The same as in Oedipus the King, an open space before the royal palace,
once that of Oedipus, at Thebes. The backscene represents the front
of the palace, with three doors, of which the central and largest
is the principal entrance into the house. The time is at daybreak
on the morning after the fall of the two brothers, Eteocles and Polyneices,
and the flight of the defeated Argives. ANTIGONE calls ISMENE forth
from the palace, in order to speak to her alone.
ANTIGONE Ismene, sister, mine own dear sister, knowest thou what
ill there is, of all bequeathed by Oedipus, that Zeus fulfils not
for us twain while we live? Nothing painful is there, nothing fraught
with ruin, no shame, no dishonour, that I have not seen in thy woes
And now what new edict is this of which they tell, that our Captain
hath just published to all Thebes? Knowest thou aught? Hast thou heard?
Or is it hidden from thee that our friends are threatened with the
doom of our foes?
ISMENE No word of friends, Antigone, gladsome or painful, hath come
to me, since we two sisters were bereft of brothers twain, killed
in one day by twofold blow; and since in this last night the Argive
host hath fled, know no more, whether my fortune be brighter, or more
ANTIGONE I knew it well, and therefore sought to bring thee beyond
the gates of the court, that thou mightest hear alone.
ISMENE What is it? 'Tis plain that thou art brooding on some dark
ANTIGONE What, hath not Creon destined our brothers, the one to honoured
burial, the other to unburied shame? Eteocles, they say, with due
observance of right and custom, he hath laid in the earth, for his
honour among the dead below. But the hapless corpse of Polyneices-as
rumour saith, it hath been published to the town that none shall entomb
him or mourn, but leave unwept, unsepulchred, a welcome store for
the birds, as they espy him, to feast on at will.
Such, 'tis said, is the edict that the good Creon hath set forth for
thee and for me,-yes, for me,-and is coming hither to proclaim it
clearly to those who know it not; nor counts the matter light, but,
whoso disobeys in aught, his doom is death by stoning before all the
folk. Thou knowest it now; and thou wilt soon show whether thou art
nobly bred, or the base daughter of a noble line.
ISMENE Poor sister,-and if things stand thus, what could I help to
do or undo?
ANTIGONE Consider if thou wilt share the toil and the deed.
ISMENE In what venture? What can be thy meaning?
ANTIGONE Wilt thou aid this hand to lift the dead?
ISMENE Thou wouldst bury him,-when 'tis forbidden to Thebes?
ANTIGONE I will do my part,-and thine, if thou wilt not,-to a brother.
False to him will I never be found.
ISMENE Ah, over-bold! when Creon hath forbidden?
ANTIGONE Nay, he hath no right to keep me from mine own.
ISMENE Ah me! think, sister, how our father perished, amid hate and
scorn, when sins bared by his own search had moved him to strike both
eyes with self-blinding hand; then the mother wife, two names in one,
with twisted noose did despite unto her life; and last, our two brothers
in one day,-each shedding, hapless one, a kinsman's blood,-wrought
out with mutual hands their common doom. And now we in turn-we two
left all alone think how we shall perish, more miserably than all
the rest, if, in defiance of the law, we brave a king's decree or
his powers. Nay, we must remember, first, that we were born women,
as who should not strive with men; next, that we are ruled of the
stronger, so that we must obey in these things, and in things yet
sorer. I, therefore, asking the Spirits Infernal to pardon, seeing
that force is put on me herein, will hearken to our rulers. for 'tis
witless to be over busy.
ANTIGONE I will not urge thee,-no nor, if thou yet shouldst have
the mind, wouldst thou be welcome as a worker with me. Nay, be what
thou wilt; but I will bury him: well for me to die in doing that.
I shall rest, a loved one with him whom I have loved, sinless in my
crime; for I owe a longer allegiance to the dead than to the living:
in that world I shall abide for ever. But if thou wilt, be guilty
of dishonouring laws which the gods have stablished in honour.
ISMENE I do them no dishonour; but to defy the State,-I have no strength
ANTIGONE Such be thy plea:-I, then, will go to heap the earth above
the brother whom I love.
ISMENE Alas, unhappy one! How I fear for thee!
ANTIGONE Fear not for me: guide thine own fate aright.
ISMENE: At least, then, disclose this plan to none, but hide it closely,-and
so, too, will I.
ANTIGONE Oh, denounce it! Thou wilt be far more hateful for thy silence,
if thou proclaim not these things to all.
ISMENE Thou hast a hot heart for chilling deeds.
ANTIGONE I know that I please where I am most bound to please.
ISMENE Aye, if thou canst; but thou wouldst what thou canst not.
ANTIGONE Why, then, when my strength fails, I shall have done.
ISMENE A hopeless quest should not be made at all.
ANTIGONE If thus thou speakest, thou wilt have hatred from me, and
will justly be subject to the lasting hatred of the dead. But leave
me, and the folly that is mine alone, to suffer this dread thing;
for I shall not suffer aught so dreadful as an ignoble death.
ISMENE Go, then, if thou must; and of this be sure,-that though thine
errand is foolish, to thy dear ones thou art truly dear. (Exit ANTIGONE
on the spectators' left. ISMENE retires into the palace by one of
the two side-doors. When they have departed, the CHORUS OF THEBAN
CHORUS (singing, strophe 1)
Beam of the sun, fairest light that ever dawned on Thebe of the seven
gates, thou hast shone forth at last, eye of golden day, arisen above
Dirce's streams! The warrior of the white shield, who came from Argos
in his panoply, hath been stirred by thee to headlong flight, in swifter
LEADER OF THE CHORUS (systema 1)
who set forth against our land by reason of the vexed claims of Polyneices;
and, like shrill-screaming eagle, he flew over into our land, in snow-white
pinion sheathed, with an armed throng, and with plumage of helms.
CHORUS (antistrophe 1)
He paused above our dwellings; he ravened around our sevenfold portals
with spears athirst for blood; but he went hence, or ever his jaws
were glutted with our gore, or the Fire-god's pine-fed flame had seized
our crown of towers. So fierce was the noise of battle raised behind
him, a thing too hard for him to conquer, as he wrestled with his
LEADER (systema 2)
For Zeus utterly abhors the boasts of a proud tongue; and when he
beheld them coming on in a great stream, in the haughty pride of clanging
gold, he smote with brandished fire one who was now hasting to shout
victory at his goal upon our ramparts.
CHORUS (strophe 2)
Swung down, he fell on the earth with a crash, torch in hand, he
who so lately, in the frenzy of the mad onset, was raging against
us with the blasts of his tempestuous hate. But those threats fared
not as he hoped; and to other foes the mighty War-god dispensed their
several dooms, dealing havoc around, a mighty helper at our need.
LEADER (systema 3)
For seven captains at seven gates, matched against seven, left the
tribute of their panoplies to Zeus who turns the battle; save those
two of cruel fate, who, born of one sire and one mother, set against
each other their twain conquering spears, and are sharers in a common
CHORUS (antistrophe 2)
But since Victory of glorious name hath come to us, with joy responsive
to the joy of Thebe whose chariots are many, let us enjoy forgetfulness
after the late wars, and visit all the temples of the gods with night-long
dance and song; and may Bacchus be our leader, whose dancing shakes
the land of Thebe.
LEADER (systema 4)
But lo, the king of the land comes yonder, Creon, son of Menoeceus,
our new ruler by the new fortunes that the gods have given; what counsel
is he pondering, that he hath proposed this special conference of
elders, summoned by his general mandate? (Enter CREON, from the central
doors of the palace, in the garb of king, with two attendants.)
CREON Sirs, the vessel of our State, after being tossed on wild waves,
hath once more been safely steadied by the gods: and ye, out of all
the folk, have been called apart by my summons, because I knew, first
of all, how true and constant was your reverence for the royal power
of Laius; how, again, when Oedipus was ruler of our land, and when
he had perished, your steadfast loyalty still upheld their children.
