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Assessment Task One Guideline Applied Business Research Methods Due: Class Week 4.5 Type: Business Research Methods Evaluation Value of Assessment: 30% Rationale for Assessment: This assessment offers...

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Assessment Task One Guideline
Applied Business Research Methods                    
Due:                        Class Week 4.5
Type:                        Business Research Methods Evaluation
Value of Assessment:            30%
Rationale for Assessment:
This assessment offers learners the opportunity to demonstrate that they have gained understandings, critical and analytical skills that relate to learning outcomes 1- Differentiate common research methodologies applied in business and professional business advising (Range - Quantitative & Qualitative, Mixed Methods Model, Action and Appreciative Inquiry methods) and 2 - Critically evaluate a range of action and appreciative inquiry based business research project literature. Learners are required in this assessment to differentiate major methodological schools of research thought and practice, analyse action and appreciative inquiry research methodology and critically evaluate samples of action and appreciative inquiry based research literature. .
Guidelines for Assessment:
In this assessment Learners are required to exhibit the capacity to: differentiate major schools of research methodological thought; analyse action and appreciative inquiry research methods and evaluate action and appreciative inquiry based research project papers. The above assessment task is designed to form the basis for choosing one of these research methods for a research and ethics proposal and the topic or question focus of Assessment Task Two.
Core requirements the Assessment must include are set out below:
1. Review class notes, designated readings and preparatory activities and formative assessment task learning.
1. Formulate an Evaluation Format that includes the following section headings:
Introduction; Differentiation of the three Major Research Approaches; Critical Evaluation of Action Research Papers; Critical Evaluation of Appreciative Inquiry Research Papers; Reflection on Potential Research Project Foci, Summative Conclusion and References.
XXXXXXXXXXWord limit excluding references (1200 to 1800 words)
Marking Criteria
Marks may be awarded as set out below.
    Assessment Requirements
    Available Marks
    1. Introduction
(Up to one mark maybe awarded for clarity of the introduction and ‘evaluation’ purpose).
    1. Differentiation of the three Major Research Approaches
(Up to two mark maybe awarded for the clarity and accuracy of the differentiations of each of the three major schools of research thought)
    1. Critical Evaluation of Action Research Papers
(Up to one mark maybe awarded for the accurate identification, analysis, articulation and future inferences drawn from evaluating the Action Research papers)
    1. Critical Evaluation of Appreciative Inquiry Research Papers (Up to one mark maybe awarded for the accurate identification, analysis, articulation and future inferences drawn from evaluating the Appreciative Inquiry Research papers)
    1. Reflection on Potential Research Project Foci
(Up to one mark maybe awarded for the reflection on the literature reviewed, additional case study material examined, analysis of the meanings drawn from these sources and identification of a ‘valuable research project topic and /or question for applied investigation)
    1. Summative Conclusion
(Up to two marks maybe awarded for the accurate insights and articulation of the Evaluation outcomes for the Learner)
    1. References
(Up to one mark maybe awarded for accuracy and completeness of the reference section purpose).
Note to Assessor: Assessor should be informed by the generic Marking Ru
ic-Performance Criteria in the Learner Programme Handbook.
Recommended Readings
See required readings and handouts given in classes

Comparison of Environmental Impact of Plastic, Paper and Cloth Bags

Providing research and information services to the Northern Ireland Assembly
Research and Li
ary Service
Briefing Note
Paper 36/11 23 Fe
uary 2011 NIAR 139-11
Kirsty Bell and Suzie Cave
Comparison of Environmental
Impact of Plastic, Paper and
Cloth Bags
This Briefing Note looks at the environmental impact of different types of ca
ier bags- cloth,
paper and plastic. Their impact is compared based on four categories: decomposition, the
manufacturing process, their reusability and their recyclability.
1. Decomposition

Paper Bags
Research demonstrates that paper in landfills does not degrade or
eak down at a
substantially faster rate than plastic does. In fact, nothing completely degrades in
modern landfills because of the lack of water, light, oxygen and other important
elements that are necessary for the degradation process to be completed. A paper bag
takes up more space than a plastic bag in a landfill, but because paper is recycled at a
higher rate, saving space in landfills is less of an issue.1

