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Download by: [La Trobe University] Date: 21 Fe
uary 2016, At: 03:17
ent Issues in Tourism
ISSN: XXXXXXXXXXPrint XXXXXXXXXXOnline) Journal homepage: http:
Knowledge management and tourism recovery
(de)marketing: the Christchurch earthquakes
C. Orchiston & J.E.S. Higham
To cite this article: C. Orchiston & J.E.S. Higham XXXXXXXXXXKnowledge management and tourism
ecovery (de)marketing: the Christchurch earthquakes 2010–2011, Cu
ent Issues in Tourism,
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Knowledge management and tourism recovery (de)marketing:
the Christchurch earthquakes 2010–2011
C. Orchiston∗ and J.E.S. Higham
Department of Tourism, University of Otago, PO Box 52, Dunedin, New Zealand
(Received 20 August 2014; accepted 13 November 2014)
New Zealand has a history of deadly earthquakes, the most recent of which in
Christchurch (2010–2011) has had major consequences for the tourism sector.
Tourism destinations affected by major natural disasters face significant challenges
during the response and recovery phases. Christchurch lost a large proportion of its
lifelines infrastructure and accommodation capacity, and experienced an
unprecedented drop in domestic and international visitor a
ivals. The theoretical
frameworks informing this paper come from the fields of tourism disaster planning,
knowledge management and recovery marketing. They inform an empirical study that
draws upon qualitative expert interviews with national and regional destination
management organizations regarding their experience of the Christchurch
earthquakes. The findings of this research highlight the critical importance of
knowledge management and effective inter-agency collaboration and communication
in the immediate disaster response, as well as during the development and
implementation of (de)marketing strategies, in order to expedite medium- to long-
term tourism recovery.
Keywords: Christchurch; tourism; knowledge management; recovery marketing;
disaster; earthquakes; crisis communication
1. Introduction
New Zealand is a geologically active country located on the Pacific-Australian tectonic
plate interface. It has a history of deadly earthquakes, most notably, the 1931 Napier earth-
quake (magnitude 7.8) which cost 258 lives. While the active geology of New Zealand is
fundamental to its nature-based tourism product (e.g. geothermal, alpine and scenic), the
country is inherently vulnerable to natural disasters, with the potential for earthquake
and tsunami events being prominent in the public consciousness since the recent Christch-
urch earthquake, and Japan XXXXXXXXXXand Samoan XXXXXXXXXXtsunami disasters. The New Zealand
city of Christchurch experienced a sequence of damaging earthquakes in 2010–2011, with
a magnitude 6.3 on 22 Fe
uary 2011, resulting in 185 deaths and causing major damage
and destruction of critical infrastructure. The consequences of this event for the tourism
industry were immediate and sustained, not only for the city of Christchurch but also fo
the wider tourism economy of the South Island.
The Christchurch earthquakes (also known as the Cante
ury earthquake sequence) are
distinct from many natural disasters, due to both the extensive destruction of a modern city,
and the prolonged nature of the aftershock sequence. This has presented a significant
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challenge to a range of tourism/destination management agencies at both the national and
egional levels. The key aims of the research were to (1) investigate tourism agencies
esponses to the earthquakes, in terms of communication and knowledge management
and (2) examine the recovery (de)marketing approaches adopted by tourism marketing
organizations in the aftermath of the earthquakes, with specific note of the purpose and
timing of marketing efforts. This paper contributes theoretical and empirical insights into
tourism disaster recovery within the context of a destructive and prolonged natural disaster.
