essence, childhood obesity as well as excess weight represent significant form of health issues amongst the individual children, the families of these children, as well as the public health (Vassard et al. 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Ash et al. 2017). The same could lead to serious forms of implications with respect to both mental as well as physical health concerning the child and the same could can then proceed onwards to adulthood (Vassard et al. 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Ash et al. 2017). The trends and statistics with respect to children continuing to experience unhealthy as well as potentially dangerous form of weight levels natural represents serious concern at the national level public health context (Vassard et al. 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Ash et al. 2017). Healthcare professionals shall be required in undertaking significant and critical set of roles that could in a positive manner aid the families for undertaking relevant action. In working along with various professionals / public health affiliated teams, there could be actions which can aid in influencing actions at the level of the population (Vassard et al. 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Ash et al. 2017). The actions over the course of the life of children shall be essential for having critical impact over obesity in childhood as well as enabling positive form of behaviour changes with respect to eating as well as their activities. In this context, the key focus shall be laid upon the following – [i] pre-conception as well as pregnancy, [ii] infancy till the early childhood, [iii] older childhood through adolescence, and [iv] transitions to an independent adulthood (Vassard et al. 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Ash et al. 2017).
In essence, obesity as well as being overweight can be stated to be interlinked with wide ranging set of diseases and most important of these include diabetes [type 2], hypertension, asthma, heart diseases, cancer, and stroke (Vassard et al. 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Ash et al. 2017). In addition, obesity can be noted in being affiliated to poorer forms of emotional / psychological health, poor sleep quality, as well as various children seem to experience bullying that is linked with their weight levels. Further obese children shall be highly likely for becoming obese adults as well as having higher levels of risk concerning mo
idity, premature mortality and disability during their adulthood (Vassard et al. 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Ash et al. 2017).
Some of the key statistics and trends in this context include the following – [i] over one in five children can be noted to be obese / overweight while they start their schooling (Martinson and Reichman 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Vassard et al. 2016), [ii] close to one in three children can be noted to be obese / overweight before they shall finish primary schooling (Martinson and Reichman 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Vassard et al. 2016), [iii] obesity rates seem to be highest amongst those most deprived, that is, 10 per cent of population and the same is almost double of least deprived 10 per cent (Martinson and Reichman 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Vassard et al. 2016), and [iv] The rates of obesity seem to be higher across certain ethnic / minority groups children specifically amongst the Bangladeshi ethnicities, and Black African as well as amongst the children who suffer disabilities specifically those who suffer learning difficulties (Martinson and Reichman 2016; Segar et al. 2015; Vassard et al. 2016).
4.5. Research Question #3: What are the effects of obesity to communities in the UK? – Results
There seems to be strong form of linkage amongst the prevalence of obesity as well as the deprivation in women in terms of the fact that most of the measures illustrate that the lower status at the socioeconomic aspect within the specific community can be stated to be affiliated with greater levels of risks for obesity (Appleton et al. 2017; Koshoedo et al. 2015; Castaneda-Gameros et al. 2018). This pattern can be stated to be less straightforward amongst men as only few of these measures illustrate explicit form of relationship amongst obesity as well as deprivation. In effect obesity can be stated to be strongly affiliated within socioeconomic status concerning the person in a specific community, with prevalence of obesity increasing on account of increased extent of the deprivation faced (Appleton et al. 2017; Koshoedo et al. 2015; Castaneda-Gameros et al. 2018). The said pattern concerning socioeconomic inequalities can be noted in being consistent over varied set of myriad measures concerning deprivation as well as varied data sources inclusive of various studies in this context. The recent studies in this context noted increased levels of risks being affiliated to deprivation being greatest amongst the White children, then followed with Asian, and Other / Mixed ethnic children and interestingly it is noted that the same seems to possess scarce effect amongst Black children (Appleton et al. 2017; Koshoedo et al. 2015; Castaneda-Gameros et al. 2018). The minority ethnic groups seem to possess higher extent of unemployment, face lesser social mobility, possess lower income levels, as well as shall be highly likely for living across the areas with higher deprivation across UK. Across all the age groups, type of family as well as work status of family, people coming from the minority ethnic group shall on an average be highly likely for being within the income poverty as compared to people of White British origins (Appleton et al. 2017; Koshoedo et al. 2015; Castaneda-Gameros et al. 2018).
The poverty rates can be noted to be highest amongst the people who come from Black African, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi and the levels reach close to two thirds amongst Bangladeshi community (Davidson et al. 2018; Frankenfeld et al. 2015; Koshoedo et al. 2015). In addition, these trends can be higher than that of average amongst the Chinese, Indian, Cari
ean, Indian, as well as various minority group household. More than half of the children coming from the Black African, Bangladeshi, and Pakistani groups seem to be growing up experiencing poverty (Davidson et al. 2018; Frankenfeld et al. 2015; Koshoedo et al. 2015). Some of the migrant groups can be noted to be...
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