Since, then, his sons have fallen in one day by a twofold doom,-each
smitten by the other, each stained with a brother's blood,-I now possess
the throne and all its powers, by nearness of kinship to the dead.
No man can be fully known, in soul and spirit and mind, until he hath
been seen versed in rule and law-giving. For if any, being supreme
guide of the State, cleaves not to the best counsels, but, through
some fear, keeps his lips locked, I hold, and have ever held, him
most base; and if any makes a friend of more account than his fatherland,
that man hath no place in my regard. For I-be Zeus my witness, who
sees all things always-would not be silent if I saw ruin, instead
of safety, coming to the citizens; nor would I ever deem the country's
foe a friend to myself; remembering this, that our country is the
ship that bears us safe, and that only while she prospers in our voyage
can we make true friends.
Such are the rules by which I guard this city's greatness. And in
accord with them is the edict which I have now published to the folk
touching the sons of Oedipus;-that Eteocles, who hath fallen fighting
for our city, in all renown of arms, shall be entombed, and crowned
with every rite that follows the noblest dead to their rest. But for
his brother, Polyneices,-who came back from exile, and sought to consume
utterly with fire the city of his fathers and the shrines of his fathers'
gods,-sought to taste of kindred blood, and to lead the remnant into
slavery;-touching this man, it hath been proclaimed to our people
that none shall grace him with sepulture or lament, but leave him
unburied, a corpse for birds and dogs to eat, a ghastly sight of shame.
Such the spirit of my dealing; and never, by deed of mine, shall the
wicked stand in honour before the just; but whoso hath good will to
Thebes, he shall be honoured of me, in his life and in his death.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS Such is thy pleasure, Creon, son of Menoeceus,
touching this city's foe, and its friend; and thou hast power, I ween,
to take what order thou wilt, both for the dead, and for all us who
CREON See, then, that ye be guardians of the mandate.
LEADER Lay the burden of this task on some younger man.
CREON Nay, watchers of the corpse have been found.
LEADER What, then, is this further charge that thou wouldst give?
CREON That ye side not with the breakers of these commands.
LEADER No man is so foolish that he is enamoured of death.
CREON In sooth, that is the meed; yet lucre hath oft ruined men through
their hopes. (A GUARD enters from the spectators' left.)
GUARD My liege, I will not say that I come breathless from speed,
or that have plied a nimble foot; for often did my thoughts make me
pause, and wheel round in my path, to return. My mind was holding
large discourse with me; 'Fool, why goest thou to thy certain doom?'
'Wretch, tarrying again? And if Creon hears this from another, must
not thou smart for it?' So debating, I went on my way with lagging
steps, and thus a short road was made long. At last, however, it carried
the day that I should come hither-to thee; and, though my tale be
nought, yet will I tell it; for I come with a good grip on one hope,-that
I can suffer nothing but what is my fate.
CREON And what is it that disquiets thee thus?
GUARD I wish to tell thee first about myself-I did not do the deed-I
did not see the doer-it were not right that I should come to any harm.
CREON Thou hast a shrewd eye for thy mark; well dost thou fence thyself
round against the blame; clearly thou hast some strange thing to tell.
GUARD Aye, truly; dread news makes one pause long.
CREON Then tell it, wilt thou, and so get thee gone?
GUARD Well, this is it.-The corpse-some one hath just given it burial,
and gone away,-after sprinkling thirsty dust on the flesh, with such
other rites as piety enjoins.
CREON What sayest thou? What living man hath dared this deed?
GUARD I know not; no stroke of pickaxe was seen there, no earth thrown
up by mattock; the ground was hard and dry, unbroken, without track
of wheels; the doer was one who had left no trace. And when the first
day-watchman showed it to us, sore wonder fell on all. The dead man
was veiled from us; not shut within a tomb, but lightly strewn with
dust, as by the hand of one who shunned a curse. And no sign met the
eye as though any beast of prey or any dog had come nigh to him, or
Then evil words flew fast and loud among us, guard accusing guard;
und it would e'en have come to blows at last, nor was there any to
hinder. Every man was the culprit, and no one was convicted, but all
disclaimed knowledge of the deed. And we were ready to take red-hot
iron in our hands;-to walk through fire;-to make oath by the gods
that we had not done the deed,-that we were not privy to the planning
or the doing.
At last, when all our searching was fruitless, one spake, who made
us all bend our faces on the earth in fear; for we saw not how we
could gainsay him, or escape mischance if we obeyed. His counsel was
that this deed must be reported to thee, and not hidden. And this
seemed best; and the lot doomed my hapless self to win this prize.
So here I stand,-as unwelcome as unwilling, well I wot; for no man
delights in the bearer of bad news.
LEADER O king, my thoughts have long been whispering, can this deed,
perchance, be e'en the work of gods?
CREON Cease, ere thy words fill me utterly with wrath, lest thou
be found at once an old man and foolish. For thou sayest what is not
to be borne, in saying that the gods have care for this corpse. Was
it for high reward of trusty service that they sought to hide his
nakedness, who came to burn their pillared shrines and sacred treasures,
to burn their land, and scatter its laws to the winds? Or dost thou
behold the gods honouring the wicked? It cannot be. No! From the first
there were certain in the town that muttered against me, chafing at
this edict, wagging their heads in secret; and kept not their necks
duly under the yoke, like men contented with my sway.
'Tis by them, well I know, that these have been beguiled and bribed
to do this deed. Nothing so evil as money ever grew to be current
among men. This lays cities low, this drives men from their homes,
this trains and warps honest souls till they set themselves to works
of shame; this still teaches folk to practise villainies, and to know
every godless deed.
But all the men who wrought this thing for hire have made it sure
that, soon or late, they shall pay the price. Now, as Zeus still hath
my reverence, know this-I tell it thee on my oath:-If ye find not
the very author of this burial, and produce him before mine eyes,
death alone shall not be enough for you, till first, hung up alive,
ye have revealed this outrage,-that henceforth ye may thieve with
better knowledge whence lucre should be won, and learn that it is
not well to love gain from every source. For thou wilt find that ill-gotten
pelf brings more men to ruin than to weal.
GUARD May I speak? Or shall I just turn and go?
CREON Knowest thou not that even now thy voice offends?
GUARD Is thy smart in the ears, or in the soul?
CREON And why wouldst thou define the seat of my pain?
GUARD The doer vexes thy mind, but I, thine ears.
CREON Ah, thou art a born babbler, 'tis well seen.
GUARD May be, but never the doer of this deed.
CREON Yea, and more,-the seller of thy life for silver.
GUARD Alas! 'Tis sad, truly, that he who judges should misjudge.
CREON Let thy fancy play with 'judgment' as it will;-but, if ye show
me not the doers of these things, ye shall avow that dastardly gains
work sorrows. (CREON goes into the palace.)
GUARD Well, may he be found! so 'twere best. But, be he caught or
be he not-fortune must settle that-truly thou wilt not see me here
again. Saved, even now, beyond hope and thought, I owe the gods great
thanks. (The GUARD goes out on the spectators' left.)
CHORUS (singing, strophe 1)
Wonders are many, and none is more wonderful than man; the power
that crosses the white sea, driven by the stormy south-wind, making
a path under surges that threaten to engulf him; and Earth, the eldest
of the gods, the immortal, the unwearied, doth he wear, turning the
soil with the offspring of horses, as the ploughs go to and fro from
year to year.
And the light-hearted race of birds, and the tribes of savage beasts,
and the sea-brood of the deep, he snares in the meshes of his woven
toils, he leads captive, man excellent in wit. And he masters by his
arts the beast whose lair is in the wilds, who roams the hills; he
tames the horse of shaggy mane, he puts the yoke upon its neck, he
tames the tireless mountain bull.
And speech, and wind-swift thought, and all the moods that mould
a state, hath he taught himself; and how to flee the arrows of the
frost, when 'tis hard lodging under the clear sky, and the arrows
of the rushing rain; yea, he hath resource for all; without resource
he meets nothing that must come: only against Death shall he call
for aid in vain; but from baffling maladies he hath devised escapes.