It is situated within the literature on tourism disaster planning (Faulkner, 2001; Faulkner &
Vikulov, 2001; Scott, Laws, & Prideaux, 2008), knowledge management (Blackman,
Kennedy, & Ritchie, 2011; Cooper, 2006; Koraeus & Stern, 2013; Paraskevas, Altinay,
McLean, & Cooper, 2013) and recovery marketing (Walters & Mair, XXXXXXXXXXThe research
has been ca
ied out over a period of 18 months, in order to understand the unique elements
of a natural disaster unlike most, in that it has unfolded over a period of years, rather than
hours or days. This paper specifically addresses phase 5 (long-term recovery) of Faulkner’s
(2001) six-phase tourism disaster planning/management model. Using empirical material
from a programme of expert stakeholder interviews, it critically explores the outcomes
and responses of the tourism sector, drawing conclusions that provide insights into the
theory and practice of tourism disaster response, knowledge management and recovery
2. The Cante
ury earthquake sequence and tourism
Christchurch is the second largest city in New Zealand (population 340,000), and prior to
the earthquakes, it contributed 16% of the total national tourism activity (Ministry of Econ-
omic Development, XXXXXXXXXXChristchurch was known as the ‘Garden City’ because of its
green space, with a tourism product based on heritage and scenic values, and significant
events, conventions and cruise industries. The Australian inbound visitor market comprised
43% of the a
ivals to Cante
ury prior to the earthquakes (CCT, XXXXXXXXXXIn the year to March
2010, Christchurch received 820,000 international visitors; however, between 2006 and
2010, the central city was in a period of decline; international a
ivals fell by 80,000,
which was considered only partially a consequence of the Global Financial Crisis and
more about a stagnating tourism product (Simmons & Sleeman, 2012).
A major strategic advantage for the city is its position as the aviation gateway to Canter-
ury and the rest of the South Island, with 85% of international visitor a
ivals and depar-
tures to and from the South Island travelling through Christchurch International Airport
(CIAL, XXXXXXXXXXTourism in the wider province of Cante
ury focuses on natural heritage
and scenic values, including skiing (Southern Alps), thermal hot springs (Hanme
Springs), whale-watching (Kaikoura) and alpine environments (Mt Cook and Arthur’s
Pass national parks), including the Trans-Alpine railway. In 2009, international tourists
stayed for a total of 6.6 million guest nights in Cante
ury, in addition to simila
numbers of domestic visitor nights (Tourism Strategy Group, 2012).
The Cante
ury earthquake sequence began at 4:30 am on 4 September 2010 with the
shallow rupture of the Greendale Fault (M 7.1), 30 km west of Christchurch. Damage in the
city was considered significant at the time, with many heritage building facades collapsing
and large quantities of liquefied silt erupting from the ground surface as a consequence of
shaking (liquefaction). The fact that there were no casualties was attributed to New Zeal-
and’s rigorous building codes, and that the earthquake took place in the early hours of
the morning while people were at home asleep. Five months later, at 12:51 pm on 22 Feb-
uary 2011, a shallow aftershock (M 6.3) struck southeast of the central city at a depth of
ent Issues in Tourism 65
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5 km, resulting in unprecedented damage and destruction to the city (Stevenson et al.,
2011). The aftershock claimed 185 lives, with two major building collapses accounting
for 133 deaths. The fatalities included foreign nationals from 20 countries. It also destroyed
many heritage buildings, notably Christchurch Cathedral, an iconic building of significance
to the people of the city, and as a tourist attraction. Less than 24 hours later, the government
declared a state of National Emergency, highlighting the need for national and international
esources to effectively manage the disaster. The earthquake also resulted in rapid response
y tourism stakeholders at national and regional levels, an event that was unprecedented in
New Zealand for a natural disaster.
In the months following the 22 Fe
uary 2011 earthquake, Christchurch experienced
several damaging aftershocks and thousands of smaller seismic events. During this time,
220 historic buildings were demolished, effectively changing the face of the city of
Christchurch (Cante
ury Earthquake Recovery Authority, XXXXXXXXXXThe Fe
uary earthquake
destroyed two-thirds of existing hotel stock and many backpacker hostels in Christchurch,
leading to a decrease of 1 million visitor guest nights (two-thirds were international visitors)
(CCT, XXXXXXXXXXEighteen months after the earthquake, the city had 1100 hotel rooms, com-
pared to 3750 before (The Press, 2012), with direct losses in visitor expenditure of $235
million in Christchurch city (CCT, XXXXXXXXXXThe Christchurch Central Business District
(CBD) remained cordoned off from public access for more than 18 months, although the
size of the cordon gradually reduced. The city’s modern convention centre was destroyed
and with it, the conventions market. After many months of assessment AMI Stadium was
declared beyond repair, and all Rugby World Cup games (Septembe
October 2011) sched-
uled to take place in Christchurch were relocated to other cities.
