Great Deal! Get Instant $10 FREE in Account on First Order + 10% Cashback on Every Order Order Now

Attached you will find a number of errors that needs to be corrected according to page 3 of the DCA (CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW) Continue to work on all feedback provided up to this point including...

1 answer below »

Attached you will find a number of errors that needs to be corrected according to page 3 of the DCA (CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW)

Continue to work on all feedback provided up to this point including anything received from your URM this next week. I will do a final review in week 8. I have some additional comments in work and the DCA attached here.

Update the following throughout in addition. I’m seeing several instances:

Please adhere to APA Level Headings 3 and 4

Use headings per dissertation alignment guide and dissertation template

Paragraphs should be 3-5 sentences per APA

Avoid ‘the researcher’ and similar language

Avoid personification

Ensure all statements from literature are cited

I’m not understanding the level of headings, use dissertation alignment guide as a guideline throughout

Avoid pronouns

Everything should be synthesized not summarized

What you have in the literature review for the bulk of the work looks good and appears to be all information that would go under the heading Current Literature. I'm not seeing a Historical Literature section (must be older than 5 years). Again see the dissertation alignment guide ok.

Please make this a good one my approval depends on it.

Answered 6 days After Jun 13, 2022


Ishika answered on Jun 17 2022
87 Votes
A Consensus Review of Strategies and Techniques Using Best Practices to Increase Summer Reading Growth
Gretchen Carte
Copyright 2021
A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Educational Leadership
University of Phoenix
Table of Contents
Introduction    1
Background of the Problem    2
Problem Statement    4
Purpose of the Study    5
Population and Sample    6
Significance of the Study    7
Nature of the Study    7
Research Questions    9
Conceptual Framework    10
Definition of Terms    12
Delimitation    15
Limitation    15
Chapter Summary    16
Chapter 2    18
Literature Review    18
Reading and Leisure    18
Summer Reading Loss    19
Summer Programs    20
Role of Government    22
READS strategy    24
Teachers’ Methodologies    25
Reading and Leisure    26
Role of the Li
ary    28
Motivation for Reading    29
Environmental Support    30
Importance of Reading    31
Impact of Reading    32
Supplemental Reading Program    33
Reading Assessment and Feedback    34
Ukraine Managing Reading Loss    35
Student-based Reading Skills Promotion    36
Innovative Strategies to Prevent Summer Reading Loss    38
Public and Neighborhood Li
ary Interventions    39
Role of Demographical and Economic aspect    40
Closing the Reading Loss Gap    41
Digitizing Reading Habits    43
References    48
Appendix A    54
Summer reading growth is essential for students to sustain skills and knowledge acquired during the previous academic season. Students experience a loss in mathematics, but economically disadvantaged students face a more considerable loss in reading (Bowers & Schwarz, 2017). The academic achievement gap is a significant problem in the United States. Summer learning loss adds to an academic achievement gap (Seawright, 2017). Summer learning loss occurs at a traditional middle school in the southwestern United States (Beach et al., 2018). Comprehension is a significant part of the learning curve. According to research, children who engage in summer reading initiatives enhance their reading comprehension and, therefore, perform better in academic subjects than those who do not engage in such an initiative (Bowers & Schwarz, 2017). The Southwest school district has provided unlimited resources for literacy development throughout the summer. However, the case under study still experiences summer learning loss among its students, even with the emphasis placed on literacy.
This chapter provides the background and implications of academic summer school reading programs for elementary school students with explicit stress on a summer cu
iculum hosted by a Southwest school district. The subject of summer reading programs and their impact on tutorial performance in reading is mentioned as relevant to the planned study. The problem, providing the premise for the study, the statement of purpose, guiding analysis questions, and the nature of the study are confe
ed during this chapter. The chapter concludes with an announcement of significance and a presentation of relevant terms.
Background of the Problem
Educators have noticed that children from low-socioeconomic backgrounds experience significant gaps in learning during the summer months compared to their peers. Furthermore, the gaps will only widen over time (Campbell et al., 2019). The summer reading setback accounts for about 80% of the reading achievement difference, contributing to this disparity (Campbell et al., 2019). Children accelerate at the same rate of learning during the school year. As a group, the reading achievement of low-socioeconomic students typically declines during the summer vacation period, while the reading achievement of children from more economically advantaged families holds steady or increases modestly. Extended vacations from formal education take students away from the classroom's regular learning blueprint and into a period when they are less likely to participate in official literacy programs (Chin et al., 2020).