Cunning beyond fancy's dream is the fertile skill which brings him,
now to evil, now to good. When he honours the laws of the land, and
that justice which he hath sworn by the gods to uphold, proudly stands
his city: no city hath he who, for his rashness, dwells with sin.
Never may he share my hearth, never think my thoughts, who doth these
things! (Enter the GUARD on the spectators' left, leading in ANTIGONE.)
LEADER OF THE CHORUS What portent from the gods is this?-my soul
is amazed. I know her-how can I deny that yon maiden is Antigone?
O hapless, and child of hapless sire,-Of Oedipus! What means this?
Thou brought a prisoner?-thou, disloyal to the king's laws, and taken
GUARD Here she is, the doer of the deed:-caught this girl burying
him:-but where is Creon? (CREON enters hurriedly from the palace.)
LEADER Lo, he comes forth again from the house, at our need.
CREON What is it? What hath chanced, that makes my coming timely?
GUARD O king, against nothing should men pledge their word; for the
after-thought belies the first intent. I could have vowed that I should
not soon be here again,-scared by thy threats, with which I had just
been lashed: but,-since the joy that surprises and transcends our
hopes is like in fulness to no other pleasure,-I have come, though
'tis in breach of my sworn oath, bringing this maid; who was taken
showing grace to the dead. This time there was no casting of lots;
no, this luck hath fallen to me, and to none else. And now, sire,
take her thyself, question her, examine her, as thou wilt; but I have
a right to free and final quittance of this trouble.
CREON And thy prisoner here-how and whence hast thou taken her?
GUARD She was burying the man; thou knowest all.
CREON Dost thou mean what thou sayest? Dost thou speak aright?
GUARD I saw her burying the corpse that thou hadst forbidden to bury.
Is that plain and clear?
CREON And how was she seen? how taken in the act?
GUARD It befell on this wise. When we had come to the place,-with
those dread menaces of thine upon us,-we swept away all the dust that
covered the corpse, and bared the dank body well; and then sat us
down on the brow of the hill, to windward, heedful that the smell
from him should not strike us; every man was wide awake, and kept
his neighbour alert with torrents of threats, if anyone should be
careless of this task.
So went it, until the sun's bright orb stood in mid heaven, and the
heat began to burn: and then suddenly a whirlwind lifted from the
earth storm of dust, a trouble in the sky the plain, marring all the
leafage of its woods; and the wide air was choked therewith: we closed
our eyes, and bore the plague from the gods.
And when, after a long while, this storm had passed, the maid was
seen; and she cried aloud with the sharp cry of a bird in its bitterness,-even
as when, within the empty nest, it sees the bed stripped of its nestlings.
So she also, when she saw the corpse bare, lifted up a voice of wailing,
and called down curses on the doers of that deed. And straightway
she brought thirsty dust in her hands; and from a shapely ewer of
bronze, held high, with thrice-poured drink-offering she crowned the
We rushed forward when we saw it, and at once dosed upon our quarry,
who was in no wise dismayed. Then we taxed her with her past and present
doings; and she stood not on denial of aught,-at once to my joy and
to my pain. To have escaped from ills one's self is a great joy; but
'tis painful to bring friends to ill. Howbeit, all such things are
of less account to me than mine own safety.
CREON Thou-thou whose face is bent to earth-dost thou avow, or disavow,
ANTIGONE I avow it; I make no denial.
CREON (to GUARD) Thou canst betake thee whither thou wilt, free
and clear of a grave charge. (Exit GUARD, To ANTIGONE) Now, tell
me thou-not in many words, but briefly-knewest thou that an edict
had forbidden this?
ANTIGONE I knew it: could I help it? It was public.
CREON And thou didst indeed dare to transgress that law?
ANTIGONE Yes; for it was not Zeus that had published me that edict;
not such are the laws set among men by the justice who dwells with
the gods below; nor deemed I that thy decrees were of such force,
that a mortal could override the unwritten and unfailing statutes
of heaven. For their life is not of to-day or yesterday, but from
all time, and no man knows when they were first put forth.
Not through dread of any human pride could I answer to the gods for
breaking these. Die I must,-I knew that well (how should I not?)-even
without thy edicts. But if I am to die before my time, I count that
a gain: for when any one lives, as I do, compassed about with evils,
can such an one find aught but gain in death?
So for me to meet this doom is trifling grief; but if I had suffered
my mother's son to lie in death an unburied corpse, that would have
grieved me; for this, I am not grieved. And if my present deeds are
foolish in thy sight, it may be that a foolish judge arraigns my folly.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS The maid shows herself passionate child of passionate
sire, and knows not how to bend before troubles.
CREON Yet I would have thee know that o'er-stubborn spirits are most
often humbled; 'tis the stiffest iron, baked to hardness in the fire,
that thou shalt oftenest see snapped and shivered; and I have known
horses that show temper brought to order by a little curb; there is
no room for pride when thou art thy neighbour's slave.-This girl was
already versed in insolence when she transgressed the laws that had
been set forth; and, that done, lo, a second insult,-to vaunt of this,
and exult in her deed.
Now verily I am no man, she is the man, if this victory shall rest
with her, and bring no penalty. No! be she sister's child, or nearer
to me in blood than any that worships Zeus at the altar of our house,-she
and her kinsfolk shall not avoid a doom most dire; for indeed I charge
that other with a like share in the plotting of this burial.
And summon her-for I saw her e'en now within,-raving, and not mistress
of her wits. So oft, before the deed, the mind stands self-convicted
in its treason, when folks are plotting mischief in the dark. But
verily this, too, is hateful,-when one who hath been caught in wickednes
then seeks to make the crime a glory.
ANTIGONE Wouldst thou do more than take and slay me?
CREON No more, indeed; having that, I have all.
ANTIGONE Why then dost thou delay? In thy discourse there is nought
that pleases me,-never may there be!-and so my words must needs be
unpleasing to thee. And yet, for glory-whence could I have won a nobler,
than by giving burial to mine own brother? All here would own that
they thought it well, were not their lips sealed by fear. But royalty,
blest in so much besides, hath the power to do and say what it will.
CREON Thou differest from all these Thebans in that view.
ANTIGONE These also share it; but they curb their tongues for thee.
CREON And art thou not ashamed to act apart from them?
ANTIGONE No; there is nothing shameful in piety to a brother.
CREON Was it not a brother, too, that died in the opposite cause?
ANTIGONE Brother by the same mother and the same sire.
CREON Why, then, dost thou render a grace that is impious in his
ANTIGONE The dead man will not say that he so deems it.
CREON Yea, if thou makest him but equal in honour with the wicked.
ANTIGONE It was his brother, not his slave, that perished.
CREON Wasting this land; while he fell as its champion.
ANTIGONE Nevertheless, Hades desires these rites.
CREON But the good desires not a like portion with the evil.
ANTIGONE Who knows but this seems blameless in the world below?
CREON A foe is never a friend-not even in death.
ANTIGONE Tis not my nature to join in hating, but in loving.
CREON Pass, then, to the world of the dead, and, it thou must needs
love, love them. While I live, no woman shall rule me. (Enter ISMENE
from the house, led in by two attendants.)
CHORUS (chanting) Lo, yonder Ismene comes forth, shedding such tears
as fond sisters weep; a cloud upon her brow casts its shadow over
her darkly-flushing face, and breaks in rain on her fair cheek.
CREON And thou, who, lurking like a viper in my house, wast secretly
draining my life-blood, while I knew not that I was nurturing two
pests, to rise against my throne-come, tell me now, wilt thou also
confess thy part in this burial, or wilt thou forswear all knowledge
ISMENE I have done the deed,-if she allows my claim,-and share the
burden of the charge.
ANTIGONE Nay, justice will not suffer thee to do that: thou didst
not consent to the deed, nor did I give thee part in it.
