A1: Ethics Pape
Who, how many, and under what conditions should outsiders in need be granted entry into a nation state? This assessment task gives students the opportunity to consider the two key classic texts that build ethical arguments addressing these questions.
This task should take the form of an essay, with an introduction, a body and conclusion, and a reference list at the end (using Harvard referencing style).
The task is worth 25% of your overall mark. The word-count is 1000 words, excluding references.
Submit your assignment as a word document to the relevant dropbox.
Read and consider the arguments put forward by Michael Walzer and Peter and Renata Singer in the readings set for Week 4. Note that there are two sections of the Walzer reading.
The task has three steps.
1. First, in a paragraph each, summarise the key arguments presented by Walzer and the Singers in the selected readings.
2. Second, consider and discuss the ethical implications for each position.
In this part of your answer, you might want to consider some of the following questions:
· Which social group do the authors privilege in their ethical arguments?
· What special allowances, if any, do the authors make for non-citizens in need?
· What would be the real-world implications for citizens? For non-citizens?
· If taken to their logical conclusion, what would be the implications of these two positions?
· Can you see evidence of one position (Walzer’s, or the Singers’) in Australian asylum policy?
3. Third, provide a reference list, using the Harvard style of referencing. As this task is a close examination of the set readings, your reference list should only include two references (the chapters by Walzer and the Singers), or maybe three (if you decide to refer to the Gibney chapter as well).
Tip: It is strongly recommended that you read the reading by Matthew Gibney in your preparation for this task. The Gibney reading will help you understand Walzer and the Singers' ethical positions, and put them in context within
oader debates. It will also assist you to answer the questions relating to the ethical implications of these positions. You may refer to this reading in the body of your assignment if you find it useful to do so. No further reference material is required.
When marking, the assessor will consider the following:
· Has the student followed the instructions and guidelines?
· Has the student co
ectly identified and summarised the key arguments in the two readings?
· Has the student demonstrated a thoughtful approach to the different ethical positions and their implications?
· Is the task well presented, including clear written communication, and the co
ect use of the Harvard referencing system?
COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of
Deakin University in accordance with section 113P of the Copyright Act 1968 (Act).
The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any furthe
eproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of copyright
protection under the Act.
Do not remove this notice
Course of Study:
(AIP209) Asylum Challenges In Australia And Asia
Title of work:
Population and political theory (2010)
The ethics of refugee policy pp XXXXXXXXXX
editor of work:
Fishkin, James S.; Goodin, Robert E.
Name of Publisher:
Commonwealth of Australia
Copyright Act 1968
Notice for paragraph 135ZXA(a) of the Copyright Act 1968
This material has been reproduced and communicated to you by or on behalf of Deakin
University under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968 (the Act).
The material in this communication may be subject to copyright under the Act. Any
further reproduction or communication of this material by you may be the subject of
copyright protection under the Act.
Do not remove this notice.
The Ethics of Refugee Policy
Peter Singer and Renata Singer
It is Fe
uary 1998 and the world is taking stock of the damage done by the
ief nuclear exchange between the United States and the Soviet Union at
the close of the previous year. Although a belated out
eak of sanity on both
sides stopped hostilities before more than a few warheads had been deto-
nated, the level of radioactivity now and for about eight years to come is so
high that only those living in fallout shelters can be confident of surviving in
easonable health. For the rest, who must
eathe unfiltered air and con-
sume food and water with high levels of radiation, the prospects are grim.
Probably 10 percent will die of radiation sickness within the next two
months; another 30 percent are expected to develop fatal forms of cancer
within five years; and the remainder will have rates of cancer ten times
higher than normal, while the risk that their children will be malformed is
fifty times greater than before the war.
The fortunate ones, of course, are those who were far-sighted enough to
uy shares in the fallout shelters built by real estate speculators in the early
1990s. Most of these shelters were designed as underground villages, each
with enough accommodation and supplies to provide for the needs of 10,000
people for twenty years. The villages are self-governing, with democratic con-
stitutions that were agreed to in advance. They also have sophisticated secu-
ity systems, which enable them to admit to the shelter whoever they decide
to admit and keep out all others.