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NIAR XXXXXXXXXXPlastic, Paper and Cloth Bags
Providing research and information services to the Northern Ireland Assembly 2
Plastic Bags
It can take between 400 and 1000 years for plastic bags to decompose. A number of UK
etailers have recently introduced degradable ca
ier bags. These bags are made from
plastic which degrades under certain conditions or after a predetermined length of time.
There are two types of degradable plastic: bio-degradable plastics, which contain a small
percentage of non oil-based material, such as corn starch; and photodegradable plastics,
which will
eak down when exposed to sunlight.
There are a number of concerns over the use of degradable plastics. First, these plastics will
only degrade if disposed of in appropriate conditions. For example, a photodegradable
plastic product will not degrade if it is buried in a landfill site where there is no light. Second,
they may cause an increase in emissions of the greenhouse gas methane, as methane is
eleased when materials biodegrade anaerobically.2
2. Manufacturing Process

Paper Bags
It takes more than four times as much energy to manufacture a paper bag as it does to
manufacture a plastic bag. For paper bag production, forests must be cut down (trees are
ers of greenhouse gases) and then the subsequent manufacturing of bags
produces greenhouse gases. The majority of paper bags are made by heating wood chips
under pressure at high temperatures in a chemical solution. The use of these toxic
chemicals contributes to both air pollution, such as acid rain, and water pollution. These
chemicals can pollute waterways; the toxicity of the chemicals is long-term and settles into
the sediments, working its way through the food chain. Further toxicity is generated as
oth plastic and paper bags degrade. Paper bags generate 70% more air and 50 times
more water pollutants than plastic bags.3
It would take approximately seven lo
ies to transport the same number of paper bags as
can be transported by a single lo
y full of plastic bags.4
Plastic Bags
Plastics are produced from the waste products of oil refining. An analysis of the life cycle
of plastic bags includes consideration of the environmental impacts associated with the
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NIAR XXXXXXXXXXPlastic, Paper and Cloth Bags
Providing research and information services to the Northern Ireland Assembly 3
extraction of oil, the separation of products in the refining process, and the manufacturing
of plastics. The total environmental impact depends upon the efficiency of operations at
each stage and the effectiveness of their environmental protection measures.5
Their manufacture can add many tons of ca
on and other toxic chemicals into the
atmosphere6 It takes around 2 billion ba
els of oil to service the plastic bag industry
alone.7 However, plastics are cu
ently made from a by-product of oil or natural gas. It
could be argued that this by-product arises because the world needs fuels, and would
arise whether or not the by-product were used to make plastic goods. Until other fuels
have been developed, it makes good environmental sense to use the by-product, instead
of using scarce agricultural resources and water to make paper or cloth bags or vegetable-
ased plastic.8
Cloth Bags
Cloth Bags are much thicker and more expensive. 30,000 cotton bags can be packed into a
20-foot container, but the same container will accommodate 2.5 million plastic ca
Therefore, to transport the same number of jute or cotton bags 80x more ships and lo
would be required than for plastic bags, using 80x more fuel, using 80x more road space and
emitting 80x more CO2.9
3. Reusability
Plastic Bags
Plastic Bags can be made very thin, and are still strong enough to ca
y a full load of heavy
shopping. A plastic bag can ca
y 2,500 times its own weight and stay strong when wet.
The bags can also be re-used many times over for shopping, and are compact enough to be
put in a pocket or handbag. They are also put to many other uses in the home, and for other
uses such as clearing dog-waste from the streets, and most of them will eventually serve as
a bin-liner to safely collect and dispose of household waste.10

Reusable plastic bags (the so-called ‘bags for life’) are more sustainable than all types of
lightweight plastic ca
ier bags if used four times or more. They give the greatest
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NIAR XXXXXXXXXXPlastic, Paper and Cloth Bags
Providing research and information services to the Northern Ireland Assembly 4
environmental benefits over the full lifecycle.11 Tesco reward customers with one ‘Green’
Clubcard point for every bag re-used, even if it isn’t one of their bags.12

