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RIICWD511E Prepare Detailed Design of Subdivisions
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Task 1.
A soil investigation was conducted for a proposed construction site to prepare a comprehensive geotechnical report.
Initially, soil samples were collected and sent to the laboratory for analysis. The geotechnical engineering team subjected the samples to different tests to get technical information and specify the co
ect site classification according to Australian Standard AS 2870/2011 and NCC.
The results reveal the composition of the soil as below:
· Clay: 38%
· Silt: 35%
· Sand: 27%
As a technician, you are required to prepare a report that includes the following information:
a. Refer to the USDA soil texture triangle and find out the soil type. The entire process of soil classification should be discussed and show the exact type of soil on the USDA soil texture triangle.

. By knowing the soil type, refer to NCC, volume two, part 3.2.4, and find the site class.

· Slightly reactive clay sites: up to 40% clay
· Moderately reactive clay or silt sites: up to 54% clay
· Highly reactive clay sites: up to 60% clay
· Extremely reactive sites: above 60% clay

c. Select the appropriate type of footing for the obtained site class. Justify the selected type of footing and explain the advantages of this footing as compared to other types of footing.

Task 2. Geotechnical report is one of the very first documents that should be handed over to structural design team. What information must be included in such a report? Please fill out the table in the answer sheet. (Name minimum of 10 items)

    Brief explanation on the info included.
Task 3. Retaining walls are often found in places where extra support is needed to prevent the earth from moving downhill. In this case, excavation before putting the retaining wall can cause cracks in the su
ounding properties due to soil settlement or land sliding that can even cause structural collapse. Your company has been awarded a Design& Build contract for a mid-rise building project. As a civil technician, you are expected to understand the design and construction details handed over by the design engineer. A geotechnical report was given to the design engineer for his/her analysis. The design engineer designed two retaining wall systems along the boundaries. The highlighted area of the site was determined for a 3-meter excavation. The site location shows the northern, eastern, and western boundaries which are 18, 25, and 25 meters, respectively. Consider the followings for the cost:
· The prefa
icated concrete: $75.00 per cubic mete
· The reinforcement: $35.00 per kg
· The total formwork activities: $2500.00
As the civil technician, you are appointed to propose the cost-effective design.
System 1. Screw piles
The system includes 6-meter piles, capping beam, and grout injection in between the piles. The section area of the capping beam is 450mm X 550mm and its required reinforcement cage weighs 3 kg per meter of the cage. The interval of piles on the eastern is 2.5 meters (cl to cl) and on the northern and western boundaries is 2 meters (cl to cl). Each pile cost $1800.00, and the grout injection requires 20kg fine cement per square meter for the wall. The grout work contractor quoted $5 per kg including materials to complete the job per square meter of the boundaries’ faces. The photos of system 1 shows the end-product and the site location.
(Provide your answer in the table shown in the answer sheet)
    Bill of Quantity- Screw piles
    Sr. No
    Total Quantity
System 2. secant pile system
This system includes 6-meter piles with a diameter of 550mm, a capping beam (450mm height and 550mm width), and its required reinforcement cage weighing 4kg per meter. The concrete piles are to be constructed next to each other with 300mm intervals, maximum.
(Provide your answer in the table shown in the answer sheet)
    Bill of Quantity- Secant piles
    Sr. No
    Total Quantity
Task 4. Explain the main stages to implement this project and determine the activities to be taken at each stage.
Task 5. Due to some reasons, the design engineer has to include the secant piles. However, the piles diameters remain concerning. The engineer has to constrain the piles’ diameters to save space for the basement and car bays. Put yourself as the team member in the
ainstorming session and share your idea that how the concrete piles’ diameters could be minimized. A hy
id system could be the potential solution.
(a) Explain how the system would work against the soil’s lateral pressure and
(b) prepare a sketch that schematically shows the elements in the retaining wall system.
Task 6. Identify a total of 10 potential risks at the design and construction stages and assess them using the risk matrix below.
Include your answer in the allocated table in the answer sheet.
Task 7. Explain the followings:
(a) The trend of stress distribution due to the lateral soil pressure onto the piles
(b) The location of maximum stress after 3 meters of excavation.
(c) The role of capping beam
Answered 1 days After Mar 07, 2024


