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Please answer the following two questions “How is climate change likely to affect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s health and the health bureaucracy which is attempting to close the gap?...

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Please answer the following two questions “How is climate change likely to affect Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people’s health and the health bureaucracy which is attempting to close the gap? How should the government respond to climate change to achieve the best health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people?”

Answered Same Day Apr 04, 2020

Solution

Karan answered on Apr 11 2020
143 Votes

Impact of climate change on Aboriginal and To
es Strait Islander people’s health
Table of Contents
Impact of climatic change on health of Aboriginal people    3
Efforts taken by the government in this area    6
References    8
Impact of climatic change on health of Aboriginal people
Most of the indigenous Australians live in u
an areas; however many are also there in the area which is most likely affected by climate change. Top End is one of the world’s most fragile and untouched ecologies which are greatly impacted by climatic changes. Thus, it can be said that at Australia, climate change is considered as a looming threat especially for indigenous people (Stephen & Duncan, 2017). It has been observed that To
es Strait Islander people have strong seafaring and trading related traditions which is also engaged in maintaining a bond with sea. This way they are able to depict their culture, historical beliefs and lifestyle. With a change in climatic change, there exists erosion and inundation and that is yet another hazard which threatens the communities, cultural heritage properties and infrastructure in the region.
However, when the sea level rises, it gives a direct impact on tidal inundation and that
ings the situation of natural calamities. On the other hand, island erosion is yet another significant concern for the people living in To
es Strait as that affects marine ecosystems, fisheries and flow of water on local communities and culture of Australia (La
é et al. 2017). Climatic change also impedes the level of water supply in the region. It is also observed that changes in climate can affect health of people and at the same time it can also spread numerous diseases. Therefore, climate change impact communities in north of Australia in a number of ways (Carmichael et al. 2018). However, even low intensity can
ing relatively distant cyclones and that can also create problems for some of the islands even when storm surges in conjunction with tides.
Biophysical change has a direct impact on islander culture and this seems to have direct impact on human health. Certain health problems includes – increase in heat related illness, range of diseases ca
ying by mosquitoes, increase in weather events and it also increases food borne illness (Paton & Johnston, 2017). Climatic change also has a direct impact on the mental well-being of people as they no longer predict the seasonal change. There exists a close cultural connection between natural environments, islander culture and habitat change which significantly impacts the natural beauty of the place. On several islands, graveyards are also located close to the shoreline; this also shows culturally significant areas which is now subjected to regular inundation at high tides.
Seeing the previous records, climate change also impact plant and animal biodiversity. Any shift in the marine conditions can reduce the amount of subsistence protein for islander consumption (Carmichael et al. 2017). This potentially causes economic, cultural and health impacts of the region. Another area of concern is the sea grass beds which are located in extensive meadows. Thus, this also highlights the importance of the region where animals and livestock can live. Impact is also shown on crayfish industry. Both the surface and ground water resources are more at the risk and they are also affected by diverse seasons. According to the historical dimensions, it is being observed that there are many islands which are dependent on fresh water lenses and which also provides drinking water. However, overexploitation of the resources can not only cause other problems; but it can also create the need of water desalination.
Rainwater tanks and large lined dams have been used to store water for the time when resources are not available. Many of the islands in the area have reached to the limits of drinking water supply; thus Australia is heavily reliable on temporary or any permanent source by which the need of water supply can be met (Ellis & Al
echt, 2017). Apart from this, extreme changes in the weather like droughts, floods and other natural calamities also have a direct impact on lives of people. Changes are also observed in the area of water supply due to increase of salt water intrusion into fresh water. This problem is more likely to amend challenges for islanders; hence they cannot make attempt to revive traditional gardening practices. Since, these practices are affected at greater extent; therefore this has a compound effect on health problems (Gislason et al. 2017).
