Project OverviewIntroductionDuring this course you will be required to undertake a major design project. In this project you will design the model of the stormwater management system that is located at the northern edge of the campus.OverviewIn civil engineering terminology, the rainwater and rainwater run-off occurring when it rains is known as stormwater.For engineers, managing the stormwater run-off is a very important matter. Water must not be allowed to pool on roads or pathways, and it must not be allowed to soak into the subsoil or foundations and footings around roads, or buildings.Managing the stormwater usually consists of directing the water away from the a) roads, b) pathways, c) carparks, d) roofs of buildings, and e) semi-permeable grounds; and collecting in temporary storage areas called sumps, and possibly causing the stormwater to be piped to the ocean or estuarine system and released.Depending upon what the nature of the surroundings areas are like, there may be a large number of sealed roads and footpaths, and other impermeable structures such as buildings covering the ground. Other areas may be semi-permeable; being largely grass, exposed soil, or gardens and bushland. In the semi-permeable areas, the stormwater may tend to seep away.In our project, we are considering the north-western part of ECU's Joondalup campus.This area is managed by a system of two sumps, which capture the water from the north-western side of the campus. One sump is 1200mm higher than the other. The two sumps are connected by a 300mm diameter pipe.You are to consider the ground, which is higher than both the sumps, which includes, and is to the west of Kendrew Crescent. The areas that you should include is shown within the highlighted region on the map shown below. The rising ground continues only part the way to Grand Boulevard on the west, and part of the way to the carpark on the south-west; and part way up towards Teakle Court on the north.You will need to do a site visit (if you have not done so yet), to determine what sort of ground cover that you are dealing with (i.e. permeable, or impermeable), and to determine where the high points are within the highlighted region, which are the limits of your catchment areas.Many of us have done a walk around the sump areas, and if you have not yet done so, you should take a walk around here too. You will want to identify the approximate shape and dimensions of the sumps to in order to calculate the volumes of each of them.MATLAB This design project will include the development of a fully working MATLAB analysis / simulation. Groups are NOT being used in this project. Project Deliverables1. Detailed design of your model.2. How you translated the real world into mathematical form.3. Working MATLAB analysis / simulation.4. Detailed documentation showing:A. Physical characteristic of the storm-water system:â€¢ Permeability of the soils,â€¢ The types of ground-cover present,o Non-permeable - e.g. Asphalt Roads or concreteo Permeable - e.g. Grass or sandâ€¢ Geometrical shape and sizes,â€¢ Other factors.B. Each of the assumptions that have been made.C. The geographical layout is very important. You must take into account:â€¢ the location and size of trees,â€¢ runoff and catchment areas.Project PhilosophyThe major idea is to be able to translate a physical situation into a mathematical form, and model it using standard engineering software tools; such as MATLAB and others can be used, but are not essential.What is important is that we can follow your thinking processes, and identify your engineering approach to modelling.Storm Water Management AreasThe analysis is to be carried out on the Northern end of the Campus; as shown below.The road view is as follows:Function of the Management AreasThe purpose of these two storm-water management areas is to remove the stormwater from the roads, paths, buildings and other run-off; and to capture it and hold it to reduce the likelihood of local flooding.Once the stormwater has been captured in these management areas, it is able to soak away through the permeable grass and soil.Here is a recent photo of Area 2, after the rains.The water soaks away through the grass, and the trees remove water from the sub-soil.Runoff Modelâ€¢ Take measurements of the sizes using Google Earth / Maps; or even physically measuring it out if you wish.â€¢ Determine non-permeable catchment areas.â€¢ Determine permeable areas; volume of the management areas.â€¢ Calculate likely levels using a related rates model.Project DocumentationYour project documentation must include the following major components:â€¢ all assumptionsâ€¢ design of your soil analysis and resultsâ€¢ determination of catchment areas and performance of various surfacesâ€¢ Runoff modelâ€¢ development of the overall modelâ€¢ calculationsâ€¢ validationDesign AssumptionsThe project documentation will include all the relevant design assumptions.DesignA detailed design must be provided. This design shows your methodology and the calculations that you have employed. Permeability Tests and Soil AnalysisThe results of the preliminary permeability tests of your chosen soils are to be provided, along with your analysis.Soil AnalysisYou must present the relevant theory and algorithms employed in your project.ValidationYour documentation will show the means by which you have validated and tested your algorithm and methodology, and how you have shown your MATLAB simulation to be correct. It is important that you also include your tests and samples of output.Software ToolsMATLAB OR Other Suitable Software - e.g. C++ or Excel can be used.The source code or design \for your working MATLAB / C++, or Excel etc simulation must be included. An explanation of the structure of the program must be provided. If you use Excel, you must ensure that you LABEL your model clearly, and that the formulas are visible in the LABELSAnalysis of your modelIdentify and discuss the design decisions that you incorporated into your model. Your explanations as to why you made the decisions should be quite detailed. Identify and explain at least three improvements that you could make to your tests, analysis, model; or things that you could do differently, so that it would meet the design criteria more effectively. This could include a discussion of your approach, problems encountered, what you experienced etcGathering DataDimensionsâ€¢ Measure the size of the areas as accurately as you can using simple manual methods. (Accuracy to +/- 0.25 meter)â€¢ Assume that the northern stormwater sump is 1200mm lower than the southern sump.â€¢ Assume that a 300mm ID (internal diameter) pipe connects the two sumps.â€¢ Assume that the northern sump does not have another drain.â€¢ Use trigonometry to get the depths of the sumps, and to calculate their shapes and volume.Soil Typesâ€¢ Use standard Western Australian soil types.â€¢ For your tests, determine what soil that you are using; assume that the sump has the same soil type.Environmentâ€¢ Determine the relevant environmental factors.â€¢ Use information provided from Western Australian sources; eg. BOM (Bureau of Meteorology).Validationâ€¢ Use industry standard calculators, and tables to validate your assumptions and calculations.â€¢ They should form part of your report. (Note - they are NOT the report)Marks BreakdownAssumptions 1â€¢ State all your assumptions.â€¢ Provide justifications for each one.Analysis of the problem 2â€¢ Break your problem down into the component partsSoil analysis 3Overall Model 3.5â€¢ Describe your situation in mathematical terms.â€¢ Explain the governing equations and laws.â€¢ Develop the overall model in detail.â€¢ Show how the component parts interact together.Runoff model 2Implementation 4â€¢ Implement in mathematical terms.â€¢ Full implementation in software.Testing and Validation 3â€¢ Test the completed model.â€¢ Show how you have validated the model.â€¢ Provide the full test suite.Conclusions 1.5â€¢ How did the model perform?â€¢ How well does it represent reality?â€¢ What were the problems?â€¢ How could it be improved?