The news that it will not be necessary to stay in the shelters for much
more than eight years has naturally been greeted with joy by the members
of an underground community called Fairhaven. But it has also led to the
first serious friction among them. For above the shaft that leads down to
Fairhaven, there are thousands of people who are not investors in a shelter.
These people can be seen, and heard, through television cameras installed
286 Peter Singer and Renata Singer
at the entrance. They are pleading to be admitted. They know that if they
can get into a shelter quickly, they will escape most of the consequences of
exposure to radiation. Yet at first, before it was known how long it would
e until it was safe to return to the outside, these pleas had virtually no
support from within the shelter. Now, however, the case for admitting at
least some of them has become much stronger. Since the supplies need last
only eight years - or even if we are conservative, certainly no more than
ten they will stretch to three or four times the number of people presently
in the shelters. Accommodation presents only slightly greater problems:
Fairhaven was designed to function as a luxury retreat when not needed
for a real emergency, and it is equipped with tennis courts, swimming
pools, and a large gymnasium. If everyone were to consent to keep fit by
doing aerobics in their own living rooms, it would be possible to provide
primitive but adequate sleeping space for all those whom the supplies can
stretch to feed.
So those outside now do not lack advocates on the inside. The most
extreme, labeled "bleeding hearts" by their opponents, propose that the shel-
ter should admit an additional 10,000 people, as many as it can reasonably
expect to feed and house until it is safe to return to the outside. This will
mean giving up all luxury in food and facilities, but the bleeding hearts point
out that the fate for those who remain on the outside will be far worse.
The bleeding hearts are opposed by some who urge that these outsiders
generally are inferior people, for they were either not sufficiently far-sighted
or not sufficiently wealthy to invest in a shelter; hence, it is said, they will
cause social problems in the shelter, placing an additional strain on health,
welfare, and educational services, and contributing to an increase in crime
and juvenile delinquency. The opposition to admitting outsiders is also sup-
ported by a small group of philosophically trained members of the commu-
nity who say that it would be an injustice to those who have paid for their
share of the shelter if others who have not paid their share benefit by it.
These opponents of admitting others are articulate, but few; their numbers
are bolstered considerably, however, by many who say only that they really
enjoy tennis and swimming and don't want to give them up.
Between the bleeding hearts and those who oppose admitting any outsid-
ers stands a middle group: those who think that, as an exceptional act of
enevolence and charity, some outsiders should be admitted, but not so
many as to make a significant difference to the quality of life within the
shelter. They propose converting one of the five tennis courts to sleeping
accommodations and giving up a small public open space which has attracted
little use anyway. By these means, an extra 500 people could be accommo-
dated, which the self-styled "moderates" think would be a sensible figure,
sufficient to show that Fairhaven is not insensitive to the plight of those less
fortunate than its own members.
The Ethics of Refugee Policy 287
A referendum is held. There are three proposals: to admit 10,000 outsiders;
to admit 500 outsiders; and to admit no outsiders. For which would you
The Real World
The United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates
that there are at least 10 million refugees in the world today. 1 The great
majority of these refugees are receiving refuge, at least temporarily, in the
poorer and less developed countries of the world. For instance, in 1988
Pakistan and Iran together host nearly 5 million Afghan refugees. More
than half the nations of Africa ha
or refugees, the greatest number being of
Ethiopian origin and concentrated in the Horn (Djibouti, Ethiopia, and
Somalia) and Sudan. There are also refugees from Uganda, South Africa,
Chad, Mozambique (over 200,000 in recent months and increasing) and
from Zaire. In Central America there are thought to be 2 million refugees,
though only about 120,000 benefit from UNHCR assistance. The refugees
include Guatemalans, Nicaraguans, and Salvadorans and are mostly in
Mexico, Honduras, and Costa Rica.
What is the effect on a country like Pakistan of receiving a sudden influx
of 2.8 million Afghan refugees, mainly in the North West Frontier province?
Pakistan does get some outside assistance: the World Food Program pro-
vided 3 70, 000 tons of food for refugees in Pakistan during 19 86.