Parents reading with their children, plus the availability and use of reading resources, are all part of a healthy home literacy environment. Different degrees of parental participation in a home learning environment and a child's lack of participation with texts during a prolonged vacation might help evaluate probable variables leading to summer reading setbacks (Chin et al., 2020). Reading declines in early elementary grades show that, despite significant reading gains established in kindergarten and first grade, the summer session between first and second grade is particularly problematic for students who do not have opportunities to engage with reading during summer recess (Seawright, 2017). The lasting impact of low reading abilities in early grades is associated with low, middle, and high school achievement. Therefore, the implications of reading loss must be addressed (Beach et al., 2018). Comprehensive information for parents through a user-friendly guide is the most appropriate method to address this issue.
Summer reading loss is well documented and is more persistent among students from low-socioeconomic backgrounds who are already at risk for academic failure (de Groot, 2021). Declines in academic achievement during summer
eak are more prevalent and consistent for students from low socioeconomic backgrounds than students from middle and higher socioeconomic classes (Campbell et al., 2019). Over time, the
each amplifies and leads to an achievement gap among students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. This issue has caused policymakers, school districts, and other stakeholders throughout the United States to debate formal year-round education for elementary and middle school students (Seawright, 2017).
In a typical school calendar, summer
eak for students averages 12 weeks (about three months); this equates to a significant length of time when the educational process is inte
upted. During this time away from the structure and reinforcements of the regular school day, home and family variables have influenced reading growth or regression in young students (Campbell et al., 2019). For example, in a 12-week layoff, early learners who lack access to print with little opportunity to read the text at their independent levels will often experience regression in fluency and comprehension skills (Hillier, 2021). This regression is often seen in students from disadvantaged homes (McDaniel et al., 2017).
Many parents from higher socioeconomic backgrounds provide reading enrichment and continuous learning for their children during the summer (Beach et al., 2018). Students who do not continuously learn throughout the summer could lose up to three months of reading progress, setting them further behind for the new academic school year (Campbell et al., 2019). Summer vacation inequalities in educational opportunities and outcomes lead to uneven learning gains (Seawright, 2017). Limited book access, difficulties self-selecting books, the school calendar, socioeconomic status, and the amount of information retained over the summer are all reasons for student reading digressions (Capotosto, 2019). Further investigation is needed to explore strategies to keep students engaged in reading growth throughout the summer to prevent reading growth loss in the Southwest rural, low-socioeconomic school district.
There is no consensus in the research literature regarding the best strategies and techniques used to increase summer reading growth. In addition, there are no available research studies regarding effective practices to increase summer reading growth. This study addresses the gap in literature and aims to determine effective practices for closing the academic achievement gap that occurs during the summer within this school district.
Problem Statement
The problem is the academic achievement gap that occurs during the summer within this school district resulting in one month’s worth of school year of declined achievement scores (Attebe
y & McEachin, 2016). Proponents of the faucet theory believe literacy gaps occur during the summer (McDaniel et al., 2017). Despite continued measures to close the achievement gap over the past decades, considerable disparities remain. On average, summer vacations produce an annual achievement gap of approximately three months between wealthy and poor students, biasing the students from the more economically advantaged families (Alexander et al., 2001). Higher-income students have the advantage of continued learning through vacation experiences and summer programming (Morgan et al., 2019).     
Summer reading loss has been documented and is more tenacious among pupils from poor socioeconomic conditions who are already at risk of academic failure (Laurie et al., 2019). An academic analyst examined 13 epidemiological findings involving approximately 40,000 schoolchildren and discovered that, on average, the reading competency status of the pupils from lower-income households declined significantly during the summer season. In contrast, the reading competency levels of schoolchildren from middle-income households were enhanced (Capotosto, 2019).
The availability of reading materials has long been recognized as a factor in differential reading development since students from low-income families frequently lack access to a home li
ary and therefore do not have the required study material. Primary school reading slides reveal that despite massive reading improvements in preschool and kindergarten, summer activity between first and second grade is incredibly stressful for children, especially for children who do not have ways to be involved in reading throughout their summer