Answered Same Day
May 31, 2021

Stormwater iManagement iSystem iof iNorth-Western iPart iof iECU's iJoondalup iCampus

1. iINTRODUCTION

1.1 What iis iStrom Water Management Model

The iStorm iWater iManagement iModel i(SWMM) iis ia idynamic irainfall-runoff isimulation imodel iused ifor isingle ievent ior ilong-term i(continuous) isimulation iof irunoff iquantity iand iquality ifrom iprimarily iu

an iareas. iThe irunoff icomponent iof iSWMM ioperates ion ia icollection iof isub icatchment iareas ithat ireceive iprecipitation iand igenerate irunoff iand ipollutant iloads. iThe irouting iportion iof iSWMM itransports ithis irunoff ithrough ia isystem iof ipipes, ichannels, istorage/treatment idevices, ipumps, iand iregulators. iSWMM itracks ithe iquantity iand iquality iof irunoff igenerated iwithin ieach isub icatchment, iand ithe iflow irate, iflow idepth, iand iquality iof iwater iin ieach ipipe iand ichannel iduring ia isimulation iperiod icomprised iof imultiple itime isteps.

1.2 Modelling iCapabilities i

SWMM iaccounts ifor ivarious ihydrologic iprocesses ithat iproduce irunoff ifrom iareas. i

These iinclude: i

Â· time-varying irainfall i

Â· evaporation iof istanding isurface iwater i

Â· snow iaccumulation iand imelting i

Â· rainfall iinterception ifrom idepression istorage i

Â· infiltration iof irainfall iinto iunsaturated isoil ilayers i

Â· percolation iof iinfiltrated iwater iinto igroundwater ilayers i

Â· interflow ibetween igroundwater iand ithe idrainage isystem i

Â· nonlinear ireservoir irouting iof ioverland iflow i

Â· capture iand iretention iof irainfall

unoff iwith ivarious itypes iof ilow iimpact idevelopment i(LID) ipractices. i

Spatial ivariability iin iall iof ithese iprocesses iis iachieved iby idividing ia istudy iarea iinto ia icollection iof ismaller, ihomogeneous isub icatchment iareas, ieach icontaining iits iown ifraction iof ipervious iand iimpervious isub-areas. iOverland iflow ican ibe irouted ibetween isub-areas, ibetween isub icatchments, ior ibetween ientry ipoints iof ia idrainage isystem.