Bhaumik answered on Mar 09 2024
12 Votes
a) To classify the soil type based on the provided composition of clay, silt, and sand, we will use the USDA soil texture triangle. The soil texture triangle is a graphical representation that helps classify soil based on the percentage of sand, silt, and clay it contains.
1. Determine Percentages:
According to the given data:
· Clay: 38%
· Silt: 35%
· Sand: 27%
2. Plot the Points on the Soil Texture Triangle:
The USDA soil texture triangle typically consists of three axes representing sand, silt, and clay percentages. To classify the soil, we locate the point co
esponding to the percentages of clay, silt, and sand on the triangle.
· Start by locating the point for clay (38%) on the bottom axis.
· Then, locate the point for silt (35%) on the right axis.
· Finally, locate the point for sand (27%) on the left axis.
3. Join the Points:
Once all three points are located, draw lines connecting them. The point where these lines intersect within the triangle represents the soil type.
4. Identify the Soil Type:
By identifying where the lines intersect on the triangle, we can determine the soil type.
5. Discussion:
Discuss the characteristics of the identified soil type, including its properties, strengths, and potential implications for construction.
Here is an example of how to proceed:
a. USDA Soil Texture Triangle Analysis:
· Clay: 38%
· Silt: 35%
· Sand: 27%
Plotting the points for clay (38%), silt (35%), and sand (27%) on the USDA soil texture triangle, we find that they intersect within the region co
esponding to a loam soil type.
. Discussion:
· Loam Soil Type: Loam soil is a balanced mixture of sand, silt, and clay, with moderate water retention and good fertility. It offers good drainage and aeration, making it suitable for a wide range of construction projects.
c. Report Summary: The soil at the proposed construction site has been classified as loam soil based on the analysis of clay, silt, and sand percentages. This soil type offers favorable characteristics for construction, including moderate water retention, good drainage, and adequate fertility.
) To determine the site class based on the identified soil type (loam soil), we refer to the National Construction Code (NCC), specifically Volume Two, Part 3.2.4, which provides guidance on site classification for building construction.
In the NCC, site classification is typically based on the soil type and its associated properties, such as its ability to withstand movement or deformation under load. Different soil types are assigned specific site classes, ranging from Class A to Class S, with Class A representing the most stable soils and Class S representing the least stable or highly reactive soils. Since we have identified the soil type as loam, we need to determine the co
esponding site class. Typically, loam soil falls into Class A or Class S, depending on its specific characteristics and regional variations. Given that loam soil is generally considered to be moderately stable, it is likely to be classified as Class A in the NCC, indicating low risk of ground movement. However, it's important to note that site classification can vary based on regional factors, geological conditions, and specific project requirements.
Here is how we can interpret the soil classification based on the given assumptions:
· Slightly reactive clay sites: up to 40% clay
· Moderately reactive clay or silt sites: up to 54% clay
· Highly reactive clay sites: up to 60% clay
· Extremely reactive sites: above 60% clay
Given the composition of the soil as follows:
· Clay: 38%
· Silt: 35%
· Sand: 27%
We can see that the clay content falls within the range for moderately reactive clay or silt sites (up to 54% clay). Therefore, the site class for this soil type would likely be classified as **moderately reactive clay or silt sites** according to the NCC guidelines.
This classification suggests that the soil has moderate reactivity to moisture changes, which could potentially affect the stability of the construction site. Design and construction considerations need to account for the soil's reactivity to minimize any potential issues related to ground movement or foundation stability.
c) Given that the obtained site class based on the soil composition falls under moderately reactive clay or silt sites, it is crucial to select an appropriate type of footing that can effectively support the structure and mitigate any potential issues related to soil movement.
For moderately reactive clay or silt sites, a suitable type of footing would be a **raft foundation**. Raft foundations, also known as mat foundations, are large concrete slabs that cover the entire footprint of the structure. They distribute the building load over a wide area of soil, reducing the pressure on the underlying soil and minimizing the potential for differential settlement.
Justification for selecting raft foundation:
1. Uniform Distribution of Load: Raft foundations spread the load of the structure uniformly over the entire area of the foundation. This helps in reducing the stress on the underlying soil, which is particularly beneficial in moderately reactive clay or silt sites where differential settlement can occur due to uneven loading.
2. Mitigation of Differential Settlement: Since raft foundations cover the entire footprint of the structure, they are effective in mitigating the effects of differential settlement. This is essential in sites with moderately reactive clay or silt, where variations in soil moisture content can lead to differential movement of the foundation.
3. Increased Stability: Raft foundations provide increased stability by utilizing the entire soil mass beneath...

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