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VU College VEN XXXXXXXXXX Writing technical reports In Engineering, one of the major forms of communication is the technical report. This is the conventional format for reporting the results of your...

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Writing technical reports
In Engineering, one of the major forms of communication is the technical report. This
is the conventional format for reporting the results of your research, investigations,
and design projects. At university, reports are read by lecturers and tutors in order to
assess your mastery of the subjects and your ability to apply your knowledge to a
practical task. In the workplace, they will be read by managers, clients, and the
construction engineers responsible for building from your designs. The ability to
produce a clear, concise, and professionally presented report is therefore a skill you
will need to develop in order to succeed both at university and in your future career.
While reports vary in the type of information they present (for example, original
esearch, the results of an investigative study, or the solution to a design problem),
all share similar features and are based on a similar structure.
Note: This document contains general engineering report-writing guidelines
only. For specific departmental requirements, see your unit or study guide.
Key features of reports
Reports:
 are designed for quick and easy communication of information
 are designed for selective reading
 use sections with numbered headings and subheadings
 use figures and diagrams to convey data.
Basic structure of a report
A report usually has these components:
Title page
Summary
Table of Contents
Introduction
Middle sections with numbered headings (i.e., the body of the report)
The middle section may contain:
Research findings
Equipment and Materials
Procedure
Results
Analysis of results
Conclusions
References
Appendices
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Title page
This page gives:
 the title of the report
 the authors' names and ID numbers
 the course name and number, the department, and university
 the date of submission.
The title of the report should indicate exactly what the report is about. The reader
should know not only the general topic, but also the aspect of the topic contained in
the report. Compare the following pairs of titles:
Bridge Analysis vs. Analysis of a Prestressed Concrete Bridge
Internet-based
ATIS vs.
An Evaluation of Internet-based Automated Traveller
Information Systems
Most of the reports you write at university will form part of the assessment for
particular subjects. You will therefore often talk about Assignment 1 or the Water
Project, for example, especially where several reports will be submitted in the course
of the semester or as part of an ongoing project. These terms form part of the title,
ut the report will usually need a more specific title also. Compare the following
examples:
Assignment 1 vs. Assignment 1: Water Consumption Data Collection
ATIS Project vs. ATIS Project: An Investigation of ATIS on the Monash Freeway
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Summary
The summary (sometimes refe
ed to as the executive summary/abstract) provides
a
ief overview of the substance of the report; usually no more than half a page. It is
not an introduction to the topic. The summary should outline all the key features of
your report, including the topic, what you did and how you did it, and the main
outcomes of your work. A busy manager who might not have time to read the full
eport should be able to get the gist of the whole report by reading the summary.
The summary:
 states the topic of the report
 outlines your approach to the task if applicable
 gives the most important findings of your research or investigation, or the key
aspects of your design
 states the main outcomes or conclusions.
The summary does NOT:
 provide general background information
 explain why you are doing the research, investigation or design
 refer to later diagrams or references.
 This summary is from a report entitled Preliminary Design of a Bridge.
 This summary is from a report entitled Preliminary Design of a Bridge.

 Sample summary
 This report presents a design for a
idge to be constructed on the Calde
Freeway crossing Slaty Creek in the Shire of Macedon Ranges. Two designs fo
the
idge were devised and then compared by considering the cost, construction
and maintenance of each
idge. Design 1 is a super-T beam
idge while Design
2 is a simple composite I girder
idge. It is concluded that Design 1 is the bette
design. This design is cheaper, easier to construct, more durable and easier to
maintain.
 Summary
 This report
 Comments
 Topic
 presents a design for a
idge to be constructed on the Calder Freeway crossing
Slaty Creek in the Shire of Macedon Ranges. Two designs
 Comments
 Approach
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 for the
idge were devised and then compared by considering the cost,
construction and maintenance of each
idge. Design 1
 Comments
 Key features
 is a super-T beam
idge while Design 2 is a simple composite I girder
idge. It is
concluded
 Comments
 Conclusions
 that Design 1 is the better design. This design is cheaper, easier to construct,
more durable and easier to maintain.