eak (Nicholson & Tiru, 2019). Because poor reading in early elementary is related to lower high school attainment, the long-term consequences of reading decline must be acknowledged (McDaniel et al., 2017). Moreover, since no effective practices and strategies are available to close this summer reading loss gap completely, this e-Delphi study is being conducted.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this qualitative e-Delphi study is to gain consensus from a panel of education professionals on practical strategies and techniques to increase summer reading growth throughout the summer months in a rural, low-socioeconomic-status school district in southwest. The school district is a small, high-poverty school district in southwest Mississippi. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the efficient steps to sort this study loss problem. For this thorough literature review is conducted as suggested by (Volley, 2020). Understanding the research dedicated to summer reading loss is imperative when identifying ways to close the achievement gap (Volley, 2020). Later, through thorough analysis, suitable parameters to close this issue of summer study loss will be identified along with the strategies for effective implementation. Investigating the predictors of success in reading can improve students' academic achievement (Seawright, 2017).
Population and Sample
The study population and the sample should meet the expertise requirements, including practical communication skills, education and experience on the issues, capacity, and compliance to participate, and enough time to complete the e-Delphi study (Volley, 2020). The sample population will consist of district-level administrators, literacy coaches, instructional coaches, interventionists, and the cu
iculum director.
The sample for this study will be selected based on the following criterion: years in public school education with at least a minimum of ten years of experience as either a state or national board-certified teacher in reading, English, language arts, or English as a Second Language. Sample adequacy in qualitative inquiry pertains to the suitability of the sample configuration and size (Nicholson & Tiru, 2019). The sample size guidelines suggested a range between 15 and 20 interviews be adequate. The more useable data is collected from each person, the fewer participants are needed (Nodeland & Mo
is, 2018).
This e-Delphi study will consist of a sample size of 12 to 15 that should provide satisfactory results (Nodeland & Mo
is, 2018). The minimum number of participants is dependent on the study design (Beach &TragaPhilippakos, 2020). To achieve data saturation, a predetermined sample size of 12–15 education experts within the rural Southwest school district will be interviewed. If saturation is not achieved with the 15 participants, the researcher will go beyond this number if needed (Sampson, 2019).
Significance of the Study
The significance of this proposed study will provide district leaders with guidance in deciding whether summer enrichment programs are contributory to reducing summer reading growth loss in at-risk middle school students from one scholastic year to the next.
Reaching a consensus regarding effective practices will be a foundation for developing the best strategies for program development. This study will identify different domains to help mitigate summer reading growth loss by interviewing education experts. This research can help cu
iculum directors and school district leaders develop a common framework for a summer program design to increase summer reading growth (O’Connell, 2020).
Nature of the Study
Qualitative research is practical and allows the researcher to create a grounded theory design based on experiences to organize the study. Qualitative research explains how to apply instruments and collect data (Volley, 2020), while quantitative data provides the figures to support the study's
oad general conclusions. Qualitative data provides the description and scope required to comprehend their ramifications fully. Understanding the disparities between these methodologies is critical to getting the highest outcomes from them in the questionnaires (Olsen et al., 2019).
In comparison to other qualitative approaches, the Delphi method emphasizes organized anonymized interaction among individuals with competence on a specific subject to get a consensus in sectors such as practice, organizational decision-making, and policy (Pinho et al., 2020). Even though there are methodological guidelines in the literature for utilizing the Delphi technique with quantitative data, there is much less direction for those who want to use the Delphi technique with only qualitative data. Due to its reliance on questionnaires and digital information gathering, the Delphi technique is appropriate for developing practice theory in public and organizational settings, which assists in maintaining study costs as low as possible (Sampson, 2020).
By analyzing themes and patterns among participants, the goal is to reach a consensus regarding effective practices for increasing summer reading growth throughout the summer months in a rural school district in southwest Mississippi. Since the cu
ent E-Delphi method relies on examining an issue to understand that multiple viewpoints are incorporated and valued (Beach &TragaPhilippakos, 2020). The Delphi method allows the researcher to ask experts to respond several times to a particular problem to reach a consensus about an issue (Sampson, 2020) it is appropriate than the other available research designs. Along with this, the E-Delphi research design is suitable because the problem can be visibly defined using a panel of education professionals to forecast the future of mitigating summer reading loss as mentioned by (Schmitt et al., 2019).
The panel of education experts will be contacted via Survey Monkey, an internet program, to solicit and obtain a consensus from a panel of education experts. Researchers will use qualitative data analysis software instead of manual analysis to efficiently and effectively organize the data used in research today (Sampson, 2020). NVivo is a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software used to determine themes. This software implements an electronic way of expediting data grouping, sorting, and marking text to form descriptions (Schmitt et al., 2019).
A diverse group will share knowledge and opinions on strategies and techniques to increase summer reading growth. The e-Delphi method provides versatility in educational research (Sampson, 2020). In addition, the e-Delphi process allows education expert panels to provide context for a problem when there is a lack of literature (Schmitt et al., 2019).
In contrast to other qualitative research designs such as ethnography, which presents a past perspective, and case study, which provide a contemporary viewpoint, e-Delphi offers a future view (O'Connell, 2020). Ethnography gathers observations, interviews and documentary data design to produce detailed and comprehensive accounts of different social phenomena. The ethnographic research is most suitable for this qualitative study because the process includes surveys for data collection, rounds of research questioning based on the pilot study for data analysis and designing of new strategies, along with modification of the scheme.
Research Questions
Students lose academic growth attained during the school months on summer
eak (Beach &TragaPhilippakos, 2020). The research question that will guide the foundation of this study is the prevalence of summer reading loss among students who are not exposed to or encouraged to read at home or in summer programs when school is not in session.
RQ1: What is summer reading loss?
SQ2: What is the consensus of a panel of education professionals in identifying effective strategies to address reading loss deficiencies?
Conceptual Framework
The Conceptual Framework of this dissertation represents how the author will explore the problem and is affiliated with qualitative research (Laureate Education, 2016). The conceptual basis for this study is social learning theory and faucet theory. Some scholars advocated incorporating existing theories into the design of a conceptual framework (O’Connell, 2020). First, the author identifies this study's conceptual framework, which will be used to complete a program evaluation (Ayers, 2011). The Conceptual Framework helps understand what government interventions were taken and how external partners participated in the programs (Hall, 2022). Program mediators and program components will measure the summer programs and their impact on children's learning curve. Social learning theory informs the study by explaining human behavior through continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. Social learning theory frames this study by explaining how children imitate modeled behavior by observing others, the environment, and the mass media (Sampson, 2020). At the same time, the faucet theory informs the study by expounding on how children access learning and reading materials during the academic year.
Faucet Theory
According to the theory, children from low socioeconomic families perform poorly academically compared to children from middle-class and wealthy families while focusing on differences in schools and home environments (Beach &TragaPhilippakos, 2020). Students have access to quality programs, educators, support, and enrichment during school. However, when students are not in school during the summer months, the flow of resources is turned off, leaving economically disadvantaged students particularly vulnerable to summer learning loss (Sampson, 2020). In addition, U.S. students living in poverty regress over the summer
eak in the skills and knowledge gained during the school year.     A researcher researched the faucet theory to create an enrichment, literacy-focused program that made summer learning equitable for students (O'Connell, 2020). As a result, the school turned on the faucet of resources, and students' literacy growth was encouraged during the summer months (O'Connell, 2020). The "faucet theory" can explain seasonal patterns. Once school had been in session, the asset faucet had been turned on for every student, and everyone acquired it equitably; when the education system was not in session, the asset faucet had been turned off. During the summers, families from low socioeconomic backgrounds were unable to compensate for the assets provided by the school, and their children's accomplishments plateaued or even declined. On the other hand, middle-class family members could compensate for the school's assets to a considerable extent, allowing their children's pace of growth, albeit at a slower rate (Sampson, 2020).
Social Learning Theory
Several scholars based their research on Albert Bandura's social learning theory from a social context to understand how social learning theory can manifest in a specific format in higher education (Sampson, 2020). Social learning theory (SLT) consists of four steps: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation (Beach &TragaPhilippakos, 2020). Social learning theory defines the dynamics of a relationship between the model and observer. Anyone's behavior directly results from cognitive processes and the environment through social circumstances and events. For example, children observe actions in their environment and mimic the actions that contribute to reading growth lost during the summer (Sampson, 2020).