In recent years, it is observed that aboriginal people have problems related to lack of fresh fruits and vegetables; therefore it has ultimate impact on the health dimensions of people. When people do not get fresh fruits and vegetables to eat, they consume all such things which are not health associated; hence this has a direct impact on the health of people (Murphy, 2015). Apart from this, climatic change is also integrated with impacts on building and infrastructure. For instance- heavy rainfall and flood is more likely to impact roads, airstrips and jetties and as a result it leads to problems such as waste dumps, water supplies and sewage infrastructure. Regarding this aspect, adaption has already been taken on some of the islands and the regulatory council is encouraging people to build further inland on other ground. That is located away from the traditional building area; however that is near to the shoreline (Rising seas pose a cultural threat to Australia’s ‘forgotten people’. 2014). Houses and other buildings have been developed nea
y other areas so that natural places can be protected.
There are many people in the Strait home who are exposed to the impacts of climate variability and this also raises the concern for tides, floods and unpredictable changes in weather patterns. Though this impedes the overall lives of people; hence specific consideration is required in this area (Reed, 2017). Nonetheless, in conjunction with the rising temperature, changes are also observed in the rainfall patterns that also creates new issues for people. Coastal erosion and flooding seems to have direct impact on damaging the homes and main infrastructure. It is essential for the politicians to invest consistently in finance and development activities; hence this needs to be promoted greatly in the society by a
anging diverse programs.
The increase in climate warms and fragile ecosystems in northern Australia has disappeared and along with this, several mammal and bird species have also disappeared. In many cases, climatic change poses serious threats to human health and survival. Indigenous people also suffer hugely from climatic changes (McWethy et al. 2017). On a generalized note, Aboriginal people are greatly dependent on environmental management because they are engaged in practices like hunting and collecting traditional foods. This is also essential in protecting the species which have disappeared with the rising sea levels. Arguing on this, rising temperature and increase in humidity is yet another problem for Aboriginal people because that
ings specific health issues (Suffice et al. 2017). It has also been predicted that water and food borne diseases will increase dramatically due to changes in the natural resources.
Apart from this, it is also known that indigenous people are suffering many heavy disease which is a burden for the community and that also leads to vulnerable illness. At Australia, the tide level rises over the sea walls of the beachfront and it enhances the flow of water on the houses (Suffice et al. 2017). Relocating entire community is not possible; therefore it is crucial to protect the scare fresh water supplies by using sand in ways to raise the island level. At Australia, small isolated islands are particularly considered as vulnerable to natural disasters because inadequate infrastructure prevents immediate response of the impact of disaster. The cost of adopting is also high; hence this is also affecting the living standard at subsistence level. Thus, chiefly the region is reliable in marine resources which are yet scare in availability (McWethy et al. 2017).
    On critical note, it can be said that To
es Strait Island communities are highly vulnerable to climatic changes due to their lowered resilience. This arises due to presence of different social and economic disadvantages (Carmichael et al. 2018). People in Australia are heavily dependent on traditional pattern of living which involves agriculture. However, agriculture is affected due to natural calamities and that affects the way people live in different regions. Henceforth, there exists a need of tailored responses which can help in undertaking adaptive strategies. This problem needs to be addressed through community engagement which can also allow making decisions on the basis of traditional social systems. Climatic changes highly impacts social, economic and environmental problems on the islands and that creates numerous problems for people (Gislason et al. 2017). According to the recent discussions, changes in climate leave a direct impact on communities with a low capacity to adopt the transformations. Environmental concerns also develop threats of security of homes especially for people who reside nea
y sea.
Efforts taken by the government in this area
    This has been observed that government of Australia suggested some policies which aim to improve the resilience to climate change that could also encompass several efforts for social benefit. This is also beneficial for the purpose of reducing relevant social liabilities such as poverty, poor education, unemployment and other support mechanisms. Up to an extent, it is beneficial in maintaining cultural integrity (Stephen & Duncan, 2017). There are numerous reports developed which have shown that living on such country is a key factor that can improve health and well-being aspects. This most commonly prevails in Indigenous people of Australians. In this context, a responsible approach is also adopted to climatic change wherein appropriate allocation of resources is maintained (Reed, 2017). The government has also developed collaboration with other policy makers which can assist in managing with climatic changes.
