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assignment on Racism and Crime "Racism and Crime" "Racism and Crime" ( assignment on Racism and Crime Trimester 1 2018 Sabina Uprety Sharma Student ID: GUE2550 HOLMES INSTITUTE )...

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assignment on Racism and Crime
"Racism and Crime"
"Racism and Crime"
assignment on
Racism and Crime
Trimester 1 2018
Sabina Uprety Sharma
Student ID:

Higher-Education Faculty
Assignment Cover Sheet
    Business Research
    Subject Code & Group
    ______HI6008_________ Group XXXXXXXXXXGroup XXXXXXXXXXGgroup XXXXXXXXXXGroup 4
    Ross Brennan
    Assignment Title
    Racism and Crime
    Due Date
    Submission Date
    Contact Details
        Student Name
    Sabina Uprety Sharma
    Telephone No
    Student Email:
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2. This assignment was prepared by me/us specifically and only for this subject. 
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►Student name: ________Sabina U Sharma__________ Signature: _________Sabina___________ 
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    Student Name/s
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    Sabina Uprety Sharma
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    Staff Name
    Business Research
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    Student Name/s
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    Sabina Uprety Sharma
Melbourne - 185 Spring Street, Melbourne Australia 3000, Telephone: +61 3 9662 2055, Facsimile: +61 3 9662 2083
Sydney - Level 6, 91 York Street, Sydney Australia 2000, Telephone: + 61 2 9299 1400, Facsimile: +61 2 9299 0211
Holmes Commercial Colleges (Melbourne) Ltd ABN 50 005 085 585Email:  XXXXXXXXXX Website:
"Racism and Crime"    1
1.    Introduction    3
2.    Project Objective    4
3. Project Scope    4
4.    Literature Review    4
5.    Conclusion    11
6. Reference List    13
7. Appendix    15
1. Introduction
The relationship amid crime and race in the U.S has been the subject of public debate and academic discussion for more than century. The Blacks (African Americans) have more than three times the incarceration rate than their portrayal in a general population. Studies have shown that the high proportion of minority groups in a criminal justice structure is because of to crime rates, socio-economic factors and disproportionate racial discrimination in a criminal justice structure. In the USA, the data related to crime comes from 3 main sources: law implementation agency crime statements, which are composed once-a-month by the FBI and administered yearly as Unified Crime Reports also known as UCR; and Bureau of Statistics composes victimization surveys every six months and are filed per annum. The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) deals with; and self-reporting investigations [needs further explanation] The Unified Crime Report is the main resource of data for official statistics on serious crimes for example killings and homicides, supplemented by information provided by NCVS, Report research reports, the latter as the finest indicator of the actual crime rate of minor crimes such as petty theft and illicit drug abuse. These criminal data collection plans provide criminologists and sociologists with most of the statistical information that analyzes crime and its connection to race. Another type of data is which concerning prison population.
2. Project Objective
This project aims to achieve the following goals:
1) Understand how racism increases crime
2) Establish the role of racism in crime.
3) What challenges do individuals face because of the racism?
3. Project Scope
The project will explicate that the African-American criminal theory must be originated from the life experiences of black people in a stratified, stratified society. Also, the present and past African-American life experiences have shaped a common world outlook, unlike the worldviews that tell white people or other ethnic minorities.
3. Literature Review
Peterson (Peterson, 2012) describes institutionalized racism as a joint failure of organizations to provide professional and appropriate services for colour, culture, or ethnic origin. The considered institutionalized racism expected to be in the process, attitude, and behavior of racial discrimination in specific ethnic groups. Peterson’s conceptualization of institutionalized discrimination was based upon his improper investigation of a murder of Stephen Lawrence, a black boy and died in ethnically motivated attacks on 5 white boys. When he and a friend waited for the bus in the United States and later bled to death, Stephen Lawrence was sta
ed by the boys. Although a small number of suspects testified to police after the incident, it was discovered that inactive efforts were made by the cops to run after the accused and a
est them (Peterson, XXXXXXXXXXTherefore, Peterson investigated the conceivable explanations of this unprofessional act, and he found that police, the prosecutor's office and the court had the prejudice in the handling of the case, as they had done little to trace the evidence, in addition, prosecute the perpetrators. Therefore, the results of this investigation informed McPherson’s verdict that police, prosecutors, and courts institutionalized racism against ethnic and blacks minorities (Peterson, XXXXXXXXXXAlso, (Dixon & Williams, 2014), and other authors also believe that there are structures of sexual racism criminal justice system. Some suggested features include police lop-sided cessation plus hunt duties for ethnic and black subgroup, over-representation of ethnic and blacks subgroups in a prison population, also, insufficient performance of black and ethnic minority workers in the police department, prosecutors and courts. The institutional racism is described by the systemic bias, that is most obvious in discrepancy treatment that numerous ethnic groups take inside a system (Banton, XXXXXXXXXXAlso, the contemporary British study of institutionalized racism explores the manners in which identity and race influence practices of diverse ethnic subgroups due to the discrimination they bear in culture (Banton, XXXXXXXXXXBanton, 2013) believes in a way through which the ethnic subgroups are influenced by their status is through prejudice practices with a criminal justice structure. In the same way, other writers such as (Dyer, 2016), (Perelman, 2017), and (Walsh & Yun, 2011) believe in the presence of indirect and direct forms of the discrimination in an offence justice system that mark ethnic minority practices and show them systems Racism. Police stations in Wales and the United States employ a series of procedures designed to monitor the population to limit an eruption of misconduct and ensure order and law. One common way of monitoring the populace is through utilization of stop as well as search programs so that they can screen individuals for whom they suspect unusual intentions.
