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Associations between Quantitative and Qualitative Job Insecurity and Well-being De Witte et al XXXXXXXXXXinvestigated the association of employee’s perception of quantitative and qualitative job...

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Associations between Quantitative and Qualitative Job Insecurity and Well-being

De Witte et al XXXXXXXXXXinvestigated the association of employee’s perception of quantitative and qualitative job insecurity with job satisfaction, and psychological distress in the Belgium banking sector.

Job insecurity is defined as the employees’ concerns about their work-related future. There are two kinds of job insecurities, the quantitative job insecurity and the qualitative job insecurity. The quantitative job insecurity is about the treat to the continuation of the job in the future. The qualitative job insecurity is about threat to the various valued aspects of the job, such as job content or working conditions.

Data collection and respondents

In total, there were 69,000 employees working in the 63 Belgian banks affiliated to the sector’s joint industrial committee in 2001. As questioning all employees would be too expensive, the researchers decided to survey a sample of 15,000 employees (roughly 21%).

All the 63 banks participated in the survey. About 21% of employees in each bank were invited to participate in the survey. Within each bank, the respondents were selected at random with no particular quota for gender, age or employee level. The survey was based on addresses which had been provided by the banks (name, language, address) and each randomly selected employee received a personalized envelope through regular mail, sent to him/her by the employer. The completed questionnaire needed to be returned (free of charge) through the internal post within each bank. The researchers travelled to each bank to collect the completed survey.

Measures

Quantitative job insecurity was measured with four items developed by De Witte XXXXXXXXXXon a scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). Sample items were “I feel insecure about the future of my job”’ and “I am sure that I will be able to keep my job” (reverse coded). Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) equalled .89.

Qualitative job insecurity was measured with ten items from the 17 item measure that was originally proposed by Ashford, Lee, and Bobko XXXXXXXXXXThese job features concerned four broad dimensions previously distinguished to describe the various characteristics of a job: job content (autonomy, skill utilization, and specific tasks), working conditions (workload and quality of working conditions), employment conditions (wage, working hours, and opportunities for promotion), and social relations at work (relations with colleagues and supervisors, respectively). Respondents had to indicate whether each of the job features would likely improve or deteriorate in the near future (1 = strongly deteriorate; 5 = strongly improve). We recoded the items so that a high score reflected qualitative job insecurity. Cronbach’s alpha equalled .87.

Job satisfaction was measured with one item: “Overall, how satisfied are you with your current job?” (1 = very dissatisfied; 5 = very satisfied).

Psychological distress was measured with the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg, XXXXXXXXXXA sample item was “Have you recently lost much sleep over worry?” Responses varied from 1 (“less than usual”) to 4 (“much more than usual“). Reliability (Cronbach’s alpha) was .89.

Control variables. The following social demographics and work-related factors were included: gender (0 = men; 1 = women), age (1 = 18–24; 2 = 25–34; 3 = 35–44; 4 = 45–54; 5 = 55+), education (0 = no education beyond high school; 1 = education beyond high school), extra income (0 = no partner with extra income; 1 = partner with extra income), children (0 = no children; 1 = children), occupational position (0 = white-collar worker; 1 = executive), working hours (0 = part-time; 1 = full-time).

Instructions for answering the questions

Use at least four academic sources in English to answer the questions. The sources can be books or peer reviewed journal articles or a combination of both books and peer reviewed journal articles. The academic sources as well as responding to the questions will be around 2000 words in total.

Q1: Sample size

The sample size for this study is fifteen thousand employees selected from a total of 69,000 bank employees (about 21% of the employees). Is a sample of this size necessary? Give your reasons.

Q2: Sampling method

What is the current method of sampling? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the current sampling method?

Q3: Measures of variables

Give your comments on the reliability and validity of measures of the variables.

Q4: Collection of data on social demographics

The purpose of this research is to find the associations between quantitative and qualitative job insecurity and well-being. However, data on variables such as gender, age, education level, extra income were also collected. What is the purpose of collecting data on variables such as gender, age, educational level etc.?

Q5: Research design

What research design is used for current research? What are the positive and negative side of the current research design?

References

Ashford, S. J., Lee, C., & Bobko, P XXXXXXXXXXCONTENT, CAUSE, AND CONSEQUENCES OF JOB INSECURITY: A THEORY-BASED MEASURE AND SUBSTANTIVE TEST. Academy of Management Journal, 32(4), XXXXXXXXXXdoi:10.2307/256569

De Witte, H XXXXXXXXXXArbeidsethos en jobonzekerheid: meting en gevolgen voor welzijn, tevredenheid en inzet op het werk (Work Ethic and Job Insecurity: Measurement and Consequences for Well-Being, Satisfaction, and Performance at Work). In van groep naar gemeenschap, ed. R. Bouwen, K. De Witte, H. De Witte, and T. Taillieu, 325–350. Leuven: Garant. Goldberg, D. P. (1978). Manual of the General Health Questionnaire. Windsor, UK: NFER-Nelson.

De Witte, H., De Cuyper, N., Handaja, Y., Sverke, M., Näswall, K., & Hellgren, J XXXXXXXXXXAssociations between quantitative and qualitative job insecurity and well-being: A test in Belgian banks. International Studies of Management & Organization, 40(1), XXXXXXXXXXdoi:10.2753/IMO XXXXXXXXXX

Answered Same Day Apr 25, 2020 BUACC5931

Solution

Viswanathan answered on Apr 29 2020
145 Votes
Introduction
The main objective of this study is to determine the association of employee’s perception of quantitative and qualitative job insecurity with job satisfaction, and psychological distress in the Belgium banking sector. Job insecurity is defined as the employees’ concerns about their work-related future. There are two kinds of job insecurities, the quantitative job insecurity and the qualitative job insecurity. The quantitative job insecurity is about the treat to the continuation of the job in the future. The qualitative job insecurity is about threat to the various valued aspects of the job, such as job content or working conditions. The purpose of collecting data on variables such as gender, age, educational level etc was used to determine whether these demographic variables provide a significant influence over the job insecurities. Normally old aged employees are highly concerned with job insecurity as they tend to have a fear of losing their job due to age factor and also technology updating which they could not able to accommodate. In addition, the employees with less educational qualification too are highly concerned with job insecurity as they tend to have a fear of losing their job due to age factor and also technology updating which they could not able to accommodate
The two kinds of research techniques that are widely used in all business situations are Quantitative and qualitative research methods. Quantitative methods was used to determine the research objectives using the data that was collected through various sampling techniques. While qualitative research methods are research methods that are most commonly used in social research methods and these methods are limited to researcher view. In quantitative research methods, mean, median and mode are calculated to determine the central tendency. When the distribution is symmetric, then all of these three measures are appropriate measures of central tendency. On the other hand, when the distribution is skewed, either right or left, then mean is not considered as the appropriate measures of central tendency. Since the mean has higher chance of getting influenced by outliers or extreme points, we need to consider for an alternate central tendency measure, called median to describe the distribution of these variables. For skewed distributions, the inter quartile range, should be used to measure the variation of the data taken into consideration
Sample Size
In total, there were 69,000 employees working in the 63 Belgian banks affiliated to the sector’s joint industrial committee in 2001. As questioning all employees would be too expensive, the researchers decided to survey a sample of 15,000 employees
The data which was taken into analysis needs to be free from outliers or extreme points and therefore, data cleaning process needs to be done. In order to identify the outliers, Kolmogrov Smirnov test was used. Once the outliers are identified, they are then cleaned and removed from the original data before running the analysis
The sample size taken for this study is very large, therefore, there are many chance to say that the sample is a representative of the population taken into consideration and it may avoid many possible biases. Normally it is expected that the population mean of the distribution of sample means must coincide with the population mean of the sample from which it is taken. This indicates that the distribution of the mean will remains same forever. The standard deviation of the sample means is nothing by the population standard deviation divided by the square root of the sample size. This indicates that there exists an inverse relationship between sample size and sample standard deviation. That is, when the sample size increases, then the sample standard deviation decreases and vice versa
Sampling Method
Sample selection and appropriate use of sample size plays a major role in statistical analysis and reliability of the study....
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