Soumi answered on
May 04 2020
Last Name: 1
Title: Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis is one of the nervous problems that are a demyelinating disease. In this disease, the insulating covers of the nerve cells in
ain and the spinal cord are affected and sometimes damaged. This damage disrupts the capability of nervous system, which hampers the communication with the body. The disease has various signs and symptoms that include physical, mental and psychiatric problems. However, the cause of the disease is not clearly identified. It damages the immune system and affects the myelin producing cells. Genetic and environmental factors can be the reasons of the disease. Dendrou et al. mentioned the disease as the viral infection. The present study focuses on the description of the disease and also discusses the effects of the disease on the individuals in a community. The genetic components of the disease are also discussed, which has effect on the body. Statistics of multiple sclerosis s provided to discuss the effect of the disease on the individuals in a population.
1. Multiple Sclerosis
a. Name of the disorder and short description
According to Lassmann, multiple sclerosis is characterized by the areas of lesions on spinal cord and
ain. The lesions are generally associated with the destruction of covering nerves, which promotes the effective transmissions of nerve impulses. Multiple sclerosis damages the nerve cells and is considered as the autoimmune disorder. When malfunctions occur in the immune system, multiple sclerosis attacks the tissues and organs of the body. On the other hand, Fred et al. mentioned that multiple sclerosis generally begins in the early adulthood between the age group 20 to 40. The symptoms of multiple sclerosis are very widely spread and the experience of individuals is different. Multiple sclerosis mainly causes sensory distu
ance in the limbs that include tingling and tickling sensation that is called paraesthesia. The symptoms of multiple sclerosis include numbness, itching and pain. People may experience Lhermitte sign that is the sensation of electric shock like. This sensation runs down the back and into the limbs of the body. Loukas et al. opined that this sensation occurs when the body is bending forward.
Multiple sclerosis affects the muscle also and causes spasticity that is muscle stiffness, weakness, partial paralysis of muscles and hype
eflexia that is executed reflexes. People may face problem in walking and vision. Multiple sclerosis is of several types that are relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis, primary progressive multiple sclerosis, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and progressive relapsing multiple sclerosis. 80% population is attacked by relapsing remitting form of multiple sclerosis (Mahad et al.). Other name of multiple sclerosis is disseminated sclerosis. However, the causes of multiple sclerosis can include genetic and environmental factors that are associated with viral infection. Treatment of multiple sclerosis attempts in improving function after the attack and also prevents the new attacks. Physical therapy helps to improve the ability of people to function. People affected by multiple sclerosis have and lower life expectancy of average 5 to 10 years in comparison to the unaffected population (Stevenson et al.).
. Effect of the disease on individuals
As multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease, it affects the nervous system. It has impact on the whole body. From the report of Multiple Sclerosis Foundation, it is seen that half a million of people in the United States is diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and approximately 100 people are diagnosed in every week (Filippi et al.). The rate of multiple sclerosis is high among the women in comparison to the men. The real cause of multiple sclerosis is unknown and there is no cure. However, treatment can slow down the progression of the disease and reduce the occu
ence of new symptoms. Multiple sclerosis affects the immune system of the body slowly and damages them to create problems for
ain to send signals to the rest of the body. The damage of nerve cells causes difficult condition for the body of individual. The hearing and vision of individual are also affected by the disease (Ca
illo-Infante et al.).
People suffer from double vision and it can affect one or both eyes of the individual. Nerve inflammation and fatigue of the eye muscles sometimes may occur. People may loss the visual power permanently. Short-term treatments may be effective in such case. Individual suffering from multiple sclerosis may experience hearing loss or deafness, which is generally occu
ing in rare cases. Multiple sclerosis causes slu
ing, volume control issue and poor articulation among four people out of ten individuals (Cala
esi et al). People may have
eathing problem and with the time the condition may be worsen. As the ability of the body became damaged, it weakens the muscles, which causes speech difficulty and swallowing problem among the individuals. In such case, the person affected by multiple sclerosis needs to improve the dietary intake pattern and physical activity that can help to reduce the effect of the disease on the body.
c. Genetic component to the disease
Though the causes of multiple sclerosis are unknown, dozens of genes are involved in multiple sclerosis risk. Hence, it can be said that genetic change is one of the reason of multiple sclerosis. Changes in the HLA-DRB1 gene are the strong genetic risk factor to develop multiple sclerosis. Other factors that increase the risk of multiple sclerosis development include the changes in IL7R gene. Belbasis et al. mentioned that environmental factors are also the risk factor to develop multiple sclerosis that includes exposure to the low levels of vitamin D, smoking and Epstein - Ba