Table of contents
The contents page sets out the sections and subsections of the report and their
co
esponding page numbers. It should clearly show the structural relationship
etween the sections and subsections. A reader looking for specific information
should be able to locate the appropriate section easily from the table of contents.
The conventions for section and page numbering are as follows:
 Number the sections by the decimal point numbering system:
1.0 Title of first main section (usually Introduction)
1.1 First subheading
1.2 Second subheading
2.0 Title of second main section
2.1 First subheading
2.2 Second subheading
2.2.1 First division in the second subheading
2.2.2 Second division in the second subheading
3.0 Title of third main section
 Number all the preliminary pages in lower-case Roman numerals (i, ii, iii, iv,
...). You don't have to place the number i on the title page. Just count it and
put ii on the second page of your report. Preliminary pages are any which
come before the introduction, including the summary and, where applicable,
acknowledgements.
 Number all the remaining pages of your report with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3,
4, ...). Thus the report proper begins on page 1 with your introduction, which
is usually Section 1.
 Provide a title in your table of contents to describe the contents of each
appendix (Note: one appendix, two or more appendices). Don't just call them
Appendix 1 or Appendix 2.
Example:
Appendix 1: Sample Calculations
Example contents page
This contents page is from a report entitled Preliminary Design of a Bridge.
Contents
Summary ii
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2016
1.0 Introduction 1
2.0 Design 1: 33m Steel I-girder
idge 2
2.1 Superstructure 2
2.2 Abutments 3
2.3 Construction method 3
3.0 Design 2: 25m Super T-girder
idge 4
3.1 Superstructure 4
3.2 Abutments 5
3.3 Construction method 6
4.0 Comparison of designs 7
4.1 Economics 7
4.1.2 Construction costs 7
4.1.1 Long-term maintenance 8
4.2 Safety 8
4.3 Aesthetics 9
5.0 Conclusions and recommendations 9
6.0 References 10
Appendices:
Appendix 1 Design 1 scale drawings
Appendix 2 Design 2 scale drawings
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1 Introduction
The introduction provides the background information needed for the rest of your
eport to be understood. It is usually half to three-quarters of a page in length. The
purpose of the introduction is to set the context for your report, provide sufficient
ackground information for the reader to be able to follow the information presented,
and inform the reader about how that information will be presented.
The introduction includes:
 the background to the topic of your report to set your work in its
oad context
 a clear statement of the purpose of the report, usually to present the results of you
esearch, investigation, or design
 a clear statement of the aims of the project
 technical background necessary to understand the report; e.g. theory or assumptions
 a
ief outline of the structure of the report if appropriate (this would not be necessary
in a short report)
1.1 Example introduction 1
Introduction from a report entitled "A Review of Greenhouse Gas Reduction Actions
and Opportunities: the Cu
ent Status of the Kyoto Protocol".
1. Introduction
The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon that keeps the earth's surface
warm. Greenhouse gases trap heat from solar radiation, analogous to the way glass
panes trap heat in a greenhouse. Due to increasing greenhouse gas emissions from
human activities, the greenhouse effect has been significantly augmented, causing a
ise in the earth's surface temperature. This temperature rise has led to climate
change, causing frequent natural disasters. This has generated increasing
awareness of the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions through
international and domestic initiatives.
XXXXXXXXXXComments
Contextual background
The aims of this project are to examine the Kyoto Protocol and the effect it would
have on participating countries. Another aim is to investigate actions already taken
y three industrialized countries, namely Australia, the United States, and Canada.
XXXXXXXXXXComments
Aims
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1.2 Example introduction 2
Introduction from a report entitled "Preliminary Design of a Bridge". In this report, two
alternative designs are presented and evaluated according to the given criteria, and
then the better design selected.