ISMENE But, now that ills beset thee, I am not ashamed to sail the
sea of trouble at thy side.
ANTIGONE Whose was the deed, Hades and the dead are witnesses: a
friend in words is not the friend that I love.
ISMENE Nay, sister, reject me not, but let me die with thee, and
duly honour the dead.
ANTIGONE Share not thou my death, nor claim deeds to which thou hast
not put thy hand: my death will suffice.
ISMENE And what life is dear to me, bereft of thee?
ANTIGONE Ask Creon; all thy care is for him.
ISMENE Why vex me thus, when it avails thee nought?
ANTIGONE Indeed, if I mock, 'tis with pain that I mock thee.
ISMENE Tell me,-how can I serve thee, even now?
ANTIGONE Save thyself: I grudge not thy escape.
ISMENE Ah, woe is me! And shall I have no share in thy fate?
ANTIGONE Thy choice was to live; mine, to die.
ISMENE At least thy choice was not made without my protest.
ANTIGONE One world approved thy wisdom; another, mine.
ISMENE Howbeit, the offence is the same for both of us.
ANTIGONE Be of good cheer; thou livest; but my life hath long been
given to death, that so I might serve the dead.
CREON Lo, one of these maidens hath newly shown herself foolish,
as the other hath been since her life began.
ISMENE Yea, O king, such reason as nature may have given abides not
with the unfortunate, but goes astray.
CREON Thine did, when thou chosest vile deeds with the vile.
ISMENE What life could I endure, without her presence?
CREON Nay, speak not of her 'presence'; she lives no more.
ISMENE But wilt thou slay the betrothed of thine own son?
CREON Nay, there are other fields for him to plough.
ISMENE But there can never be such love as bound him to her.
CREON I like not an evil wife for my son.
ANTIGONE Haemon, beloved! How thy father wrongs thee!
CREON Enough, enough of thee and of thy marriage!
LEADER OF THE CHORUS Wilt thou indeed rob thy son of this maiden?
CREON 'Tis Death that shall stay these bridals for me.
LEADER 'Tis determined, it seems, that she shall die.
CREON Determined, yes, for thee and for me.- (To the two attendants)
No more delay-servants, take them within! Henceforth they must be
women, and not range at large; for verily even the bold seek to fly,
when they see Death now closing on their life. (Exeunt attendants,
guarding ANTIGONE and ISMENE.-CREON remains.)
CHORUS (singing, strophe 1)
Blest are they whose days have not tasted of evil. For when a house
hath once been shaken from heaven, there the curse fails nevermore,
passing from life to life of the race; even as, when the surge is
driven over the darkness of the deep by the fierce breath of Thracian
sea-winds, it rolls up the black sand from the depths, and there is
sullen roar from wind-vexed headlands that front the blows of the
I see that from olden time the sorrows in the house of the Labdacidae
are heaped upon the sorrows of the dead; and generation is not freed
by generation, but some god strikes them down, and the race hath no
For now that hope of which the light had been spread above the last
root of the house of Oedipus-that hope, in turn, is brought low--by
the blood-stained dust due to the gods infernal, and by folly in speech,
and frenzy at the heart.
Thy power, O Zeus, what human trespass can limit? That power which
neither Sleep, the all-ensnaring, nor the untiring months of the gods
can master; but thou, a ruler to whom time brings not old age, dwellest
in the dazzling splendour of Olympus.
And through the future, near and far, as through the past, shall this
law hold good: Nothing that is vast enters into the life of mortals
without a curse.
For that hope whose wanderings are so wide is to many men a comfort,
but to many a false lure of giddy desires; and the disappointment
comes on one who knoweth nought till he burn his foot against the
For with wisdom hath some one given forth the famous saying, that
evil seems good, soon or late, to him whose mind the god draws to
mischief; and but for the briefest space doth he fare free of woe.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS But lo, Haemon, the last of thy sons;-Comes
he grieving for the doom of his promised bride, Antigone, and bitter
for the baffled hope of his marriage? (Enter HAEMON)
CREON We shall know soon, better than seers could tell us.-My son,
hearing the fixed doom of thy betrothed, art thou come in rage against
thy father? Or have I thy good will, act how I may?
HAEMON Father, I am thine; and thou, in thy wisdom, tracest for me
rules which I shall follow. No marriage shall be deemed by me a greater
gain than thy good guidance.
CREON Yea, this, my son, should be thy heart's fixed law,-in all
things to obey thy father's will. 'Tis for this that men pray to see
dutiful children grow up around them in their homes,-that such may
requite their father's foe with evil, and honour, as their father
doth, his friend. But he who begets unprofitable children-what shall
we say that he hath sown, but troubles for himself, and much triumph
for his foes? Then do not thou, my son, at pleasure's beck, dethrone
thy reason for a woman's sake; knowing that this is a joy that soon
grows cold in clasping arms,-an evil woman to share thy bed and thy
home. For what wound could strike deeper than a false friend? Nay,
with loathing, and as if she were thine enemy, let this girl go to
find a husband in the house of Hades. For since I have taken her,
alone of all the city, in open disobedience, I will not make myself
a liar to my people-I will slay her.
So let her appeal as she will to the majesty of kindred blood. If
I am to nurture mine own kindred in naughtiness, needs must I bear
with it in aliens. He who does his duty in his own household will
be found righteous in the State also. But if any one transgresses,
and does violence to the laws, or thinks to dictate to his rulers,
such an one can win no praise from me. No, whomsoever the city may
appoint, that man must be obeyed, in little things and great, in just
things and unjust; and I should feel sure that one who thus obeys
would be a good ruler no less than a good subject, and in the storm
of spears would stand his ground where he was set, loyal and dauntless
at his comrade's side.
But disobedience is the worst of evils. This it is that ruins cities;
this makes homes desolate; by this, the ranks of allies are broken
into head-long rout; but, of the lives whose course is fair, the greater
part owes safety to obedience. Therefore we must support the cause
of order, and in no wise suffer a woman to worst us. Better to fall
from power, if we must, by a man's hand; then we should not be called
weaker than a woman.
LEADER To us, unless our years have stolen our wit, thou seemest
to say wisely what thou sayest.
HAEMON Father, the gods implant reason in men, the highest of all
things that we call our own. Not mine the skill-far from me be the
quest!-to say wherein thou speakest not aright; and yet another man,
too, might have some useful thought. At least, it is my natural office
to watch, on thy behalf, all that men say, or do, or find to blame.
For the dread of thy frown forbids the citizen to speak such words
as would offend thine ear; but can hear these murmurs in the dark,
these moanings of the city for this maiden; 'no woman,' they say,
'ever merited her doom less,-none ever was to die so shamefully for
deeds so glorious as hers; who, when her own brother had fallen in
bloody strife, would not leave him unburied, to be devoured by carrion
dogs, or by any bird:-deserves not she the meed of golden honour?'
Such is the darkling rumour that spreads in secret. For me, my father,
no treasure is so precious as thy welfare. What, indeed, is a nobler
ornament for children than a prospering sire's fair fame, or for sire
than son's? Wear not, then, one mood only in thyself; think not that
thy word, and thine alone, must be right. For if any man thinks that
he alone is wise,-that in speech, or in mind, he hath no peer,-such
a soul, when laid open, is ever found empty.
No, though a man be wise, 'tis no shame for him to learn many things,
and to bend in season. Seest thou, beside the wintry torrent's course,
how the trees that yield to it save every twig, while the stiff-necked
perish root and branch? And even thus he who keeps the sheet of his
sail taut, and never slackens it, upsets his boat, and finishes his
voyage with keel uppermost.
Nay, forego thy wrath; permit thyself to change. For if I, a younger
man, may offer my thought, it were far best, I ween, that men should
be all-wise by nature; but, otherwise-and oft the scale inclines not
so-'tis good also to learn from those who speak aright.
