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1. Choose community solving Era of policing and explain the key focus of this ‘era’ and its strengths and weakness. (refer to the word document that I have attached) 2. Describe and define...

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1. Choose community solving Era of policing and explain the key focus of this ‘era’ and its strengths and weakness. (refer to the word document that I have attached)
2. Describe and define ‘entrapment’, examine its merits and limitations.
3. Describe and explain the PEACE model used to guide an interview with suspects of a crime.
4. Explain the theory of Critical Victimology.
5. Define ‘human trafficking’ and explain the nature and extent of this TOC using reliable sources.
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deadline thursday, 12April XXXXXXXXXXword, harvard references10 references list
Answered Same Day Apr 10, 2020 Swinburne University of Technology


Abr Writing answered on Apr 12 2020
119 Votes


Table of Contents
1.     Choose community solving Era of policing    3
2. Describe and define ‘entrapment’, examine its merits and limitations.    5
3. Describe and explain the PEACE model used to guide an interview with suspects of a crime    6
4. Critical Victimology.    7
5.     Define ‘human trafficking’ and explain the nature and extent of this Transnational Organized Crime using reliable sources.    8
References:    10

Questions and Answers
1.     Choose community solving Era of policing
The main focus of the Community solving era of Policing is to
ing police and citizens (community) together to prevent crimes and solve the problems related to criminal activities. The emphasis of this era was on stopping the crime before its actual occu
ence. The focus of Community solving era of policing is to give community members more control over the quality of life they want. In other words community members join the police and they work in partnership, together towards a common goal of making safer and better place to live. Community solving era of policing can also be known as active democracy.(, 2018)
The community solving Era of policing has more weaknesses than the strengths it offers.
The first and foremost weakness of community solving Era of policing is that reorganization and restructuring of police structure and strategies is not being done. It is the prerequisite for community policing philosophy.
The definition of community is not clear; the researchers are still working to answer the question that “what is community”. The community solving era is facing resistance by middle managers and operational managers because the operational definition of activities is not clear and it is sometimes confused with taking sympathetic approach while dealing with the crime. (, 2018)
The approach also has a weakness of police officials not getting properly trained in the approach being applied while dealing with this philosophy.
This approach has also faced resistance from the police union. The effectiveness of community policing can be explained in a way that it has reduced the fear of crime instead of reducing the actual crime.
Community policing is considered an extra activity by the police officials instead of being considered fundamental activity.
The most important strength of community approach is that it has changed the attitude of community towards police.
This approach reduces fear in community and ready involvement in fighting with the crime gives them the feeling of security. This feeling of security makes the citizens to take part in community service more actively.
The collaboration between the community and police has made it easier to prioritize the problems that are occu
ing and it has also made it easier to deal with these problems.Crime prevention and crime control has been successfully achieved by community and police collaboration.
The community policing approach has effectively made it easier to exchange information between police and community which helps in greater success to fight with the crime and in turn reduce the crime. (, 2018)

