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Background Interacting with people using digital platforms such as Instagram® and Facebook® are increasingly common methods for establishing and maintaining social relationships, such as friendships....

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Interacting with people using digital platforms such as Instagram® and Facebook® are increasingly common methods for establishing and maintaining social relationships, such as friendships.
However, do online friendships provide any psychological health benefits or are they just a "fun" way to interact with others?
Essay Question:
Do on-line friendships enhance or diminish psychological health?
Essay Formatting and Submission Information
It is department policy that assignments are set in terms of a specified word limit and specified format which are as follows:
· 1250 words maximum
· Double-spaced lines
· 12-point font
· Times New Roman font
· Margin of 1 inch (2.54 cm) at the top, bottom, left, and right of every page
· The word limit includes in-text referencing but does not include the reference list at the end, nor the title page.
· APA 6th Edition Referencing
Submission Requriements
· An Electronic copy only of the Essay should be submitted via Turnitin software. Detailed instructions are provided from page 17. A hardcopy is not required.
· Most file types are accepted, except. Pages
· Please include your Word Count on the title page of the Essay
· Carefully read the sections titled "Penalties for Written Work", "Extensions for Written Work" and "Academic Honesty" on the proceeding pages.
1. It may be useful to compare on-line and face-to-face friendships.
2. You must take a position (that is, state whether on-line friendships enhance OR diminish psychological health).
3. Critically discuss at least three different pieces of evidence that support your position. The three pieces of evidence must come from research findings (not your personal beliefs and/or experiences) so be sure to cite relevant studies.
4. It is not enough to simply cite a study that supports your position; you must critically discuss a study's findings and be sure to highlight the reason/s why online friendships may/may not enhance or diminish psychological health.
Note: the starter references are a great place to start researching the area. Whether or not you chose to cite them is up to you.
Grieve, R., Indian, M., Witteveen, K., Tolan, G. A., & Ma
ington, J XXXXXXXXXXFace-to-face or Facebook: Can social connectedness be derived online? Computers in Human Behavior, 29, XXXXXXXXXX.
Indian, M., & Grieve, R XXXXXXXXXXWhen Facebook is easier than face-to-face: Social support derive from Facebook in socially anxious individuals. Personality and Individual Differences, 59, XXXXXXXXXX.
Lima, M.L., Marques, S., Muiños, G., & Camilo, C XXXXXXXXXXAll you need is Facebook friends? Associations between online and face-to-face friendships and health. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:68. doi: XXXXXXXXXX/fpsyg XXXXXXXXXX
Mesch, G., & Talmud, I XXXXXXXXXXThe quality of online and offline relationships: the role of multiplexity and duration of social relationships. The Information Society, 22(3), XXXXXXXXXXDOI: XXXXXXXXXX/ XXXXXXXXXX
Ryan, T., & Xenos, S XXXXXXXXXXWho uses Facebook? An investigation into the relationship between the Big Five, shyness, narcissism, loneliness, and Facebook usage. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, XXXXXXXXXX.
· Introductory paragraphs should state the structure of the essay (i.e., what each section covers) and the position taken by the writer (i.e., whether you agree or disagree with the continuation of infant stimulator programmes, or not).
· Each paragraph should clearly address the essay question - the opening sentence of a paragraph usually reflects what will be addressed in the paragraph and the final sentence in a paragraph is usually a summation of the paragraph and also demonstrates how this particular paragraph relates to the essay question/s.
· Essays should
iefly and concisely define any key terms you use
· Be sure to clearly state your position and present published studies which clearly demonstrate how the research findings support your position.
· It's also important to present published studies that DO NOT support the position you take. However, such counter-evidence should be challenged by critiquing the study (if possible) so as to diminish the veracity of the study's results. For example, if all the studies you cite to support your position have been conducted with females but the one study that doesn't support your position was conducted with males, then you could argue that the opposing findings are due to sample differences and therefore do not compromise your arguments and position.
· Consider whether the ecological validity of each study you cite compromises or bolsters your arguments. For example, a study conducted inside the lab where participants answered questions about how they predict they would react in certain situations has less ecological validity than a study which records a participant's behaviour in real-world settings without their awareness.
· Conclusions should recap the aim of the essay, the position taken and a very
ief overview of the key findings used to support the position take. A concluding sentence that highlights any caveats or limitations of the findings presented or offers avenues of future research, are good ways to finish an essay.
· Reference your arguments accurately - if an idea is not your own you need to acknowledge this and provide and accurate citation. If an idea is your own you need to provide evidence from the literature that supports it.
· To write a good essay you will need to do your own research and find articles relating to your particular essay argument, and extend beyond the starter references.
· There is no set minimum of maximum number of references you need to cite in your essay.
· Finally, thoroughly read over your essay and fix all typos and poorly worded sentences before submitting!

search and enter PSYCHINFO / PSYCHEXTRA and get into the database there
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Answered Same Day Apr 01, 2020


Abr Writing answered on Apr 04 2020
139 Votes
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Do on-line friendships enhance or diminish psychological health?
In the era of globalization and in the context of the advancement of the communication and Internet technology, establishing relations and processing interactions have become much easier than ever. The virtual arena that has enriched the lives of many and also contributed to the social and professional success of innumerable individuals, has been observed to be generating some positive impacts on the psychological health of individual. In this respect it must be noted that in the fast-paced world when it is not easy to sustain conventional relationships (sacrificing personal objectives and involvements), virtual/online friendships can act as a mental booster. Considering this fact it must be said that quite evidentially, online friendships enhance psychological health of those individuals who rely much on the social networking platforms and chat applications.
The fact that individual’s psychological health is enhanced by online friendships and other online relationships (like professional relationships) is evident from the fact that in the past decades sociologists have witnesses a dramatic rise in the number of youths using the Internet for purpose of either interacting or establishing relationships (David, Bradford & Lucas, 2012). In this respect, Subhramanyam and Smahel (2001) have suggested that online activities have the potential to widen and strengthen social networks of adolescents and of the emerging adults. Moreover, a study on the phenomenon conducted on a sample of Czech youths has revealed that “effects between Internet addiction and approaches to friendship may be reciprocal” (David, Bradford & Lucas, 2012). Moreover, the fact that online friendship has the potential to enhance the psychological health of individuals can also be supported by pointing towards the finding that such online friendship is often responsible for elevating the rate and level of self esteem and self efficacy among the users of online platforms (who intend to use such platforms for friendship purposes) (David, Bradford & Lucas, 2012). Brown and Larson (2009) has pointed out that there is a close relationship between online interactions and enhancement of mental health, and this can be suggested by citing the fact that higher need of peer social inclusion and support, which is a psychological want and demand, is often appeased and meat by establishing online relationships. Furthermore, indicating the
ighter side of the efficacy of online friendship, David, Bradford and Lucas (2012) have stated that the “Internet-oriented group had a significantly higher number...

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