M answered on
May 20 2020
National Culture 11
IMPORTANCE OF UNDERSTANDING THE NATIONAL CULTURE IN A BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT; WITH REFERENCE TO AUSTRALIA, AFRICA, AND PAKISTAN
The Name of the Class (Course)
The Name of the School (University)
The City and State where it is located
Gjuraj (2013) mentions that each nation has distinct culture that defines them but also has some relatable or sharing cultures between nations. It is important to study cultures of different nations singly as well as compare and contrast with each other in order to build an effective and successful business. Geert Hofstede has categorised dimensions into six elements while describing a nation’s culture; power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, long-term orientation versus short-term orientation, and indulgence versus restraint. Along with these dimensions are the scores ranging from 1 to 120. These scores are developed to determine the extent of a character present in the society or nation. The introduction in this paper draws a
ief account of national culture; its definition and characteristics revolving around it, and Hofstede dimensions which is widely used when determining the culture of a nation.
The following second, third and fourth sections draw a more specific insight into the culture of three countries; Australia, Africa and Pakistan. This is done in comparison to the dimensions segregated by Hofstede. Each country is studied and given scores for each dimension. Australia is known to be more individualistic in nature of its culture, masculine, short-term oriented and also prefer indulging in activities of fun and enjoying life. Africa sets a culture of individuals, masculine, preference to an indulgence of funfilled activities, having a more lenient form of living where norms, laws and regulations are not rigid compared to Pakistan and people at the higher level of stratification are considered central. Pakistan culture is collective in nature rather than individualistic, has stringent norms as compared to the other two countries, and is extremely restraint. Comparing and contrasting these scores and deductible cultural characteristics, an image bearing this information is displayed for a more precise understanding.
In conclusion, although Hofstede model has been used by many business industries and organizations, there have been accusations for various reasons. Nevertheless, studies pointed out that it is important to consider the culture while implementing a project or setting up a business. Management of business in relation to nation’s culture concern is must to reach the goal of success. Thus Hofstede dimensions provide a view into the culture of one nation while keeping in mind the other cultures that may influence a business. To scrutinize the culture at a national, multinational and transnational level is highly recommended by existing studies and can be read more elaborately in the following sections.
‘Culture is the collective programming of the mind that distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from others’ (Hofstede, G. 2009). It is a socially constructed phenomenon that is not inherited genetically but is socially passed down from one generation to another (Gjuraj, E. 2013). The values, norms, and ways of living that build and binds a society can hence be related in the context of a historical condition, geographical space or region and the climatic conditions. A culture at a national level is further subdivided into inte
egional cultures as departments and regional units. The discourse on the problems of culture has drawn the attention of researchers and organizations. Setting goals in tandem with the problems to tackle these has been the focus. The study of culture cannot be separated from the career of individuals and organizational goals (Gjuraj, E. 2013). According to Osland (1990) as cited by Study Moose (2016), ‘the single greatest ba
ier to business success is the one erected by culture’. Hence, In order to operate projects at a national, multinational or transnational level, any business corporations need to be aware of the culture that runs along a particular region or nation in concern.
To further understand the national culture, Geert Hofstede’s six cultural dimensions has become a paradigm to compare between cultures which can be studied for a deeper understanding of the topic. These dimension includes Power Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism/Collectivism, Masculinity/Femininity, Long/Short-Term Orientation, and Indulgence/Restraint (Hofstede, G. 2009). He proposed a grading system scale which ranges from 1 to 120.
1. Power Distance: refers to the extent of acceptance of human inequality by a less powerful member of an institution. The less power score would signify that a particular culture expects and accepts that members are seen as equals. However, if the power score is high, it would mean that the members accept and agree to the hierarchal system and positions.
2. Uncertainty Avoidance: It describes the tolerance and stress level in a society in the face of an unknown future, and uncertainty and change. More score would mean that the society is less tolerant of the change and uncertainty, and hence tries to minimize the stress by implementing rigid rules and regulations. On the other hand, less score would mean the society is more tolerant to change and uncertainties, hence more lenient.
3. Individualism versus Collectivism: It refers to the extent of integration of individuals into groups; individualist societies prioritize individual goals to collective goals, while collectivist societies value the goals of a group over individuals.
4. Masculinity versus Femininity: Those societies that score high have a wider difference between genders and hence place a lesser value to building equal...