LITERATURE REVIEW: TRAINEE TEACHERS VIEWS ON MONOLINGUALISM AND BILINGUALISM IN THE FOUNDATION PHASE
According to Struwig and Stead (2013:30) a literature review is a comprehensive summary of previous research as it explains the empirical, theoretical and descriptive work done on a topic of interest. Language could play a major role with respect to the level of understanding. Monolinguals can speak only one language while bilinguals can speak two languages (Khan 2011:96). When it comes to educating children during early stages or foundation phase, it is essential to make them understand the concept; therefore, teachers might use one or more than one language. For example, English might not be a feasible language for every student especially when it comes to understanding of new concepts; therefore, teachers might be required to use local or home language in order to make the concept easier. Likewise, it might not be feasible for the teachers itself to explain a certain concept in one language; however, they would efficiently explain the same concept in a local or home language. In this literature review, views on monolingualism and bilingualism in the foundation phase and how it can help in effective learning will be discussed through the analysis of literature researches. This research will entail a discussion on the reason behind incorporating bilingualism, the extent in which monolingualism restricts the learning process and its controversy, the impact on students with bilingual teaching process and experiences of the trainee teachers in Monolingualism and Bilingualism teaching.
REASON BEHIND INCORPORATING BILINGUALISM
Many of the primary schools have been using dual languages in the learning processes. It has been long investigated and accepted that the classroom practices are more effective among the children when different linguistics are used by the teachers. According to Allard (2017:120), there is a rationale behind the incorporation of the home language in the learning process within the classroom. First, as stated by Babino and Stewart (2017:20), children will be able to access to the diverse mode of the teaching method. Secondly, the student will also learn to appreciate the diversity within the cultures of the different languages.
As observed by Bailey and Marsden (2017:289), although there are no educational policies which utilises bilingualism in the teaching process in the classroom, however, many teachers identify that using bilingualism helps in encouraging a greater number of students utilising both the languages in their home. While comparing the pedagogy in between bilingual and monolingual class, it was observed by Allard (2017:120), that within the learning support program, the type of interactions and the patterns of questions that have been asked by the student changes. A trans-language helps in augmenting communication and interaction in class. Further using bilingualism also helped in the improvement of grammar and vocabulary among the students.
THE EXTENT MONOLINGUALISM RESTRICT THE LEARNING PROCESS AND ITS CONTROVERSY
As observed by Babino and Stewart (2017:22), although the number of questions in monolingual communication is similar to that of bilingual communication. Nevertheless, in most of the cases, it is observed that the interaction is more fluent in between the teacher and the student in case of bilingual communication than monolingualism. Further, Palmer et al. (2019:126) added that the interaction in case of the bilingual classes is much longer, with longer exchanges. In addition, the teachers in bilingual teaching process are observed to take more time in the interaction explaining the vocabulary with the students. This is majorly because monolingual classes might be able to explain a specific concept, i
espective of the concern, whether every student was able to understand. Further, even students do not have an option to question the educator. However, bilingual classes provide options to the students with respect to the understanding of the concept.
According to the theoretical framework, as explained by Bailey and Marsden (2017:290), trans-language, or bilingualism has been accepted to be a dynamic process of learning. As stated by Allard (2017:121), bilingualism allows the students as well as the teachers to identify their learning process by participation with the increase in the inclusion with the pedagogical tasks. As identified by Babino and Stewart (2017:22), the ecological approach of language learning and teaching process helps in envisioning the use of language and learning the complex interconnection in between the various parts and processes.
The ecological approach of understanding the effectiveness of the monolingualism with that of the bilingualism. It helps in shifting the focus of the study of language through maintaining a relationship between the language with the social context. Further, it also concentrates on inter-relationship in between three different dimensions—the ecological approach of studying the effectiveness of studying through bilingualism within the local environment of education. In one of the mixed methodologies stated that has been ca
ied out by Vaish (2020:60), it was observed that students who spoke their home language and studies different language in school. During their studies in school, 40% of the explanation is ca
ied out in their home language, as a result of which the student has shown more enthusiasm in learning English. Further, the study also shows that these students learned the English language better and utilised them both at their home and in school. This emphasises that a dual language is capable of establishing a fundamental environment within them which the students are encouraged to invest more in their language through protecting their minority languages (Vaish 2020:66).