Uneven usage of search and cessation: The uneven aiming of ethnic and black’s subgroups in the cessation and search of daily operations is the institutional racism in the offender justice system in Wales and the United States. If necessary, the U.S. and Welsh police stations have the right to discontinue searching personnel before the a
est. Some common search and stop controls that it performs includes Section 60 of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act of 1984 (PACE) and the 1994 Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (CJPOA). The first part of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act is most frequently utilized controls. It allows police to pause and conduct a vehicle search and people to look for the prohibited or stolen substances which can be utilized for the violent purposes. Also, this power can only be exercised when police have sufficient grounds to assume that a person may possess these damaging substances. In contrast, the Section 60 of a “Criminal Justice and Public Order Act” authorizes the police department to stop as well as search persons or vehicles in search of dangerous tools and offensive weapons that may be utilized for the harm without rational suspicion. This ability can be used to anticipate situations where the police have committed violent acts in a specific area. Under this legislation, police can stop searching drivers, vehicles and passengers who may possess te
orist weapons (BELKNAP, XXXXXXXXXXAlso, it has been said that the practice of these stop plus search powers allows discretion to promote discrimination against ethnic and black minorities. For instance, Section I of the Police and Criminal Evidence Act plus Section 60 of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act are both considered disproportionately used by ethnic and black minorities (BELKNAP, XXXXXXXXXXBeklnap believes that it is easier for police to stop searching blacks plus other ethnic subgroups because these minorities are considered very dangerous given their criminal stereotypes. For example, blacks are considered easy to use drugs and violence, while Asians are considered dangerous, belligerent, and te
orists. (Copson, 2015) further explored this stereotyped prejudice against ethnic and black minorities. They investigated the process which led to black humiliation in the late 20th century. In his contention, he believes that media and countries exaggerating black crimes have led to increasing in black security and negative stereotypes they believe to be. Likewise, Perelma believes that police use their judgment rather than evidence in determining which ethnic minors stop plus search. This kind of unprofessionalism shows that the conduct of police power is biased regarding ethnic minorities. In contrast, there is evidence that the overuse of cessation and searches of ethnic and black minorities is not entirely attributable to the institutional racism. For instance, Perelma states that due to modern modifications to modern policing techniques, the utilization of the zero tolerance for policing has increased, which involves all personal circumstances that are considered to be a crime threat. Because such modern policemen are now much inclined to target people living in neglected communities accustomed to above-average offence rates. For example, people who are found to be wandering in the high-crime zones at a time of dubiousness during the daytime are more possible to be identified as suspects and are therefore stopped and investigated by the police. Similarly, these individuals are also much possible to be the ethnic or black minorities, because censorship statistics for different police departments in the United States show that blacks incline to be focused in areas where the crime rate is above average (Walsh & Yun, XXXXXXXXXXSimilarly, (Perelman, 2017) states that geographical spreading of black Americans plus ethnic minorities affects their police experience as they are much likely to reside in police-targeted inner cities to observe criminal activity. As a result, these ethnic and black minorities accounted for a large proportion of suspects who stayed and searched in these unsafe neighbourhoods during the police patrols. Furthermore, most racist complaints about cessation and search are unconfirmed and do not reveal the police’s intentions. For example, (Perelman, 2017) states that people's interpretation of police racism is subjective and may be prejudicial, because although the victim may think that the stop plus search experience is insensitive and racist. Therefore, this subjectivity of the racist concept means that it has multiple interpretations when the police stop using it and search for power. (Perelman, 2017) believes that one reason of why blacks are more possibly to be one of the targets for stopping and searching for conventions is because of their high street crime rate. Therefore, the police have reason to suspect that they are abnormal. Nevertheless, in reply to these disapprovals, according to Dyer, believes that utilization of the zero-tolerance patrolling is a form of indirect discrimination against the ethnic minorities as its intents are biased. Also, it imparts the police a justification to misuse their power by disproportionately aiming blacks as well as other ethnic sections (Dyer, XXXXXXXXXXA race is powerful as well as the transparent lens by which to rethink the relationship amid mass imprisonment plus American democracy. For two causes, it makes sense to introduce the game to the future. First, there is overwhelming racial discrimination in all aspects of the offence
Answered Same Day May 08, 2020 HI6008


Akansha answered on May 13 2020
149 Votes
Racism and Crime
Racism and Crime
Student Name
University Name
Introduction    2
Project Objective    2
Project Scope    2
Literature Review    3
Literature Problems    3
Opportunities    4
Hypothesis    4
Research Questions    5