    In this respect, management consideration is also enhanced to improve the administrative aspects of environment (La
é et al. 2017). TSRA has coordinated with the To
es Strait Coastal Management Committee to address all the coastal issues and challenges. In context to this, several projects are being developed which works for the purpose of protecting natural resources of Australia. Different models of beaches are also developed to sea level rise which can also be applied in complex island settings. In this, processes are strongly influenced by the degree of wind, waves and tides (Rising seas pose a cultural threat to Australia’s ‘forgotten people’. 2014). From historical perspective, it is being identified that in the year 2005, The Commonwealth Government has released report on Climate Change, risks and vulnerabilities. This is engaged in promoting efficient adaptation responses in Australia. However, this has also included the degree of risks which might change the scenario of Australia. This is also i
espective to all the efforts that are being developed in lieu of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (Paton & Johnston, 2017).
    The government has also taken efforts for local communities wherein it is also ensured that ancestral lands and cultural roots are preserved at greater extent. This involved planning for different activities through which changes can be recognized for the environment. Efforts are also taken for relocating the communities living in island. This is the most important way through which devastating impacts of climate change on cultures, lands and livelihood can be reduced (Carmichael et al. 2017). At Australia, The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has stated about the protection of indigenous people in Australia. Along with this, it has also included poor and marginalized groups which have numerous disadvantages. This will disproportionately include the impact of climatic change in the country.
    Changes are also made in the area of overcrowding and inadequate shelter; hence this is crucial in reducing the exposure of water-borne disease. This provision is especially developed during flooding; henceforth appropriate changes have been made accordingly. To
es Strait Islander communities are also considered as the most vulnerable to climate change in Australia; therefore appropriate actions have been taken in this respect (Ellis & Al
echt, 2017). Changes are also made in the area of health concerns for people; therefore varied efforts are being made respectively. Apart from this, varied campaigns are also developed in this context. Government has also spent resources that are also directed to other programs which can benefit the entire country (Murphy, 2015).
References
Carmichael, B., Wilson, G., Namarnyilk, I., Nadji, S., Brockwell, S., We
, B., ... & Bird, D. (2018). Local and Indigenous management of climate change risks to archaeological sites. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 23(2), 231-255.
Carmichael, B., Wilson, G., Namarnyilk, I., Nadji, S., Cahill, J., & Bird, D. (2017). Testing the scoping phase of a bottom-up planning guide designed to support Australian Indigenous rangers manage the impacts of climate change on cultural heritage sites. Local Environment, 22(10), 1197-1216.
Ellis, N. R., & Al
echt, G. A. (2017). Climate change threats to family farmers' sense of place and mental wellbeing: A case study from the Western Australian Wheatbelt. Social Science & Medicine, 175, 161-168.
Gislason, M. K., Buse, C., Dolan, S., Parkes, M. W., Tosh, J., & Woollard, B. (2017). THE COMPLEX IMPACTS OF INTENSIVE RESOURCE EXTRACTION ON WOMEN, CHILDREN AND ABORIGINAL PEOPLES. Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action, 215.
La
é, J., Ford, J. D., Araos, M., & Flynn, M. (2017). The government-led climate change adaptation landscape in Nunavut, Canada. Environmental Reviews, 25(1), 12-25.
McWethy, D. B., Haberle, S. G., Hopf, F., & Bowman, D. M. J. S. (2017). Aboriginal impacts on fire and vegetation on a Tasmanian island. Journal of Biogeography, 44(6), 1319-1330.
Murphy, E. (2015). Climate change comes to the To
es Strait. [Online]. Available through: www.greenleft.org.au/content/climate-change-comes-to
es-strait>. [Accessed on 10th April 2018].
Paton, D., & Johnston, D. (2017). Disaster resilience: an integrated approach. Charles C Thomas Publisher.
Reed, M. G. (2017). UNDERSTANDING THE GENDERED LABOURS OF ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN FOREST-BASED COMMUNITIES THROUGH DIFFERENT MODELS OF ANALYSIS. Climate Change and Gender in Rich Countries: Work, Public Policy and Action, 199.
Rising seas pose a cultural threat to Australia’s ‘forgotten people’. (2014). [Online]. Available through: theconversation.com
ising-seas-pose-a-cultural-threat-to-australias-forgotten-people-34359>. [Accessed on 10th April 2018].
Stephen, C., & Duncan, C. (2017). Can wildlife surveillance contribute to public health preparedness for climate change? A Canadian perspective. Climatic Change, 141(2), 259-271.
Suffice, P., Asselin, H., Imbeau, L., Cheveau, M., & Drapeau, P. (2017). More fishers and fewer martens due to cumulative effects of forest management and climate change as evidenced from local knowledge. Journal of ethnobiology and ethnomedicine, 13(1), 51.
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