Social modeling and illustrations are highly effective educational tools. When children see the beneficial results of an activity, they are more likely to perform that activity themselves. If they see adverse implications, they are more likely to refrain from engaging in that behavior. Distinctive, new, and diverse situations frequently pique students' interests and make them stand out (Olsen et al., 2019). Students are more inclined to listen if they see certain students paying close attention.
Consequently, teachers employ punishment and reward systems to enable students to learn from the illustrations of others. Social learning theory has a solid foundation in promoting self-efficacy through constructive feedback. Children who receive positive reinforcement have general confidence in themselves and their abilities; this stands out in their minds, and they want to repeat this behavior (Nicholson & Tiru, 2019).
Definition of Terms
Achievement Gap. There is a statistically significant disparity in academic achievement between students grouped according to their race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and gender (Laurie, 2022).
Faucet Theory. It describes the phenomenon of a lack of resources for children from economically disadvantaged homes (Nicholson and Tiru, 2019).
Learning loss. Specific or general loss of knowledge and skills or reversals in academic progress, most commonly due to extended gaps or discontinuities in a student’s education (Beach and TragaPhilippakos, 2020).
Socioeconomic status (SES).Measures of social group prestige, typically based on income and education (Nicholson and Tiru, 2019).
Summer reading loss. Children’s reading development deteriorates during summer vacation when children are absent from the classroom and do not engage in formal literacy programs (Chin et al. 2020).
Summer slide, summer setback, or summer drift. Describes learning loss that occurs during
eaks from school (Hillier, 2021).
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations
Participating in an e-Delphi study provides panel experts with an occasion to express their opinions and knowledge (Chin et al. 2020). In addition, the e-Delphi study enables panel members to revise their ideas and thoughts after examining responses to align with the group's ideas (Beach et al. 2020). An assumption is that all participants will answer honestly. Therefore, participants' honesty is assumed when answering survey questions about strategies and techniques to increase summer reading growth. Moreover, this study illustrates that the measurement instruments used to collect data are valid and reliable.
Furthermore, the meaning of this study is rooted in the participants' experiences and has limited generalizability. The findings have limited generalizability as they can only be implemented in a constricted demography and a particular instance (Hillier, 2021). All the students in the sample are representative of the total population of middle school students that attend a rural, low-socioeconomic school in the Southwest Finally, this study assumes the faucet theory, the belief that the inte
uption of learning and the lack of resources cause loss of academic skills and impact all students (Boulay and McChesney, 2021).
Considering the participants will not know the names of the other panel members because of electronic questionnaires, the pressure of groupthink will not be present. However, the format loses the positive aspects of group interaction (Jordan, 2010). Thus, the first possible limitation of this research is the openness of the participants' opinions and the group's incompetence to reach a consensus. Another potential limitation of the participants involved in the study may not represent the population (McDaniel et al. 2017).
The researcher will use the e-Delphi method and an expert panel of education professionals who cu
ently serve as district leaders in the targeted school. These professionals meet expertise requirements, including practical communication skills, familiarity with and knowledge of the issues, capacity, willingness to participate, and enough time to participate in the e-Delphi study (Hillier, 2021).
The selection of 12–15 participants is based upon expertise and experience in cloud computing security and is restricted to security strategies that focus on data security and privacy. Participants who have a minimum of ten years of experience as either state or national board-certified in reading, English, language arts, or English as a Second Language qualify for participation in the study (McDaniel et al. 2017). To ensure transferability, the researcher will use a solid description of the participant backgrounds and research process, which will help with study outcomes. The research findings may be applicable and transferable across the named district. However, transferability is left to the reader based on a detailed description of the participants, methodology, and results (Nicholson and Tiru, 2019).
The research is limited to the reading loss attained by students during summer
eak. The deceleration of academic growth is affected by multiple factors, and reading loss is one among them. For the present research, the research objective is restricted to summer reading loss as one of the reasons for slow academic growth. The study does not cover parental intervention, equal opportunities for education, discrimination based on caste, color, race, religion, the efficiency of teachers, effectiveness of the education system, parents' income level, the economic environment in the country, and government policies, etc. To keep it focused and get results, the scope of research...

Answer To This Question Is Available To Download

Related Questions & Answers

More Questions »

Submit New Assignment

Copy and Paste Your Assignment Here