The Cante
ury Earthquake Recovery Authority (CERA) and Christchurch City
Council developed a blueprint for redevelopment of the CBD. In a submission to CERA
on 12 September 2011, the Regional Tourism Organisation (RTO), Christchurch Canter-
ury Tourism (CCT), urged CERA to expedite the rebuilding of the CBD. It claimed
that the tourism sector would remain in a state of ‘limbo’ because of the critical shortage
of accommodation facilities, and the lack of a convention centre. A master plan to
ebuild the city was finally completed almost 18 months after the Fe
uary earthquake fol-
lowing a lengthy period of community and stakeholder engagement, discussion and plan-
ning. The rebuild has been posited as a unique opportunity to revitalize the CBD and oute
s by creating a future city, to co
ect past u
an design failings and to construct a
dynamic and attractive place for residents and visitors.
3. Natural disasters, knowledge management and recovery (de)marketing
Natural disasters lead to major disruption of tourism systems, and can result in prolonged
and cascading impacts on destinations (Faulkner, 2001; Glaesser, 2003; Laws & Prideaux,
2005; Pfo
& Hosie, 2009; Ritchie, 2009; Sharpley, XXXXXXXXXXThe impacts of natural disasters
on tourism have been described in the academic literature addressing crisis management
and response, resilience and recovery. While academic attention has focused on disaste
planning and management (Ritchie, Bentley, Koruth, & Wang, 2011; Scott et al., 2008),
greater empirical attention needs to be paid to the recovery of tourism destinations affected
y natural disasters. Recent recovery-focused natural disaster studies have been ca
ied out
on tsunami (Carlsen, 2006),
Answered Same Day Apr 17, 2020 Swinburne University of Technology


Anju Lata answered on Apr 21 2020
144 Votes
Running Head: Christchurch Earthquake
Christchurch Earthquake 11
The city of Christchurch in New Zealand experienced two vigorous earthquakes, one in September 2010 and another in Feb 2011, causing heavy loss of lifeline infrastructure and made the city to witness a remarkable drop in tourist a
ivals. The implementation of de-marketing strategies and crisis approach models played a very important role in the revitalization of the country (Orchiston & Higham,2016).
New Marketing Techniques to be adopted by Christchurch
Christchurch will have to adopt the time-bound recovery to revitalize damaged infrastructure. It will reduce the level of uncertainty in the tourism sector. The campaign activities performed by CCT and TNZ did not reflect the realities of the affected Christchurch after September 2010. The campaigns and promotions initiatives were all scrapped out. They were just aimed to attract the tourists in 2011, without having any on the ground reality. The city had been facing recu
ent aftershocks thereby it is i
elevant to promote the place as a tourism destination.
Fig.1 showing damaged infrastructure in Christchurch due to earthquake.(Source: http:
Instead, it will be better to represent the cu
ent realistic conditions of the city without hiding anything from the public. According to Scott et al, 2008, the marketing strategy of Christchurch should also involve improving the misperceptions of the public about the destination, which have evolved with time. It cannot be done alone through advertisements and messages, but should also involve constructing positive public relations. It should also include monitoring the effectiveness of the efforts being adapted (Walters & Mair, 2012).
The tourism in Christchurch must work in order to revitalize and rejuvenate itself effectively. It may include infrastructure development, airspace capacity enhancement to Asia and Australia and other destination development services like increasing the number of hotels, sports club, health and welfare center etc. Fast track strategies can be employed to reduce the expected time frame (Atkinson et al, 2012).
Fig.2.Showing ongoing Resilience Initiatives in Christchurch (Source: http:
The approach of recovery marketing in Christchurch involved a gradual process of revitalization and development. They targeted internet and social media. The web pages included attractions of the city with highlights of new events. Testimonials from the tourists were also employed. The newspapers had recu
ent demonstrations of the revival of the city. A...

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