1. Introduction
A dual ca
iageway
idge with two traffic lanes in each direction is to be constructed
on the Calder Freeway crossing Slaty Creek in the Shire of Macedon Ranges in
Victoria. The
idge is to span 125 metres between man-made compacted fill
embankments, and is approximately 15 metres above the river surface, with a grade
of 0.056 m/m.
XXXXXXXXXXComments
Technical background (assumptions)
XXXXXXXXXXComments
Contextual background
This report presents two possible concept designs for the
idge. In evaluating these
designs, the following criteria are considered: construction method, construction and
maintenance costs, possible disruption to traffic during construction, the durability
and the aesthetics
Answered Same Day Apr 16, 2020

Solution

Anupam answered on Apr 20 2020
148 Votes
VIs
    S1    SVI        S1    EVI        S1    HVI    FVI        Site     Index    Average    Min    Max    SD
    SA1    Index        SA1    Index        SA1    Index    Index        SA1    SVI    0.34    0.10    0.80    0.18
    2110501    0.18        2110501    0.20        2110501    0.124    0.507            EVI    0.30    0.20    0.50    0.07
    2110502    0.76        2110502    0.40        2110502    0.124    1.288            HVI    0.402    0.124    0.500    0.167
    2110503    0.33        2110503    0.20        2110503    0.500    1.030        SA2    SVI    0.54    0.12    1.00    0.23
    2110504    0.16        2110504    0.30        2110504    0.124    0.584            EVI    0.26    0.08    0.40    0.09
    2110505    0.22        2110505    0.20        2110505    0.500    0.918            HVI    0.48    0.12    0.50    0.08
    2110506    0.37        2110506    0.30        2110506    0.124    0.796        SA3    SVI    0.31    0.10    1.00    0.21
    2110507    0.23        2110507    0.30        2110507    0.124    0.657            EVI    0.46    0.40    0.60    0.08
    2110508    0.23        2110508    0.30        2110508    0.124    0.653            HVI    0.41    0.12    0.77    0.20
    2110509    0.10        2110509    0.20        2110509    0.500    0.804        SA4    SVI    0.47    0.05    1.00    0.21
    2110510    0.31        2110510    0.30        2110510    0.500    1.114            EVI    0.31    0.20    0.60    0.08
    2110511    0.78        2110511    0.40        2110511    0.500    1.683            HVI    0.42    0.12    0.77    0.17
    2110512    0.56        2110512    0.20        2110512    0.500    1.258        SA5    SVI    0.47    0.00    1.00    0.26
    2110513    0.70        2110513    0.50        2110513    0.500    1.700            EVI    0.34    0.20    0.50    0.11
    2110514    0.42        2110514    0.30        2110514    0.124    0.848            HVI    0.48    0.12    0.50    0.09
    2110515    0.53        2110515    0.40        2110515    0.500    1.433        SA6    SVI    0.40    0.00    1.00    0.25
    2110516    0.39        2110516    0.20        2110516    0.500    1.090            EVI    0.43    0.30    0.60    0.08
    2110517    0.36        2110517    0.30        2110517    0.124    0.784            HVI    0.42    0.12    0.77    0.19
    2110518    0.43        2110518    0.30        2110518    0.500    1.234        SA7    SVI    0.51    0.25    1.00    0.21
    2110519    0.33        2110519    0.20        2110519    0.500    1.030            EVI    0.32    0.20    0.60    0.10
    2110520    0.45        2110520    0.30        2110520    0.124    0.875            HVI    0.38    0.12    0.77    0.20
    2110521    0.31        2110521    0.30        2110521    0.500    1.108
    2110522    0.41        2110522    0.40        2110522    0.124    0.938
    2110523    0.44        2110523    0.40        2110523    0.500    1.336
    2110524    0.23        2110524    0.30        2110524    0.500    1.031            Very low (<0.7)    low(0.7-0.9)    Medium(0.9-1.6)    High(1.6-1.8)    Very...
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