LEADER Sire, 'tis meet that thou shouldest profit by his words, if
he speaks aught in season, and thou, Haemon, by thy father's; for
on both parts there hath been wise speech.
CREON Men of my age are we indeed to be schooled, then, by men of
HAEMON In nothing that is not right; but if I am young, thou shouldest
look to my merits, not to my years.
CREON Is it a merit to honour the unruly?
HAEMON I could wish no one to show respect for evil-doers.
CREON Then is not she tainted with that malady?
HAEMON Our Theban folk, with one voice, denies it.
CREON Shall Thebes prescribe to me how I must rule?
HAEMON See, there thou hast spoken like a youth indeed.
CREON Am I to rule this land by other judgment than mine own?
HAEMON That is no city which belongs to one man.
CREON Is not the city held to be the ruler's?
HAEMON Thou wouldst make a good monarch of a desert.
CREON This boy, it seems, is the woman's champion.
HAEMON If thou art a woman; indeed, my care is for thee.
CREON Shameless, at open feud with thy father!
HAEMON Nay, I see thee offending against justice.
CREON Do I offend, when I respect mine own prerogatives?
HAEMON Thou dost not respect them, when thou tramplest on the gods'
CREON O dastard nature, yielding place to woman!
HAEMON Thou wilt never find me yield to baseness.
CREON All thy words, at least, plead for that girl.
HAEMON And for thee, and for me, and for the gods below.
CREON Thou canst never marry her, on this side the grave.
HAEMON Then she must die, and in death destroy another.
CREON How! doth thy boldness run to open threats?
HAEMON What threat is it, to combat vain resolves?
CREON Thou shalt rue thy witless teaching of wisdom.
HAEMON Wert thou not my father, I would have called thee unwise.
CREON Thou woman's slave, use not wheedling speech with me.
HAEMON Thou wouldest speak, and then hear no reply?
CREON Sayest thou so? Now, by the heaven above us-be sure of it-thou
shalt smart for taunting me in this opprobrious strain. Bring forth
that hated thing, that she may die forthwith in his presence-before
his eyes-at her bridegroom's side!
HAEMON No, not at my side-never think it-shall she perish; nor shalt
thou ever set eyes more upon my face:-rave, then, with such friends
as can endure thee. (Exit HAEMON)
LEADER The man is gone, O king, in angry haste; a youthful mind,
when stung, is fierce.
CREON Let him do, or dream, more than man-good speed to him!-But
he shall not save these two girls from their doom.
LEADER Dost thou indeed purpose to slay both?
CREON Not her whose hands are pure: thou sayest well.
LEADER And by what doom mean'st thou to slay the other?
CREON I will take her where the path is loneliest, and hide her,
living, in rocky vault, with so much food set forth as piety prescribes,
that the city may avoid a public stain. And there, praying to Hades,
the only god whom she worships, perchance she will obtain release
from death; or else will learn, at last, though late, that it is lost
labour to revere the dead. (CREON goes into the palace.)
CHORUS (singing, strophe)
Love, unconquered in the fight, Love, who makest havoc of wealth,
who keepest thy vigil on the soft cheek of a maiden; thou roamest
over the sea, and among the homes of dwellers in the wilds; no immortal
can escape thee, nor any among men whose life is for a day; and he
to whom thou hast come is mad.
The just themselves have their minds warped by thee to wrong, for
their ruin: 'tis thou that hast stirred up this present strife of
kinsmen; victorious is the love-kindling light from the eyes of the
fair bride; it is a power enthroned in sway beside the eternal laws;
for there the goddess Aphrodite is working her unconquerable will.
(ANTIGONE is led out of the palace by two Of CREON'S attendants who
are about to conduct her to her doom.) But now I also am carried
beyond the bounds of loyalty, and can no more keep back the streaming
tears, when I see Antigone thus passing to the bridal chamber where
all are laid to rest. (The following lines between ANTIGONE and the
CHORUS are chanted responsively.)
ANTIGONE (strophe 1)
See me, citizens of my fatherland, setting forth on my last way,
looking my last on the sunlight that is for me no more; no, Hades
who gives sleep to all leads me living to Acheron's shore; who have
had no portion in the chant that brings the bride, nor hath any song
been mine for the crowning of bridals; whom the lord of the Dark Lake
CHORUS (systema 1)
Glorious, therefore, and with praise, thou departest to that deep
place of the dead: wasting sickness hath not smitten thee; thou hast
not found the wages of the sword; no, mistress of thine own fate,
and still alive, thou shalt pass to Hades, as no other of mortal kind
ANTIGONE (antistrophe 1)
I have heard in other days how dread a doom befell our Phrygian guest,
the daughter of Tantalus, on the Sipylian heights; I how, like clinging
ivy, the growth of stone subdued her; and the rains fail not, as men
tell, from her wasting form, nor fails the snow, while beneath her
weeping lids the tears bedew her bosom; and most like to hers is the
fate that brings me to my rest.
CHORUS (systema 2)
Yet she was a goddess, thou knowest, and born of gods; we are mortals,
and of mortal race. But 'tis great renown for a woman who hath perished
that she should have shared the doom of the godlike, in her life,
and afterward in death.
ANTIGONE (strophe 2)
Ah, I am mocked! In the name of our fathers' gods, can ye not wait
till I am gone,-must ye taunt me to my face, O my city, and ye, her
wealthy sons? Ah, fount of Dirce, and thou holy ground of Thebe whose
chariots are many; ye, at least, will bear me witness, in what sort,
unwept of friends, and by what laws I pass to the rock-closed prison
of my strange tomb, ah me unhappy! who have no home on the earth or
in the shades, no home with the living or with the dead.
CHORUS (strophe 3)
Thou hast rushed forward to the utmost verge of daring; and against
that throne where justice sits on high thou hast fallen, my daughter,
with a grievous fall. But in this ordeal thou art paying, haply, for
thy father's sin.
ANTIGONE (antistrophe 2)
Thou hast touched on my bitterest thought,-awaking the ever-new lament
for my sire and for all the doom given to us, the famed house of Labdacus.
Alas for the horrors of the mother's bed! alas for the wretched mother's
slumber at the side of her own son,-and my sire! From what manner
of parents did I take my miserable being! And to them I go thus, accursed,
unwed, to share their home. Alas, my brother, ill-starred in thy marriage,
in thy death thou hast undone my life!
CHORUS (antistrophe 3)
Reverent action claims a certain praise for reverence; but an offence
against power cannot be brooked by him who hath power in his keeping.
Thy self-willed temper hath wrought thy ruin.
Unwept, unfriended, without marriage-song, I am led forth in my sorrow
on this journey that can be delayed no more. No longer, hapless one,
may I behold yon day-star's sacred eye; but for my fate no tear is
shed, no friend makes moan. (CREON enters from the palace.)
CREON Know ye not that songs and wailings before death would never
cease, if it profited to utter them? Away with her-away! And when
ye have enclosed her, according to my word, in her vaulted grave,
leave her alone, forlorn-whether she wishes to die, or to live a buried
life in such a home. Our hands are clean as touching this maiden.
But this is certain-she shall be deprived of her sojourn in the light.
ANTIGONE Tomb, bridal-chamber, eternal prison in the caverned rock,
whither go to find mine own, those many who have perished, and whom
Persephone hath received among the dead! Last of all shall I pass
thither, and far most miserably of all, before the term of my life
is spent. But I cherish good hope that my coming will be welcome to
my father, and pleasant to thee, my mother, and welcome, brother,
to thee; for, when ye died, with mine own hands I washed and dressed
you, and poured drink-offerings at your graves; and now, Polyneices,
'tis for tending thy corpse that I win such recompense as this.
And yet I honoured thee, as the wise will deem, rightly. Never, had
been a mother of children, or if a husband had been mouldering in
death, would I have taken this task upon me in the city's despite.