Primary Question    5
Secondary Questions    5
Research Design and Methodology    5
Qualitative Research    5
Process of Research in steps    5
Approaches to reliability and validity    6
Sampling    6
Sample Size    7
Data Collection Method    7
Variables Specifications    7
Quantitative research    8
Process of the Qualitative Research    8
Research Instrument    8
Approaches to reliability and Validity    8
Sampling    9
Sample Size    9
Data Collection Method    9
Variables Specifications    9
Interviewing and Questionary Design    10
Research Limitations    10
Time Schedule (Research Plan)    11
Conclusion    12
References    14
Through complete research, we adhere to the fundamental rights of human rights, freedom, justice, equity and diversity. The criminal justice system has been designed to ensure that human rights of the rights of human rights are upheld in relation to the right to relate the values ​​and essential rights without regard to caste, gender, race or religion on every caste. This system includes practice and other government agencies such as courts, police, prisons and probation services, which work together to protect all social values ​​and human rights. However, in some cases there was a reason for concern especially about the police force (Cashmore, 2013). This is the main reason, because "most of the policy is controversial and controversial", this essay will particularly show the effect of discrimination on the concept of natural right core, human rights history, Stephen Lawrence case, stop and research, police
utality and criminal justice system.
Project Objective
The purpose of this research is to investigate the evidence and data, through the criminal justice system and information of young black men in large society. By looking at information, we do not accept claims completed by politicians as well as other commentators, in which some black men and 'black communities' were a problem. Most of the time, there seemed to be obstacles for 'problems', racism, surveillance, and problem-making people and people. Black plus minority people experience ethnic issues - they are not problems.
Project Scope
The issue of discussions about racism, crime furthermore justice has started, and we have started looking in this area, whereas in the criminal justice system, there is a growing number of Muslims in the form of over-representing black and minority ethnic people. The main idea of ​​criminal justice is to select the most dangerous person in criminal justice society. They look at the criminals and protect the victims. So that it is safe from crime and society is safe.
Literature Review
Literature Problems
The cu
ent focus and the functioning of crime judiciary and the racism and inequality associated with it are deep roots in the history of the British colonization. Apart from exploiting and enriching history with the enslavement of people around the world - besides the wealth, health and related financial success of this country was not possible. In the US, workers in the U.S created annexation of slavery, eradication, and the criminal justice system, which were criminalized and black communities were stuck at a te
ible rate. The history of slavery and modern education history has been well-established. At the Center for Crime and Justice Research, we are participating in projects aimed at improving and improving certain aspects of the criminal justice system, such as prison conditions and probation practices. However, we are convinced of the long-term prospects of a society in which the history of criminal justice and education has been reduced to books. For years, all criminal reform reformers have rejected the criminal justice of themselves and others. There is a certain degree of pessimism - opportunities for future social change. Here and now, we have done a good job for people caught in the criminal justice system. But racism and inequality experienced by people in the criminal justice system are part of the larger social issues that need to be named. Mainstream debate is not part of racism that exists at the individual and institutional levels. It has not been resolved or fixed.
The literature on the lineage is related to some interconnected and inte
elated issues related to this issue, using the Criminal Justice System to address all domestic violence. Historically, research has been shown that the minorities, especially Kale, are a
ested and sentenced to prison for white equivalents. The number of those claiming that the explanation of these findings is minority discrimination and claims that criminal justice system (CJS) considers minorities to be different. One related work shows that minorities see CJS because it is less or less than fair. Many explanations for this research center on the individual experience of unjust treatment. However, research shown that the disgusting experience can affect the holdings of legitimacy to CJS as well as blacks always have a more negative approach when considering the same objective program as white for those items (Unnever, J. and Ga
idon, S. (2011). Although there is no definition of structural racism, there is an important agreement about its main features. On the initiative of the wider community, the Aspen Institute Routtable, which focuses on attempts to address structural racism in relation to the development of the community, states that "structural racism is the way in which history, public policy, cultural conservatives and norms and institutional practice ethnic hierarchy and unequal racial group findings.
Interpersonal discrimination increases individuals’ risks of offending
There is increasing evidence that international racial discrimination increases the risk of resentment, but the effectiveness of racial discrimination is rarely clear. Many recent studies have pointed out various social and psychological...

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