2. Describe and define ‘entrapment’, examine its merits and limitations.
As the name suggests entrapment is the act of trapping someone in such a way that he commits the crime which he previously not intended to do. This is the act of government officials and government agents which helps them to catch the criminals by inducing them to commit the crime which they were not previously going to commit (Niwaya, 2018).
Entrapment is used in defense when the criminal gets to know that the government agent has dubiously acted and made him commit the crime. If the catalyst of crime is some private agent and it is not anywhere related to the government agent then it is not considered as entrapment.
Merit of entrapment is that the criminal can be caught by the government officials who was about to commit the crime. The officer can pretend to be a drug trafficker and easily catch the person whom he suspects of selling the drugs or liquor etc (Ashworth, 2002).
Demerit include that the government officials can use fraud to tempt a person commit the crime which he previously not intended to do.The defense is not available if the government officer created the scenario out or nowhere to catch the person who was already planning to commit the crime.
3. Describe and explain the PEACE model used to guide an interview with suspects of a crime
PEACE is the framework to guide investigating officers to conduct effective investigative interview, this framework was designed to develop the professional skills of the investigating officers so that they can effectively ca
y out the interview procedure. The PEACE model was first introduced in the year 1992 in the England and across the whales. The collaboration between the psychologists and law enforcement agencies gave birth to the concept of PEACE interviews. The two styles of interview which come within PEACE model are the cognitive and conversation. Cognitive method is used for the co-operative criminals/interviewees and conversation method is used with difficult witnesses. (Clarke,2001)
Cognitive method of interview is more common as the investigating officer assumes that the relaxed witness with whom the interviewing officer has a connection is more likely to cooperate It is much better for both the interviewer and interviewee if the atmosphere is free from antagonism and fear. (Clarke,2001)
This concept was developed to get rid of the accusatory style of interviews which were filled with aggression and hatred.
PEACE interview stands for:
· Preparation and Planning: It means preparing and planning for the interview before hand.
· Engage and Explain: The aim is to engage the interviewee in the conversation and explain him the series of events if necessary.
· Account, Clarify and Challenge: It is the duty of interviewer to collect the information, clarify all the doubts and challenge the false claims.
· Closure: Results of the interview session
· Evaluation: The final verdict from the side of investigating officer.
This is a friendly information gathering method used by the investigating officer. This model is the best practice suitable for all types of victims, suspects and witnesses (Clarke,2011).
4. Critical Victimology.
Critical criminology is the theory which takes into consideration the contextual factors which lead to the particular crime. More specifically critical victimology asks the question why?, that why the particular crime took place, what was the series of events that forced someone to commit the crime.
The theory of critical victimology is not clearly explained anywhere, it is one of the theory of victimology that resides on other radical theories and on conflict situation faced by the victim. Critical criminology is a theoretical viewpoint which challenges the false beliefs and uncovers the conventional understanding about the crime and justice and in doing so it takes conflict perspective into consideration like Marxist approach, feminist approach, political approach economic theories and critical theories of law
Critical criminology takes into the consideration the factors that gave rise to the particular crime and nature of justice that follows, when the victim and accused are from unequal fractions of the society. It is being taken into consideration that law and punishment are connected with each other by the system of social inequality and produce and replicate the inequality in the social system which is the main cause of crime.
Critical criminology sees crime and criminals in another light; the theory says that the crime is the product of cruelty which workers face from their employees. The backward and less advantaged community within the society like those who live in poverty or women and the ethnic minorities suffer a lot because of the social norms which are based upon gender, race and ethnic groups (Fattah, 2011)
5.     Define ‘human trafficking’ and explain the nature and extent of this Transnational Organized Crime using reliable sources.
Human trafficking is the process of taking away individual’s right of movement and free will by force. Trafficking in Human’s is defined as taking away the person without his will by abduction, fraud ,deception, abuse or coercion and power then transporting or transfe
ing him to some other place in exchange of money or other benefits in order to achieve the permission of the person having control over the trafficked human for the purpose of exploitation. Here exploitation can be of any type such as prostitution, sexual exploitation, slavery, forced labor, organ extraction, tissue removal, providing spouses as in forced ma
iage, su
ogacy and removal of ovum etc.
Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. More than 80% of the people trafficked transnational are women and children. Human trafficking is the commercial exploitation of human rights of movement by force or coercion. Human trafficking is the business or trade of people or human beings, which does not means the person is moved from one place to another.
Human trafficking can occur locally but it has international repercussions, Human trafficking is considered to be the transnational organized crime, which is now recognized by the United Nations by the modus operandi to stop, cu
and penalize Trafficking in human, especially Women and Children .An international agreement came into the force on 25th December 2003,under the under Convention of Transnational Organized Crime (Froller, 2018).
The protocol on human trafficking is the first universally, legally acceptable and binding mechanism on human trafficking in long time, which has globally acceptable definition of Human Trafficking.
One importance of this protocol is to have cooperation from every part of the world by investigating the trafficking cases and Second importance is to protect the rights of the people who have become the victims of human trafficking.

Anon, A. (2018). Advantages and disadvantages of community policing.. [online] Available at: https: [Accessed 11 Apr. 2018].
Ashworth, A., 2002. Re-drawing the boundaries of entrapment. Criminal Law Review, (MAR.), pp.161-179.
Clarke, C. and Milne, R., 2001. A national evaluation of the PEACE Investigative Interviewing Course. London: Home Office.
Fattah, E.A., 1991. Understanding criminal victimization: An introduction to theoretical victimology. Prentice-Hall Canada.
Froller, A. (2018). What is Human Trafficking?. [online] Available at: https: [Accessed 11 Apr. 2018].
Kempadoo, K., Sanghera, J. and Pattanaik, B., 2015. Trafficking and prostitution reconsidered: New perspectives on migration, sex work, and human rights. Routledge.
Niwaya, M. (2018). entrapment. [online] Available at: https: [Accessed 11 Apr. 2018].

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