What law, ye ask, is my warrant for that word? The husband lost, another
might have been found, and child from another, to replace the first-born:
but, father and mother hidden with Hades, no brother's life could
ever bloom for me again. Such was the law whereby I held thee first
in honour; but Creon deemed me guilty of error therein, and of outrage,
ah brother mine! And now he leads me thus, a captive in his hands;
no bridal bed, no bridal song hath been mine, no joy of marriage,
no portion in the nurture of children; but thus, forlorn of friends,
unhappy one, I go living to the vaults of death.
And what law of heaven have I transgressed? Why, hapless one, should
I look to the gods any more,-what ally should I invoke,-when by piety
I have earned the name of impious? Nay, then, if these things are
pleasing to the gods, when I have suffered my doom, I shall come to
know my sin; but if the sin is with my judges, I could wish them no
fuller measure of evil than they, on their part, mete wrongfully to
CHORUS Still the same tempest of the soul vexes this maiden with
the same fierce gusts.
CREON Then for this shall her guards have cause to rue their slowness.
ANTIGONE Ah me! that word hath come very near to death.
CREON I can cheer thee with no hope that this doom is not thus to
ANTIGONE O city of my fathers in the land of Thebe! O ye gods, eldest
of our race!-they lead me henc--now, now-they tarry not! Behold me,
princes of Thebes, the last daughter of the house of your kings,-see
what I suffer, and from whom, because I feared to cast away the fear
of Heaven! (ANTIGONE is led away by the guards.)
CHORUS (singing, strophe 1)
Even thus endured Danae in her beauty to change the light of day
for brass-bound walls; and in that chamber, secret as the grave, she
was held close prisoner; yet was she of a proud lineage, O my daughter,
and charged with the keeping of the seed of Zeus, that fell in the
But dreadful is the mysterious power of fate: there is no deliverance
from it by wealth or by war, by fenced city, or dark, sea-beaten ships.
And bonds tamed the son of Dryas, swift to wrath, that king of the
Edonians; so paid he for his frenzied taunts, when, by the will of
Dionysus, he was pent in a rocky prison. There the fierce exuberance
of his madness slowly passed away. That man learned to know the god,
whom in his frenzy he had provoked with mockeries; for he had sought
to quell the god-possessed women, and the Bacchanalian fire; and he
angered the Muses that love the flute.
And by the waters of the Dark Rocks, the waters of the twofold sea,
are the shores of Bosporus, and Thracian Salmydessus; where Ares,
neighbour to the city, saw the accurst, blinding wound dealt to the
two sons of Phineus by his fierce wife,-the wound that brought darkness
to those vengeance-craving orbs, smitten with her bloody hands, smitten
with her shuttle for a dagger.
Pining in their misery, they bewailed their cruel doom, those sons
of a mother hapless in her marriage; but she traced her descent from
the ancient line of the Erechtheidae; and in far-distant caves she
was nursed amid her father's storms, that child of Boreas, swift as
a steed over the steep hills, a daughter of gods; yet upon her also
the gray Fates bore hard, my daughter. (Enter TEIRESIAS, led by a
Boy, on the spectators' right.)
TEIRESIAS Princes of Thebes, we have come with linked steps, both
served by the eyes of one; for thus, by a guide's help, the blind
CREON And what, aged Teiresias, are thy tidings?
TEIRESIAS I will tell thee; and do thou hearken to the seer.
CREON Indeed, it has not been my wont to slight thy counsel.
TEIRESIAS Therefore didst thou steer our city's course aright.
CREON I have felt, and can attest, thy benefits.
TEIRESIAS Mark that now, once more, thou standest on fate's fine
CREON What means this? How I shudder at thy message!
TEIRESIAS Thou wilt learn, when thou hearest the warnings of mine
art. As I took my place on mine old seat of augury, where all birds
have been wont to gather within my ken, I heard a strange voice among
them; they were screaming with dire, feverish rage, that drowned their
language in jargon; and I knew that they were rending each other with
their talons, murderously; the whirr of wings told no doubtful tale.
Forthwith, in fear, I essayed burnt-sacrifice on a duly kindled altar:
but from my offerings the Fire-god showed no flame; a dank moisture,
oozing from the thigh-flesh, trickled forth upon the embers, and smoked,
and sputtered; the gall was scattered to the air; and the streaming
thighs lay bared of the fat that had been wrapped round them.
Such was the failure of the rites by which I vainly asked a sign,
as from this boy I learned; for he is my guide, as I am guide to others.
And 'tis thy counsel that hath brought this sickness on our State.
For the altars of our city and of our hearths have been tainted, one
and all, by birds and dogs, with carrion from the hapless corpse,
the son of Oedipus: and therefore the gods no more accept prayer and
sacrifice at our hands, or the flame of meat-offering; nor doth any
bird give a clear sign by its shrill cry, for they have tasted the
fatness of a slain man's blood.
Think, then, on these things, my son. All men are liable to err; but
when an error hath been made, that man is no longer witless or unblest
who heals the ill into which he hath fallen, and remains not stubborn.
Self-will, we know, incurs the charge of folly. Nay, allow the claim
of the dead; stab not the fallen; what prowess is it to slay the slain
anew? I have sought thy good, and for thy good I speak: and never
is it sweeter to learn from a good counsellor than when he counsels
for thine own gain.
CREON Old man, ye all shoot your shafts at me, as archers at the
butts;-Ye must needs practise on me with seer-craft also;-aye, the
seer-tribe hath long trafficked in me, and made me their merchandise.
Gain your gains, drive your trade, if ye list, in the silver-gold
of Sardis and the gold of India; but ye shall not hide that man in
the grave,-no, though the eagles of Zeus should bear the carrion morsels
to their Master's throne-no, not for dread of that defilement will
I suffer his burial:-for well I know that no mortal can defile the
gods.-But, aged Teiresias, the wisest fall with shameful fall, when
they clothe shameful thoughts in fair words, for lucre's sake.
TEIRESIAS Alas! Doth any man know, doth any consider...
CREON Whereof? What general truth dost thou announce?
TEIRESIAS How precious, above all wealth, is good counsel.
CREON As folly, I think, is the worst mischief.
TEIRESIAS Yet thou art tainted with that distemper.
CREON I would not answer the seer with a taunt.
TEIRESIAS But thou dost, in saying that I prophesy falsely.
CREON Well, the prophet-tribe was ever fond of money.
TEIRESIAS And the race bred of tyrants loves base gain.
CREON Knowest thou that thy speech is spoken of thy king?
TEIRESIAS I know it; for through me thou hast saved Thebes.
CREON Thou art a wise seer; but thou lovest evil deeds.
TEIRESIAS Thou wilt rouse me to utter the dread secret in my soul.
CREON Out with it!-Only speak it not for gain.
TEIRESIAS Indeed, methinks, I shall not,-as touching thee.
CREON Know that thou shalt not trade on my resolve.
TEIRESIAS Then know thou-aye, know it well-that thou shalt not live
through many more courses of the sun's swift chariot, ere one begotten
of thine own loins shall have been given by thee, a corpse for corpses;
because thou hast thrust children of the sunlight to the shades, and
ruthlessly lodged a living soul in the grave; but keepest in this
world one who belongs to the gods infernal, a corpse unburied, unhonoured,
all unhallowed. In such thou hast no part, nor have the gods above,
but this is a violence done to them by thee. Therefore the avenging
destroyers lie in wait for thee, the Furies of Hades and of the gods,
that thou mayest be taken in these same ills.
And mark well if I speak these things as a hireling. A time not long
to be delayed shall awaken the wailing of men and of women in thy
house. And a tumult of hatred against thee stirs all the cities whose
mangled sons had the burial-rite from dogs, or from wild beasts, or
from some winged bird that bore a polluting breath to each city that
contains the hearths of the dead.
Such arrows for thy heart-since thou provokest me-have I launched
at thee, archer-like, in my anger,-sure arrows, of which thou shalt
not escape the smart.-Boy, lead me home, that he may spend his rage
on younger men, and learn to keep a tongue more temperate, and to
bear within his breast a better mind than now he bears. (The Boy
leads TEIRESIAS Out.)