SWMM ialso icontains ia iflexible iset iof ihydraulic imodeling icapabilities iused ito iroute irunoff iand iexternal iinflows ithrough ia idrainage isystem inetwork iof ipipes, ichannels, istorage/treatment iunits iand idiversion istructures. i

These iinclude ithe iability ito: i

Â· handle inetworks iof iunlimited isize i

Â· use ia iwide ivariety iof istandard iclosed iand iopen iconduit ishapes ias iwell ias inatural ichannels i

Â· model ispecial ielements isuch ias istorage/treatment iunits, iflow idividers, ipumps, iweirs, iand iorifices i

Â· apply iexternal iflows iand iwater iquality iinputs ifrom isurface irunoff, igroundwater iinterflow, irainfall-dependent iinfiltration/inflow, idry iweather isanitary iflow, iand iuser-defined iinflows i

Â· utilize ieither ikinematic iwave ior ifull idynamic iwave iflow irouting imethods i

Â· model ivarious iflow iregimes, isuch ias ibackwater, isurcharging, ireverse iflow, iand isurface iponding

1.3 Typical iApplications iof iSWMM i

Since iits iinception, iSWMM ihas ibeen iused iin ithousands iof isewer iand istormwater istudies ithroughout ithe iworld. i

Typical iapplications iinclude: i

Â· design iand isizing iof idrainage isystem icomponents ifor iflood icontrol i

Â· sizing iof idetention ifacilities iand itheir iappurtenances ifor iflood icontrol iand iwater iquality iprotection i

Â· flood iplain imapping iof inatural ichannel isystems i

Â· designing icontrol istrategies ifor iminimizing icombined isewer ioverflows i

Â· evaluating ithe iimpact iof iinflow iand iinfiltration ion isanitary isewer ioverflows i

Â· generating inon-point isource ipollutant iloadings ifor iwaste iload iallocation istudies

Â· evaluating ithe ieffectiveness iof iBMPs ifor ireducing iwet iweather ipollutant iloadings.

2. iSWMM iMODEL i

iIt iconceptualizes ia idrainage isystem ias ia iseries iof iwater iand imaterial iflows ibetween iseveral imajor ienvironmental icompartments. i

These icompartments iand ithe iSWMM iobjects ithey icontain iinclude: i

Â· The iAtmosphere icompartment, iwhich igenerates iprecipitation iand ideposits ipollutants ionto ithe iland isurface icompartment. iSWMM iuses iRain iGage iobjects ito irepresent irainfall iinputs ito ithe isystem. i

Â· The iLand iSurface icompartment, iwhich iis irepresented ithrough ione ior imore iSub icatchment iobjects. iIt ireceives iprecipitation ifrom ithe iAtmospheric icompartment iin ithe iform iof irain ior isnow; iit isends ioutflow iin ithe iform iof iinfiltration ito ithe iGroundwater icompartment iand ialso ias isurface irunoff iand ipollutant iloadings ito ithe iTransport icompartment. i

Â· The iGroundwater icompartment ireceives iinfiltration ifrom ithe iLand iSurface icompartment iand itransfers ia iportion iof ithis iinflow ito ithe iTransport icompartment. iThis icompartment iis imodeled iusing iAquifer iobjects. i

Â· The iTransport icompartment icontains ia inetwork iof iconveyance ielements i(channels, ipipes, ipumps, iand iregulators) iand istorage/treatment iunits ithat itransport iwater ito ioutfalls ior ito itreatment ifacilities. iInflows ito ithis icompartment ican icome ifrom isurface irunoff, igroundwater iinterflow, isanitary idry iweather iflow, ior ifrom iuser-defined ihydrographs. iThe icomponents iof ithe iTransport icompartment iare imodeled iwith iNode iand iLink iobjects i

2.2 iVisual iObjects

These iobjects ican ibe idisplayed ion ia imap iin ithe iSWMM iworkspace. iThe ifollowing isections idescribe ieach iof ithese iobjects.

2.2.1 iRain iGages i

Rain iGages isupply iprecipitation idata ifor ione ior imore isub icatchment iareas iin ia istudy iregion. iThe irainfall idata ican ibe ieither ia iuser-defined itime iseries ior icome ifrom ian iexternal ifile. iSeveral idifferent ipopular irainfall ifile iformats icu

ently iin iuse iare isupported, ias iwell ias ia istandard iuser idefined iformat.

The iprincipal iinput iproperties iof irain igages iinclude: i

Â· rainfall idata itype i(e.g., iintensity, ivolume, ior icumulative ivolume) i

Â· recording itime iinterval i(e.g., ihourly, i15-minute, ietc.) i

Â· source iof irainfall idata i(input itime iseries ior iexternal ifile) i

Â· name iof irainfall idata isource

2.2.2 iSub icatchments i

Sub icatchments iare ihydrologic iunits iof iland iwhose itopography iand idrainage isystem ielements idirect isurface irunoff ito ia isingle idischarge ipoint. iThe iuser iis iresponsible ifor idividing ia istudy iarea iinto ian iappropriate inumber iof isub icatchments, iand ifor iidentifying ithe...

1. iINTRODUCTION

1.1 What iis iStrom Water Management Model

The iStorm iWater iManagement iModel i(SWMM) iis ia idynamic irainfall-runoff isimulation imodel iused ifor isingle ievent ior ilong-term i(continuous) isimulation iof irunoff iquantity iand iquality ifrom iprimarily iu

an iareas. iThe irunoff icomponent iof iSWMM ioperates ion ia icollection iof isub icatchment iareas ithat ireceive iprecipitation iand igenerate irunoff iand ipollutant iloads. iThe irouting iportion iof iSWMM itransports ithis irunoff ithrough ia isystem iof ipipes, ichannels, istorage/treatment idevices, ipumps, iand iregulators. iSWMM itracks ithe iquantity iand iquality iof irunoff igenerated iwithin ieach isub icatchment, iand ithe iflow irate, iflow idepth, iand iquality iof iwater iin ieach ipipe iand ichannel iduring ia isimulation iperiod icomprised iof imultiple itime isteps.

1.2 Modelling iCapabilities i

SWMM iaccounts ifor ivarious ihydrologic iprocesses ithat iproduce irunoff ifrom iareas. i

These iinclude: i

Â· time-varying irainfall i

Â· evaporation iof istanding isurface iwater i

Â· snow iaccumulation iand imelting i

Â· rainfall iinterception ifrom idepression istorage i

Â· infiltration iof irainfall iinto iunsaturated isoil ilayers i

Â· percolation iof iinfiltrated iwater iinto igroundwater ilayers i

Â· interflow ibetween igroundwater iand ithe idrainage isystem i

Â· nonlinear ireservoir irouting iof ioverland iflow i

Â· capture iand iretention iof irainfall

unoff iwith ivarious itypes iof ilow iimpact idevelopment i(LID) ipractices. i

Spatial ivariability iin iall iof ithese iprocesses iis iachieved iby idividing ia istudy iarea iinto ia icollection iof ismaller, ihomogeneous isub icatchment iareas, ieach icontaining iits iown ifraction iof ipervious iand iimpervious isub-areas. iOverland iflow ican ibe irouted ibetween isub-areas, ibetween isub icatchments, ior ibetween ientry ipoints iof ia idrainage isystem.

SWMM ialso icontains ia iflexible iset iof ihydraulic imodeling icapabilities iused ito iroute irunoff iand iexternal iinflows ithrough ia idrainage isystem inetwork iof ipipes, ichannels, istorage/treatment iunits iand idiversion istructures. i

These iinclude ithe iability ito: i

Â· handle inetworks iof iunlimited isize i

Â· use ia iwide ivariety iof istandard iclosed iand iopen iconduit ishapes ias iwell ias inatural ichannels i

Â· model ispecial ielements isuch ias istorage/treatment iunits, iflow idividers, ipumps, iweirs, iand iorifices i

Â· apply iexternal iflows iand iwater iquality iinputs ifrom isurface irunoff, igroundwater iinterflow, irainfall-dependent iinfiltration/inflow, idry iweather isanitary iflow, iand iuser-defined iinflows i

