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M4A1: Midterm Essay Examination M4A1: Midterm Essay Examination 2 HEM 125: Introduction to Homeland Security Jackie Bozeman M4A1: Midterm Essay Examination Larry J. Spicer Excelsior College 1. Is it...

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M4A1: Midterm Essay Examination
M4A1: Midterm Essay Examination         2
HEM 125: Introduction to Homeland Security
Jackie Bozeman
M4A1: Midterm Essay Examination
y J. Spice
Excelsior College
1. Is it possible for the U.S. Government to employ dual-use, all-hazards systems to protect U.S. transportation systems and critical infrastructure? Provide an example of a dual-use, security/safety system for both a transportation system and a component of critical infrastructure that would address the risk of te
orism and other non-intentional hazards (either man-made or natural).
    I do believe that the U.S. Government can employ systems that serve a dual-use, all-hazard purpose. With the creation of the Department of Homeland Security following the 9/11 attacks in 2001, extensive support was trying to understand how such attacks took place and identifying potential weaknesses that could be a target in future attacks. The national transportation system, critical infrastructures are considered strategically important. Plans to coordinate efforts among different levels of government and with public and private entities to create measures of security are a means to address natural disasters.
The NIPP also creates a strategy and outlines goals for establishing security measures for the nation’s 16 crucial infrastructures (Bullock, Haddow, & Coppola, XXXXXXXXXXThey are with the NIPP, Sector-Specific Plans (SSPs) for all 16 critical infrastructures. Sector-Specific Plans help establish security goals, identify weaknesses, and create metrics for evaluating how organizations maintain security (Department of Homeland Security, XXXXXXXXXXSSPs also can be used to identify te
orism risks and risks involved with non-intentional hazards.
2. Is the function of homeland security maintained wholly by the Department of Homeland Security, or is this function shared among other governmental and nongovernmental agencies? Explain your answer and give examples.
    The function of the nation’s homeland security is coordinated through the Department of Homeland Security yet, to reach the goals to maintain such purposes, a framework has established that expands the responsibilities beyond the federal level of government. Although area responsibilities such as border security and immigration fall mainly to the Department of Homeland Security, other areas such as emergency management and securing the nation’s critical infrastructure are where DHS acts within more of a support or leadership role for different groups (Bullock, Haddow, & Coppola, 2016).
    Shared responsibilities where Federal, States share homeland security and local government agencies but also expand out to non-government groups and public/private organizations that have a shared interest. This “Homeland Security Enterprise” approach creates a shared vision of security and helps to get all involved on the same page (Bullock, Haddow, & Coppola, 2016).
    The Homeland Security Enterprise (HSE) approach with sharing its vision of common interest when it comes to the nation’s security, creates a framework that allows for increased accountability, transparency and greater efficiency through coordinated efforts in response to security concerns. With the results, the DHS, through the Homeland Security Enterprise concept, has worked towards streamlining operations and reducing cost through eliminating duplicates. The resulting financial reviews helped to point out over 1 billion dollars in cost avoidance through consolidation, licensing changes, and sharing excess equipment between agencies instead of purchasing new for each group (Department of Homeland Security, Homeland security enterprise overview, 2015).
3. Is the U.S. government doing enough to protect the borders of the country? In your opinion, is this the most important element of preventing te
orist attacks within the country? Can you name any shortfalls that exist with regards to border security in the United States that could be exploited by te
orists? Provide references to support your opinion.
    In my opinion, I do not feel that enough has been accomplished by the U.S. government to protect the nation’s borders. Although the Department of Homeland Security has identified the boundaries of the U.S. as areas of critical strategic importance (Bullock, Haddow, & Coppola, 2016), there remain several issues to address. Mexican cartels and other criminal organizations smuggle illegal drugs, humans, and weapons into the United States in a variety of ways. One of the popular medicines that have migrated to the U.S. is heroin. Between 2008 and 2015, heroin seizures have increased by over 350% (Painter, 2017).
    We have seen an increase in the use of tunnels to transport drugs, humans, and other cargo across the border. These tunnels create an opportunity for smugglers to ca
y out their business without being detected by the technological tools of the U.S. Border Patrol. Reports of the discovery of most of these tunnels, at least 244 tunnels since the 1990s (Painter, 2017), have been discovered by law enforcement and government agencies through human intelligence. The longest tunnel saw was found in 2016 and stretched over 800 yards in length, equipped with electrical, railing, and an elevator system.
    Included with the 2020 Border Patrol strategy is a focus on operational control, which provides for better understanding the operational environment, infrastructure to prevent criminal activity, increase response time and mobilize supporting assets (U.S. Customs and Border Protection, XXXXXXXXXXThe Border Patrol strategy to protecting the nation’s border from te
orist and criminal activity will improve coordination of supporting agencies and also to create a layered-approach to drive smuggling attempts away from communities so law enforcement can have a more of a tactical advantage. (U.S. Customs and Border Protection, 2019).
4. Explain, as specifically as possible, how the function of homeland security is managed at the state and local levels.
    With the concept of the “Homeland Security Enterprise,” the roles and responsibilities of managing homeland security have evolved to include the State and local government levels. The State and local levels act as knowledgeable resources to identify “homegrown” te
orist activity and act as first-responders to counter natural and human-made disasters. The State level of government also determines and prioritizes infrastructure areas that could become targeted for attacks (Center for Strategic & International Studies, 2012).
    The Department of Homeland Security has worked on providing resources and establishing systems to share information regarding homeland security among State and local government agencies. These systems include fusion centers that are focal in creating a means to gather, share, and analyze information between Federal, State, and local agencies and with private/public organizations. These fusion centers are also state-owned and serve as focal points for major metropolitan areas (Department of Homeland Security, Fusion Centers, XXXXXXXXXXAnother function at the State and local government level are to provide information regarding counter-te
orism and criminal activity to supporting Federal and State agencies. This information helps not only the Homeland Security mission but also Federal and State-level policy-making (Steiner, 2009).
    Along with information sharing, State-level agencies have specific missions to support Homeland Security. These missions include establishing and maintaining sufficient critical infrastructure threat intelligence and developing and maintaining formal contacts to ensure situational awareness among local, regional, national, and international partners (Steiner, XXXXXXXXXXThe State-level missions help to create an active network that can support the nation’s intelligence community and the tasks of the Department of Homeland Security.
Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., & Coppola, D. P XXXXXXXXXXIntroduction to homeland security: Principles of all-hazards risk management. Waltham, MA: Elsevier.
Center for Strategic & International Studies XXXXXXXXXXThe first line of defense: State and local homeland security. Retrieved from https:
Department of Homeland Security XXXXXXXXXXSector-specific plans fact sheet. Retrieved from https:
Department of Homeland Security XXXXXXXXXXHomeland security enterprise overview. Retrieved from https:
Department of Homeland Security XXXXXXXXXXFusion Centers. Retrieved from https:
Painter, W XXXXXXXXXXSelected homeland security issues in the 115th congress. Retrieved from https:
Steiner, J. E XXXXXXXXXXImproving homeland security at the state level. Retrieved from https:
Transportation, D. o XXXXXXXXXXTransportation systems sector-specific plan. Washington, D.C.: Department of Homeland Security.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection. (2019, September XXXXXXXXXXU.S. border patrol strategy. Retrieved from https:

M4A1: Midterm
Essay Examination
HEM 125: Introduction to Homeland Security

Jackie Bozeman

M4A1: Midterm

y J. Spice

Excelsior College
M4A1: Midterm Essay Examination

HEM 125: Introduction to Homeland Security
Jackie Bozeman
M4A1: Midterm Essay Examination
y J. Spicer
Excelsior College
Answered Same Day Jul 21, 2021


Dilpreet answered on Jul 22 2021
123 Votes
Running Head: Introduction to Homeland Security    1
Introduction to Homeland Security         
    There is no doubt about the fact that US Government is capable of employing the systems that have dual use. The Department of Homeland Security that was created after the attacks of 9/11 in the year 2001, made extensive efforts to know the potential weaknesses that lead to such attacks. They are also concerned by the ways through which such attacks take place. The transportation system of the nation and its infrastructure are considered to be important in terms of the strategy. As the means to address the natural disasters plans that are capable of establishing coordination among different levels of government along with the public and private entities are significantly important.
    The security measures for the 16 crucial infrastructures of the nation are created planned by NIPP by creating different strategies and outlining different goals (Bullock, Haddow, & Coppola, 2016). Sector-Specific Plans are created for all the 16 crucial infrastructures with the help of NIPP. As mentioned by Department of Homeland Security (2015), these sector-specific plans assist in establishing security goals and have also proved to be beneficial to identify weaknesses. These plans have proved to be advantageous as they assist in creating matrices that are used for evaluating the security measures taken by various organizations. Sector-Specific Plans can also be used for the purpose of identifying the risks of te
orism and risks involved with non-intentional hazards.
    The Department of Homeland Security coordinates id responsible for coordinating the functions of the of the nation’s homeland security. In order to accomplish the preset goals, a framework has been established that is that expands the responsibilities beyond the reach of the federal state government. Department of Homeland Security is responsible mainly for border security and immigration. However, other areas such as such as emergency management and securing the nation’s critical infrastructure are few more responsibilities of Department of Homeland Security. As mentioned by Bullock, Haddow and Coppola (2016), Department of Homeland Security has been supporting the leadership role of a number of organizations.
    Though the responsibilities are shared between the federal states, homeland security and local government agencies, non-government groups and public and private agencies also showcase a common interest with these responsibilities. A shared vision of security is created by the “Homeland Security Enterprise” approach and helps these agencies to get involved with each other and work on the same platform (Bullock, Haddow and Coppola, 2016).
    Homeland Security Enterprise a
eviated as HSE is an approach undertaken with a vision to promote common interests, when it...

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