THE IMPACT ON STUDENTS WITH BILINGUAL TEACHING PROCESS
In the study that was ca
ied out by Baxter et al XXXXXXXXXX:9), shows that an efficient peer interaction can be built based on the fundamental development, academic success as well as cognitive development. In addition, with the use of the bilingualism, it was observed that the fundamental base of students had strengthened. Considering the development of skills such as, mental flexibility, non-ve
al problem solving, grammar, understanding convention and non-conventional names is essential during foundation phase years for students and could be promoted by bilingual teachers. In addition, as opined by Vaish (2020:61), younger children who were exposed to dual language mode of teaching showed higher social competence due to their participation in childhood programs. Further, these childhood programs where teaching was ca
ied out in dual language allowed them to accept and mix freely, which the diverse families are helping them to acquire social competencies (Bailey & Marsden 2017:292). The study further emphasised on the differences in the perspectives that were observed among the children who spoke monolingual and the ones who spoke other languages other than English. Use of bilingual language could also allow children to understand the diversity and different communities around them. This might not be feasible if, teachers are monolingual, and this would demotivate diverse students with respect to the engagement in studies and extracu
The study showed that the student who has been educated in a bilingual education environment was far more empathetic, hyperactive and had the ability to externalise. They were observed to be more self-controlled than monolingual speaking children. As supported by the studies ca
ied out by Palmer et al. (2019:128), it was reported that the greater number of students prefers bilingual engage as the discursive tool compared to the monolingual teaching process. Although there were instances where the ecology of certain policies unbalanced the ideologies, relationships and practices, this, as a result, has been observed to have tempered the interpersonal and pedagogical power (Palmer et al. 2019:129).
EXPERIENCES OF TRAINEE TEACHERS IN MONOLINGUALISM AND BILINGUALISM TEACHING
As stated by the trainee teachers the use of localised language during the teaching process made them more confident. Confidence is an essential aspect for a trainee teacher and building confidence is associated with the ability to make children understand the concepts and allow them to engage in conversation. Therefore, it is not mandatory that the engagement is limited to the use of a specific language rather; teachers might also use a mix of 2 languages if the classes have children from different cultural or linguistic backgrounds. Therefore, the choice of language is highly dependent upon local communities and geographical feasibility.
Further, the teacher also found that the students are effectively participating in the learning process. Further, the students were also observed to utilise the language that is learnt in the school at their home which also highlights the effectiveness of the language learnt that have created enthusiasm among the student to practice and use the language more. As opined by Otwinowska (2017:314), even though there are teachers and management ba
iers which can prevent the teachers using the innovative tool in the teaching practices, with the utilisation of linguistic diversity more the number of students can be motivated to learn other languages and implement them in their daily lives.
Additionally, for trainee teachers, this aspect of learning procedure added confidence among the teachers so that they practice on the culturally diverse language rather than a remaining constraint in one single language for the distribution of education. This helped them in gaining insights related to the primary language learning process through the inclusion of local languages (Otwinowska 2017:319).
Further, exposure towards a specific language could also be considered as a major determinant of proficiency in that language. Considering the prior presented rationale, it could be deciphered that monolingual language might seem difficult for the children during their initial or foundational phase; however, it allows the development of expertise and proficiency in the same language. Further, monolingual classes could also help to maintain the relationship between present and past cultures especially during subjects such as, history.
However, monolingual classes are difficult for those children, which are exposed to a native language at home or speak any other language at home. Therefore, such children face difficulty in developing fluency with respect to either language. As evident from the rationales presented by Byers-Heinlein and Lew-Williams (2013:95), children might mix words from two languages in the same sentence and this is called code mix. Therefore, it becomes difficult for the children to understand develop fluency in either language.
Primary school teachers take three different professional sessions for their career development. The study takes into account the experiences, attitude and their pedagogical practices related to the discussion of migration. Based on what was said above the trainee teachers’ views are leaning more towards using bilingualism as it helps with the diverse learners (learners who speak a difference home language) in the classroom. Further, as agreed by Gilham and Furstenau (2020:40), the use of different language in the teaching process made the learning process for the student easier and simplistic. It also helped in an emotional association between the students so that they can attach their experiences with their perception while there are using bilingualism in their learning process in school life. In conclusion further research will be done on, the difference between university methods of teaching as opposed to primary school (classroom) teachings when it comes to language ba
iers (only speaking one language- monolingualism). Do you think by being a monolingual speaker could you be disadvantaging learners that speak