Â· utilize ieither ikinematic iwave ior ifull idynamic iwave iflow irouting imethods i

Â· model ivarious iflow iregimes, isuch ias ibackwater, isurcharging, ireverse iflow, iand isurface iponding

1.3 Typical iApplications iof iSWMM i

Since iits iinception, iSWMM ihas ibeen iused iin ithousands iof isewer iand istormwater istudies ithroughout ithe iworld. i

Typical iapplications iinclude: i

Â· design iand isizing iof idrainage isystem icomponents ifor iflood icontrol i

Â· sizing iof idetention ifacilities iand itheir iappurtenances ifor iflood icontrol iand iwater iquality iprotection i

Â· flood iplain imapping iof inatural ichannel isystems i

Â· designing icontrol istrategies ifor iminimizing icombined isewer ioverflows i

Â· evaluating ithe iimpact iof iinflow iand iinfiltration ion isanitary isewer ioverflows i

Â· generating inon-point isource ipollutant iloadings ifor iwaste iload iallocation istudies

Â· evaluating ithe ieffectiveness iof iBMPs ifor ireducing iwet iweather ipollutant iloadings.

2. iSWMM iMODEL i

iIt iconceptualizes ia idrainage isystem ias ia iseries iof iwater iand imaterial iflows ibetween iseveral imajor ienvironmental icompartments. i

These icompartments iand ithe iSWMM iobjects ithey icontain iinclude: i

Â· The iAtmosphere icompartment, iwhich igenerates iprecipitation iand ideposits ipollutants ionto ithe iland isurface icompartment. iSWMM iuses iRain iGage iobjects ito irepresent irainfall iinputs ito ithe isystem. i

Â· The iLand iSurface icompartment, iwhich iis irepresented ithrough ione ior imore iSub icatchment iobjects. iIt ireceives iprecipitation ifrom ithe iAtmospheric icompartment iin ithe iform iof irain ior isnow; iit isends ioutflow iin ithe iform iof iinfiltration ito ithe iGroundwater icompartment iand ialso ias isurface irunoff iand ipollutant iloadings ito ithe iTransport icompartment. i

Â· The iGroundwater icompartment ireceives iinfiltration ifrom ithe iLand iSurface icompartment iand itransfers ia iportion iof ithis iinflow ito ithe iTransport icompartment. iThis icompartment iis imodeled iusing iAquifer iobjects. i

Â· The iTransport icompartment icontains ia inetwork iof iconveyance ielements i(channels, ipipes, ipumps, iand iregulators) iand istorage/treatment iunits ithat itransport iwater ito ioutfalls ior ito itreatment ifacilities. iInflows ito ithis icompartment ican icome ifrom isurface irunoff, igroundwater iinterflow, isanitary idry iweather iflow, ior ifrom iuser-defined ihydrographs. iThe icomponents iof ithe iTransport icompartment iare imodeled iwith iNode iand iLink iobjects i

2.2 iVisual iObjects

These iobjects ican ibe idisplayed ion ia imap iin ithe iSWMM iworkspace. iThe ifollowing isections idescribe ieach iof ithese iobjects.

2.2.1 iRain iGages i

Rain iGages isupply iprecipitation idata ifor ione ior imore isub icatchment iareas iin ia istudy iregion. iThe irainfall idata ican ibe ieither ia iuser-defined itime iseries ior icome ifrom ian iexternal ifile. iSeveral idifferent ipopular irainfall ifile iformats icu

ently iin iuse iare isupported, ias iwell ias ia istandard iuser idefined iformat.

The iprincipal iinput iproperties iof irain igages iinclude: i

Â· rainfall idata itype i(e.g., iintensity, ivolume, ior icumulative ivolume) i

Â· recording itime iinterval i(e.g., ihourly, i15-minute, ietc.) i

Â· source iof irainfall idata i(input itime iseries ior iexternal ifile) i

Â· name iof irainfall idata isource

2.2.2 iSub icatchments i

Sub icatchments iare ihydrologic iunits iof iland iwhose itopography iand idrainage isystem ielements idirect isurface irunoff ito ia isingle idischarge ipoint. iThe iuser iis iresponsible ifor idividing ia istudy iarea iinto ian iappropriate inumber iof isub icatchments, iand ifor iidentifying ithe...

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