LEADER OF THE CHORUS The man hath gone, O King, with dread prophecies.
And, since the hair on this head, once dark, hath been white, I know
that he hath never been a false prophet to our city.
CREON I, too, know it well, and am troubled in soul. 'Tis dire to
yield; but, by resistance, to smite my pride with ruin-this, too,
is a dire choice.
LEADER Son of Menoeceus, it behoves thee to take wise counsel.
CREON What should I do then? Speak and I will obey.
LEADER Go thou, and free the maiden from her rocky chamber, and make
a tomb for the unburied dead.
CREON And this is thy counsel? Thou wouldst have me yield?
LEADER Yea, King, and with all speed; for swift harms from the gods
cut short the folly of men.
CREON Ah me, 'tis hard, but I resign my cherished resolve,-I obey.
We must not wage a vain war with destiny.
LEADER Go, thou, and do these things; leave them not to others.
CREON Even as I am I'll go:-on, on, my servants, each and all of
you,-take axes in your hands, and hasten to the ground that ye see
yonder! Since our judgment hath taken this turn, I will be present
to unloose her, as myself bound her. My heart misgives me, 'tis best
to keep the established laws, even to life's end. (CREON and his
servants hasten out on the spectators' left.)
CHORUS (singing, strophe 1)
O thou of many names, glory of the Cadmeian bride, offspring of loud-thundering
Zeus! thou who watchest over famed Italia, and reignest, where all
guests are welcomed, in the sheltered plain of Eleusinian Deo! O Bacchus,
dweller in Thebe, mother-city of Bacchants, by the softly-gliding
stream of Ismenus, on the soil where the fierce dragon's teeth were
Thou hast been seen where torch-flames glare through smoke, above
the crests of the twin peaks, where move the Corycian nymphs, thy
votaries, hard by Castalia's stream.
Thou comest from the ivy-mantled slopes of Nysa's hills, and from
the shore green with many-clustered vines, while thy name is lifted
up on strains of more than mortal power, as thou visitest the ways
Thebe, of all cities, thou holdest first in honour, thou and thy
mother whom the lightning smote; and now, when all our people is captive
to a violent plague, come thou with healing feet over the Parnassian
height, or over the moaning strait!
O thou with whom the stars rejoice as they move, the stars whose
breath is fire; O master of the voices of the night; son begotten
of Zeus; appear, O king, with thine attendant Thyiads, who in night-long
frenzy dance before thee, the giver of good gifts, Iacchus! (Enter
MESSENGER, on the spectators' left.)
MESSENGER Dwellers by the house of Cadmus and of Amphion, there is
no estate of mortal life that I would ever praise or blame as settled.
Fortune raises and Fortune humbles the lucky or unlucky from day to
day, and no one can prophesy to men concerning those things which
are established. For
CREON was blest once, as I count bliss; he had saved this land of
Cadmus from its foes; he was clothed with sole dominion in the land;
he reigned, the glorious sire of princely children. And now all hath
been lost. For when a man hath forfeited his pleasures, I count him
not as living,-I hold him but a breathing corpse. Heap up riches in
thy house, if thou wilt; live in kingly state; yet, if there be no
gladness therewith, I would not give the shadow of a vapour for all
the rest, compared with joy.
LEADER OF THE CHORUS And what is this new grief that thou hast to
tell for our princes?
MESSENGER Death; and the living are guilty for the dead.
LEADER And who is the slayer? Who the stricken? Speak.
MESSENGER Haemon hath perished; his blood hath been shed by no stranger.
LEADER By his father's hand, or by his own?
MESSENGER By his own, in wrath with his sire for the murder.
LEADER O prophet, how true, then, hast thou proved thy word!
MESSENGER These things stand thus; ye must consider of the rest.
LEADER Lo, I see the hapless Eurydice, Creon's wife, approaching;
she comes from the house by chance, haply,-or because she knows the
tidings of her son. (Enter EURYDICE from the palace.)
EURYDICE People of Thebes, I heard your words as I was going forth,
to salute the goddess Pallas with my prayers. Even as I was loosing
the fastenings of the gate, to open it, the message of a household
woe smote on mine ear: I sank back, terror-stricken, into the arms
of my handmaids, and my senses fled. But say again what the tidings
were; I shall hear them as one who is no stranger to sorrow.
MESSENGER Dear lady, I will witness of what I saw, and will leave
no word of the truth untold. Why, indeed, should I soothe thee with
words in which must presently be found false? Truth is ever best.-I
attended thy lord as his guide to the furthest part of the plain,
where the body of Polyneices, torn by dogs, still lay unpitied. We
prayed the goddess of the roads, and Pluto, in mercy to restrain their
wrath; we washed the dead with holy washing; and with freshly-plucked
boughs we solemnly burned such relics as there were. We raised a high
mound of his native earth; and then we turned away to enter the maiden's
nuptial chamber with rocky couch, the caverned mansion of the bride
of Death. And, from afar off, one of us heard a voice of loud wailing
at that bride's unhallowed bower; and came to tell our master Creon.
And as the king drew nearer, doubtful sounds of a bitter cry floated
around him; he groaned, and said in accents of anguish, 'Wretched
that I am, can my foreboding be true? Am I going on the wofullest
way that ever I went? My son's voice greets me.-Go, my servants,-haste
ye nearer, and when ye have reached the tomb, pass through the gap,
where the stones have been wrenched away, to the cell's very mouth,-and
look. and see if 'tis Haemon's voice that I know, or if mine ear is
cheated by the gods.'
This search, at our despairing master's word, we went to make; and
in the furthest part of the tomb we descried her hanging by the neck,
slung by a thread-wrought halter of fine linen: while he was embracing
her with arms thrown around her waist, bewailing the loss of his bride
who is with the dead, and his father's deeds, and his own ill-starred
But his father, when he saw him, cried aloud with a dread cry and
went in, and called to him with a voice of wailing:-'Unhappy, what
deed hast thou done! What thought hath come to thee? What manner of
mischance hath marred thy reason? Come forth, my child! I pray thee-I
implore!' But the boy glared at him with fierce eyes, spat in his
face, and, without a word of answer, drew his cross-hilted sword:-as
his father rushed forth in flight, he missed his aim;-then, hapless
one, wroth with himself, he straightway leaned with all his weight
against his sword, and drove it, half its length, into his side; and,
while sense lingered, he clasped the maiden to his faint embrace,
and, as he gasped, sent forth on her pale cheek the swift stream of
the oozing blood.
Corpse enfolding corpse he lies; he hath won his nuptial rites, poor
youth, not here, yet in the halls of Death; and he hath witnessed
to mankind that, of all curses which cleave to man, ill counsel is
the sovereign curse. (EURYDICE retires into the house.)
LEADER What wouldst thou augur from this? The lady hath turned back,
and is gone, without a word, good or evil.
MESSENGER I, too, am startled; yet I nourish the hope that, at these
sore tidings of her son, she cannot deign to give her sorrow public
vent, but in the privacy of the house will set her handmaids to mourn
the household grief. For she is not untaught of discretion, that she
LEADER I know not; but to me, at least, a strained silence seems
to portend peril, no less than vain abundance of lament.
MESSENGER Well, I will enter the house, and learn whether indeed
she is not hiding some repressed purpose in the depths of a passionate
heart. Yea, thou sayest well: excess of silence, too, may have a perilous
meaning. (The MESSENGER goes into the palace. Enter CREON, on the
spectators' left, with attendants, carrying the shrouded body of HAEMON
on bier. The following lines between CREON and the CHORUS are chanted
CHORUS Lo, yonder the king himself draws near, bearing that which
tells too clear a tale,-the work of no stranger's madness,-if we may
say it,-but of his own misdeeds.