According to the Welsh Assembly Government, The Environment Agency completed a study
into the environmental impacts of types of ca
ier bags. The study concluded that for a paper
ag to have the same impact on the environment as a plastic bag it would need to be used at
least 4 times; however, most paper bags would not be durable enough to be used 4 times.13
Cloth Bags

Cloth Bags can be reused many times. However, cloth bags are not hygienic, like plastic
ags. Research by Guelph Chemical Laboratories in Canada in 2008 Microbiological Study
of Reusable Grocery Bags4 has shown that "re-usable grocery bags can become an active
microbial habitat and a
eeding-ground for bacteria, yeast, mould, and coli forms."14
4. Recyclability
Paper Bags
It takes 91% less energy to
Answered Same Day May 28, 2020 DBA708


Akansha answered on Jun 04 2020
136 Votes
Paper DBA 708Applied Business Research Methods
Paper DBA 708Applied Business Research Methods

) (
Dhruv patel
Task 1

    NZQA Approved Programme
    Accredited Programme Provide
Facilitator: England Soonalole
Paper: DBA 708 Applied Business Research Methods
Learner Declaration
I Dhruv Patel (Learner’s name) declare that the work in the attached assessment is exclusively my own and that all sources of information used have been acknowledged.
Learner Signature: ________________________ Date: __________
I Dhruv Patel (Learner’s name) give my consent for a copy of this original assessment to be retained by NITT and shared with appropriate external and authorised parties exclusively for moderation purposes to support my ongoing learning.
I understand I will be provided with a copy of this assessment with feedback to support my ongoing learning within 15 working days of assessment submission.
I understand NITT takes no responsibility for lost assessments and that I am advised to appropriately hand in assessments and retain a copy of assessment work.
Learner Signature: ________________________ Date: __________
Note: Assessments handed in after the due date may be penalised, see programme regulations in Learner Programme Handbook.
There are various methods used to collect information or data to get to better strategies that will help for process of decision making in a business. At the start I’ll be discussing about action research and its types which will be followed by quantitative method and appreciative inquiry. This assessment provides a detail understanding of these strategies and is provided by an example of the project I am working as an advisor for my company Prishal Pvt which should expand business and introduce itself in different genres of cleaning industry.
Three major research approaches
Action research
For putting up a research when the process of learning by doing is accepted and is applied which includes present issues, solutions, rate of success in the efforts and if the results are not up to the mark then do it once again is an ‘Action research’ process. While the essence of approach remains the same but this strategy differs from the other basic problem-solving activities that we use on daily basis. ( Classroom Action Research, 2012)
Types of action research
· Traditional action research: This involves the ideas and exercises of field hypothesis, group dynamics, t-groups and clinical model. Usually it inclines towards the conservative structures. (Wiley Online Li
ary, 2010)
· Action learning:
It does involve recreating the structure based bonds amongst the people in social situation and it domain-based. All the partners and people involved are the part of it.
· Collaborative action research: In this case the crux for solution is taken up a group of two individuals who work hand in hand but one leads the group as the lead researcher.
· Identify the problem
First task in action research is the identification of the issue. Basically the process is based on critical problems and their learning’s and solutions. How we going to reach to problem? By asking basic questions and which are answerable easily by the individual such as ‘Why’, ‘What’ and ‘How’. These questions should be very clear and easy to answer for better results and fir identifying the perfect problem.
· Collect the data
Then we come to the second step in the process in which data is collected through various mediums. Data can be different types such as quantitative and qualitative which depends on what data you aiming at. Mostly the business chooses observation and questionnaire forums for the data purpose. But there are many other data sources such as balance sheets, interviews, reports taken in the past and surveys etc.
· Analyze the data
This is the most crucial step of the process in which all the data is filtered through analysis and it comes down to few categories. Then crux of the motive is achieved and which helps in answering the question generated in the first steps.
· Accomplish action planning
After having all the data on the chart and in front of you there may be many possibilities and probabilities. Depending on the circumstances and analysis the management may use the same process and strategies or may change it according to the required solutions or the addressed problems.
· Share the result
The last step consists of giving away the result. Through this result other people taking part in the research might like to put in their point of views and ideas. Through this strategy there may be many new questions arising for further more research and it also affects the attitude of...

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