I need 2 responses to each student discussion board post with references.
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XXXXXXXXXXMartha Espino-Alvarado XXXXXXXXXXWeek 2 Discussion Collapse
I found an article that showed the importance of cultural dilemas in stakeholder negotiations and conflict resolution by describing three different negotiating cultures presenting a specific case showcasing one of the cultures.
The article's title is From "Good day" to "Sign here": Norm Shaping Negotiations Within a Face Culture
The three cultures identified were Dignity, Honor and Face.
Dignity: Includes Western Europeans and North Americans (excluding Mexico), freedom and equality are highly valued.
Honor: Includes the Middle East and Latin America, trustworthiness, warmth, not being preyed on by others, protection of self and family are highly valued.
Face: Includes East and South East Asia, collectivism, social responsibility, respect for tradition and honoring of elders are highly valued.
From there it emphasized differences between Dignity and Face cultures. Dignity is more individualistic , their strategy is more direct sharing of information, straight forward, less reliant on context clues and very high trust. Face is more collectivist, their strategy is being more discreet when expressing thoughts and emotions, there is also indirect sharing of information, they use a strict hierarchy and value status and power.
After that, it gave more details on Face culture and their specific strategies when negotiating in and out of their culture. It turns out, negotiations are done in the same manner either way.
The article presented a case on wage negotiations between labor and management at a beverage company in the Phillipines. Both sides used a competetive strategy that used power plays and threats. Since there is low trust in negotiations this tactic is acceptable and viewed as cautious. An example of this is management starting with offering low wages and labor starting at the very top. Their sense of community is high and is shown in the terms they use. Kapwa means "fellow" or refers to a shared identity. Pakikisama is a value that includes getting along with others, often direct insults are ignored and left for a person with more power to intercede and right the situation without disrupting the harmony in the community. As negotiations were in progress the hierarchical structure was respected. Labor refered to management as boss or sir while management refered to labor as pare "buddy" or brother. At the top were the direct owners or third parties with power that were present to keep harmony if need be. When tension got high both sides used humor to diffuse the situation. In this way they were able to attack each other while still saving face.
The negotiations went on for months and even though there was conflict, they resolved it by remaining goal oriented and respecting their core strategies. Although they were opponents they continued to view themselves as a collective group. They showed respect for authority and and made efforts to maintain harmony. The appropriate use of these strategies equaled succesful negotiating.
Teng‐Calleja, M., Baquiano, M. J., & Montiel, C. J XXXXXXXXXXFrom 'Good day' to 'Sign here': Norms Shaping Negotiations Within a Face Culture. Negotiation & Conflict Management Research, 8(4), XXXXXXXXXXdoi:10.1111/ncmr.12060
XXXXXXXXXXThe Culture of our Medical System Collapse
Nutrition has been a passion of mine for many years. My personal belief and truth are that we can all heal from proper diet and exercise. However, there is always a time and a place for medication. The controversial article, “An ethical dilemma for doctors: When is it OK to prescribe opioids?” describes the culture within the medical system. The stakeholders are of course pharmaceutical companies and pain patients.
Opioids are now being prescribed like candy, which raises many concerns such as, “Opioid therapy also comes with significant costs – the risk of addiction and the potential for drowsiness, constipation, nausea and other side effects” (Rieder, Research Scholar, & Berman Institute of Bioethics, XXXXXXXXXXDoesn’t that sound like fun?
The article also suggests, “Our expectation of powerful pain relief is part of the cultural backdrop of the epidemic” (Rieder, XXXXXXXXXXInstead of utilizing alternative methods such as yoga, meditation, reiki therapy, and nutrition, the culture of the medical system is “take two and call me in the morning”.
The medical field suggests that natural methods take too much time, but in my opinion, a quick fix is not always the solution. The long-term effects of medication can be damaging to the body’s organs, not to mention the side effects that will need medication management as well.
I worked as a social worker for many years, and there were more times than I can count that the medical system did more harm than good to our members. When one of our members went to their Primary Care Physician for relief, it almost always was a downward spiral that led to their death.
The resolution within this article comes down to doctors being more careful when prescribing opioids. They will have to manage their patients better and have a plan on how to slowly stop the drug as soon as the pain subsides. The article states the resolution is, “In short, clinicians must prescribe opioids only when appropriate, employing nonopioid pain management strategies when indicated” (Rieder, 2018).
Rieder, T. N., Research Scholar, & Berman Institute of Bioethics. (2018, July 18). An ethical dilemma for doctors: When is it OK to prescribe opioids? Retrieved from http://theconversation.com/an-ethical-dilemma-for-doctors-when-is-it-ok-to-prescribe-opioids-84114