CREON (strophe 1)
Woe for the sins of a darkened soul, stubborn sins, fraught with
death! Ah, ye behold us, the sire who hath slain, the son who hath
perished! Woe is me, for the wretched blindness of my counsels! Alas,
my son, thou hast died in thy youth, by a timeless doom, woe is me!-thy
spirit hath fled,-not by thy folly, but by mine own!
CHORUS (strophe 2)
Ah me, how all too late thou seemest to see the right!
CREON Ah me, I have learned the bitter lesson! But then, methinks,
oh then, some god smote me from above with crushing weight, and hurled
me into ways of cruelty, woe is me,-overthrowing and trampling on
my joy! Woe, woe, for the troublous toils of men! (Enter MESSENGER
from the house.)
MESSENGER Sire, thou hast come, methinks, as one whose hands are
not empty, but who hath store laid up besides; thou bearest yonder
burden with thee-and thou art soon to look upon the woes within thy
CREON And what worse ill is yet to follow upon ills?
MESSENGER Thy queen hath died, true mother of yon corpse-ah, hapless
lady by blows newly dealt.
CREON (antistrophe 1)
Oh Hades, all-receiving whom no sacrifice can appease! Hast thou,
then, no mercy for me? O thou herald of evil, bitter tidings, what
word dost thou utter? Alas, I was already as dead, and thou hast smitten
me anew! What sayest thou, my son? What is this new message that thou
bringest-woe, woe is me!-Of a wife's doom-of slaughter headed on slaughter?
CHORUS Thou canst behold: 'tis no longer hidden within. (The doors
of the palace are opened, and the corpse of EURYDICE is disclosed.)
CREON (antistrophe 2)
Ah me,-yonder I behold a new, a second woe! What destiny, ah what,
can yet await me? I have but now raised my son in my arms,-and there,
again, I see a corpse before me! Alas, alas, unhappy mother! Alas,
MESSENGER There, at the altar, self-stabbed with a keen knife, she
suffered her darkening eyes to close, when she had wailed for the
noble fate of Megareus who died before, and then for his fate who
lies there,-and when, with her last breath, she had invoked evil fortunes
upon thee, the slayer of thy sons.
CREON (strophe 3)
Woe, woe! I thrill with dread. Is there none to strike me to the
heart with two-edged sword?-O miserable that I am, and steeped in
MESSENGER Yea, both this son's doom, and that other's, were laid
to thy charge by her whose corpse thou seest.
CREON And what was the manner of the violent deed by which she passed
MESSENGER Her own hand struck her to the heart, when she had learned
her son's sorely lamented fate.
CREON (strophe 4)
Ah me, this guilt can never be fixed on any other of mortal kind,
for my acquittal! I, even I, was thy slayer, wretched that I am-I
own the truth. Lead me away, O my servants, lead me hence with all
speed, whose life is but as death!
CHORUS Thy counsels are good, if there can be good with ills; briefest
is best, when trouble is in our path.
CREON (antistrophe 3)
Oh, let it come, let it appear, that fairest of fates for me, that
brings my last day,-aye, best fate of all! Oh, let it come, that I
may never look upon to-morrow's light.
CHORUS These things are in the future; present tasks claim our care:
the ordering of the future rests where it should rest.
CREON All my desires, at least, were summed in that prayer.
CHORUS Pray thou no more; for mortals have no escape from destined
CREON (antistrophe 4)
Lead me away, I pray you; a rash, foolish man; who have slain thee,
ah my son, unwittingly, and thee, too, my wife-unhappy that I am!
I know not which way I should bend my gaze, or where I should seek
support; for all is amiss with that which is in my hands,-and yonder,
again, a crushing fate hath leapt upon my head. (As CREON is being
conducted into the palace, the LEADER OF THE CHORUS speaks the closing
LEADER Wisdom is the supreme part of happiness; and reverence towards
the gods must be inviolate. Great words of prideful men are ever punished
with great blows, and, in old age, teach the chastened to be wise.
The major assignment for this week is to compose a 900-word essay on Antigone
. In this paper you will write an in-depth analysis using your own ideas and excerpts from the play in the form of quotes, paraphrase, or summary.
As you prepare to write this essay, make sure you understand what you are being asked to do.Pick a Topic
First, identify a topic in consultation with your instructor or write about one
of the following options:
- Antigone clearly scrutinizes the cultural institution of gender, for the play’s debate about the nature of justice and good governance hinges on Antigone’s defiance of the king, making the play one of only a few ancient Greek dramas that put a woman center stage (apologies for the bad pun!). Moreover, there are important moments in the play that underscore its focus on gender inequality. For instance, at one point Creon accuses his son, Haemon, of considering “some women” more important than the rule of law. Creon goes on to complain that Haemon puts Antigone before all others. In another passage, Ismene, invoking the argument that women should obey men, urges Antigone to submit to Creon. Examine representations of gender and the gender conflict in Antigone in detail.
- Scholarship developed from the nineteenth century through the present offers multiple interpretations of Antigone’s character. One of the abiding questions about her is whether her desire to bury Polyneices properly is political or if her defiance of the king is motivated, as she claims, solely by divine edict. Advocates of the first position see her as “speaking truth to power” as she engages in civil disobedience. But scholars who support the second explanation tend to consider Antigone’s concerns as primarily domestic—about her family—rather than political. Yet another interpretation of Antigone is that she, like so many other figures in ancient Greek drama, is guilty of excessive pride—hubris—as she tries to impose divine law on Creon.
Develop a character analysis of Antigone
. You may argue for or against one of the positions stated above or you may take another direction. One thing to consider in your discussion is whether she is successful despite her suicide.Develop a Tentative Thesis
As you consider different options for your thesis:
- Develop a few hypotheses about the text that are based on your own perspectives and relate to the topic that you chose to explore for this assignment.
- In addition to considering the text’s plot, reflect on what genre and other elements of literature (see the online lecture on this topic) reveal about ancient Greek cultures and important philosophies and values associated with this era and region.
- Review the lecture on literary movements and determine if examining other ancient Greek plays, particularly Sophocles’ Oedipus the King and Oedipus at Colonus, can shed light on Antigone and/or test your hypotheses about it.
Gather evidence that is likely to support your tentative thesis. At this point, there is no need to use “outside” sources to complete the essay. You will have an opportunity to do that next week. For now, your evidence should consist of experiential knowledge (what you have learned through life experience) and quotes, paraphrase, or summary from the play’s text.
Next, choose one of the prewriting techniques discussed in chapter 3c, "Invent and Prewrite," of The New Century Handbook
and begin prewriting.Rough Draft
Write your rough draft. You are not required to submit it, but you should acquire the habit of writing one for every essay you compose in this and other classes.Revise and Edit
Proofread the rough draft to ensure:
Name your document SU_ENG2002_W2_Clark_P.docRequirement from instructor Please follow!!!Please use literary terminology in writing essay such as tone, style, genre, point of view, and imagery, in your essay’s discussion of evidence.
- The thesis is clear and well focused and the introduction includes all the necessary information.
- The discussion of evidence includes quotes, paraphrase, or summary and synthesizes this material and your ideas.
- The conclusion is appropriate and reinforces the paper's main ideas without repeating the introduction word for word.
- The essay is formatted in APA style throughout. It uses appropriate grammar, spelling and mechanics, and quoted material does not exceed 25% of the paper.
|Used key passages and quotations from the text in your essay’s discussion of evidence, limiting quoted material to 25% of the paper or less. |
|Examined in your essay’s discussion of evidence what the text suggests about the culture, era, and region in which it was written. |
|Considered in your essay’s discussion of evidence literary movements associated with Antigone and/or philosophies that may have influenced the play. |
|Organized the paper effectively with unified paragraphs, each of which has a topic sentence and effective transitions to the next paragraph. |
|Provided an appropriate conclusion that reinforces the paper's main ideas without repeating the introduction word for word. |
|Met the word requirement. |
|Communicated clearly using your own words for the majority of the paper with correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling throughout. |