XXXXXXXXXXEthics and Sustainability
For years, it has found that companies are other organisations are facing and tackling some of the world’s most pressing problems identified in terms of ethical, economic, social or environmental uses, and, depicting serious commitment for handling it. Ethical frameworks are understood as defined set of rules and principles followed by business firm for governing business acts and decisions. In more globalised economy and widespread changes in climate draw attention to events happening around the world regarding responsibilities humans have with respect to environment and economy.
Identification of issue
The first ethical issue gaining attention is environmental risks and effects of climate change making sustainability as one of the major agenda for global corporations. In this context, a business firm named ZeroTrees is facing issue of cutting down trees and forests for producing toilet papers. Forests and trees are the lungs of this planet purifying air, providing oxygen and acting as life support for millions of species. One study showed that more than 27,000 trees are being cut down for producing toilet papers, creating pressure on companies to develop and innovate sustainable toilet producing program for protecting forests. The business firms are expected to produce toilet papers from sustainable measures causing no threat and risk of depletion to natural forests and maintaining CO2 balanced through using efficient production processes and souring raw materials from responsible sources (ZeroTrees, 2018).
Ethical framework for addressing issue 1 and justification of choice
Common good approach seems appropriate for resolving this ethical dilemma where individuals are considered as a part of larger community. For society to grow and develop, it is necessary that individuals and business firms are safeguarding sustainability of the community. One important component in this is sustainable environment and community where business actions and decisions need to be evaluated on grounds of goodness and harm created by it (Bruns-Smith, XXXXXXXXXXThis thinking and ethical perspective led an enterprise to produce toilet papers using sustainable farmed bamboo the raw material, as bamboo can be farmed in almost all kinds of climates and at several times.
Second ethical approach for solving this ethical dilemma is Utilitarianism where business action is evaluated and measured in light of its contribution in maximising happiness and pleasure of all people on the earth. The total utility or worth of a business decision is measured on the ground whether it helps in fostering happiness and pleasure to all people. Through using sustainable tissue producing techniques and processes, doctrine of utility is proved as it helps in restoring forests, and, at the same time, planting trees. As found, ZeroTree is working on the mission of using sustainable bamboo for producing toilet papers, and, collaboration with non-profit organisations for planting trees using the local workforce thereby creating thousands of jobs, and attaining maximum utility and satisfaction (Savitz, 2012).
Identification of issue
Another ethical issue gaining considerable attention is worker exploitation and forced labour in international business. This ethical issue is being faced by a Spanish high street retailer Zara, who faced allegations of slave-labour working conditions in more than 30 of its outsourced production plants, running in Brazil. On an investigation done by a TV show called ‘The League’, reporters stated that immigrant workers were found to working and caught in slave like conditions in one of the garment production factory. On visiting workshops, workers also informed that selling price of a pair of Zara jeans is divided equally between all the people involved in the production system, which substantially reduces individual proportion. Moreover, average monthly income of workers is also very less, coupled with miserable working safety conditions, even fire extinguisher are not in place. The working time is also critical as each shift of worker lasts for more than 12 hours (Antunes, 2011).
Ethical framework for addressing issue 2 and justification of choice
The rights approach, an ethical framework hold important precursors in guiding suppliers and employers for ethical decision making. Stating explicitly, rights approach emphasised importance of respecting human dignity and always pursuing rational approach for evaluating choices and decisions. This approach holds the fact that human beings owes moral right and obligation to respect others, their interests and expectations, and considering choices and decisions in light of interests and expectations of other people and society as a whole (DiStaso & Bortree, XXXXXXXXXXAs per this ethical standard, business firms are not expected to pursue and plan business actions and strategies with wrong or ill-based intentions; rather, it should be followed by their ethical duty and obligations. (Earley, 2017).
Justice approach is another ethical standard guiding business firms to act in ‘self-regulating fashion’ where they are bound by the duty to choose and obey universal moral law for performing business decisions. In business world, all personnel should be treated with equality, dignity and self-respect. There should be no favouritism and discrimination for anyone in the firm. It means some category personnel are not allowed to give high benefits, while some others are discriminated and imposed with burdens. For all rational creations, there are commonly defined ethical obligations deriving by the rules of behaviour asking them to always plan and conduct business decisions in rational manner (Crane & Matten, 2010).
The above discussion conclude the fact that global economy is becoming highly complicated day-by-day giving rise to varied set complexities in ethical, commercial, social and environmental sectors. With the growth in economic, ethical and environmental issues, there is increasing volume of regulations guided by ethical theories and frameworks to be complied and obeyed with, in both manufacturing and service sector. These ethical frameworks should not be considered as full fledge control against unethical practices, however, it proves as strong safeguard.
Anderson, K XXXXXXXXXXProfit By Tackling Massive Social And Environmental Problems. Retrieved 21st June 2018 https:
Antunes, A XXXXXXXXXXZara Accused Of Alleged 'Slave Labor' In Brazil . Retrieved 21st June 2018 https:
Bruns-Smith, A XXXXXXXXXXEnvironmental Sustainability in the Hospitality Industry: Best Practices, Guest Participation, and Customer Satisfaction. Retrieved 21st June 2018 https:
Crane, A. & Matten, D XXXXXXXXXXBusiness Ethics: Managing Corporate Citizenship and Sustainability in the Age of Globalization. UK: Oxford University Press.
DiStaso, M.W. & Bortree, D.S XXXXXXXXXXEthical Practice of Social Media in Public Relations. UK: Routledge.
Earley, K XXXXXXXXXXFrom reaction to purpose: the evolution of business action on sustainability. Retrieved 21st June 2018 https:
ZeroTrees XXXXXXXXXXRetrieved 21st June 2018 https:
Savitz, E XXXXXXXXXXManaging The Risks Of A Globalized Supply Chain. Retrieved 21st June 2018 https: