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Assignment 2 – Revised Global Issues Research Paper and Written Response of Feedback Name: Revised Global Issues Research Paper N Below 15 P 15-17.5 C 18-20.5 D 21-23.5 HD 24 and above Content Task...

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Assignment 2 – Revised Global Issues Research Paper and Written Response of Feedback                Name:                    
Revised Global Issues Research Pape
    
    N
Below 15
    
    P
15-17.5
    
    C
18-20.5
    
    D
21-23.5
    
    HD
24 and above
    
    Content
    Task completion
    The task is not successfully completed, e.g. a global issue is not critically discussed.
    
    The task is successfully completed in some aspects.
    
    The task is successfully completed.
    
    The task is very successfully completed.
    
    The task is extremely well completed in terms of both content and critical discussion.
    
    Content development
(Explanation of issues)
    There is much confusion about which issue is being discussed.
    
    The central issue is clear, but the details need to be explained more clearly.
    
    The issue is quite clearly explained, but some aspects are unclear or unexplored.
    
    Issue is stated, described, and clarified so that understanding is clear.
    
    Issue is stated clearly and described comprehensively, delivering all information necessary for full understanding.
    
    Argument development
    The argument is not coherently presented at the topic sentence level.
    
    The argument is not so coherently presented at the topic sentence level.
    
    The argument as a whole is quite coherently presented.
    
    The argument is very coherently presented.
    
    The argument is entirely coherent.
    
    Critical discussion of issues
    Contains very little critical discussion (e.g., analysis, comparison, synthesis, evaluation or justification), and is mostly descriptive.
    
    Contains some critical discussion (e.g., analysis, comparison, synthesis, evaluation or justification), but is largely descriptive.
    
    Contains some critical discussion (e.g., analysis, comparison, synthesis, evaluation or justification), and evaluation of different of perspectives.
    
    Uses critical questions to discuss the issue in a range of ways (e.g., analysis, comparison, synthesis, evaluation or justification), including evaluation of different perspectives.
    
    Uses critical questions to insightfully discuss the issue in a range of ways (e.g., analysis, comparison, synthesis, evaluation or justification), including evaluation of different of perspectives.
    
    
    Introduction
    There is no effective introduction. There is no recognisable thesis statement.
    
    The topic is introduced but does not follow a general to specific pattern. There are a number of unnecessary specific points or arguments. There is no thesis statement/ or, if there is a recognisable thesis statement, it is either not clear or overly simplistic.
    
    The introduction follows a general to specific pattern to lead up to the thesis statement and states the purpose and scope. The thesis statement states the writer’s position and the overall plan of the essay.
    
    The introduction clearly and logically sets the scene, states the purpose and scope, and leads up to the thesis statement with no unnecessary points or arguments. The thesis statement clearly states the writer’s position and takes into account the complexities of the issue.
    
    The introduction expertly sets the scene, states the purpose and scope, and builds up to the thesis statement.
The thesis statement very clearly states the writer’s position and imaginatively takes into account the complexities of an issue.
    
    Body
    The body paragraphs lack topic sentences and are not organised in any logical way and/or do not present well supported arguments
    
    Some or all the body paragraphs contain topic sentences, but the paragraphs are not organised in any logical way and/or do not present well supported arguments.
    
    The body paragraphs present different aspects or perspectives on the issue in an organized way with clear topic sentences, reasons and examples.
    
    The body paragraphs present different aspects or perspectives in a well-organized way with well-expressed topic sentences, reasons and examples.
    
    The body paragraphs discuss particular aspects or perspectives in an extremely well-organized way with eloquently expressed topic sentences, reasons and examples.
    
    Conclusion
    There is no conclusion or the conclusion fails to draw the ideas of the essay together.
    
    The conclusion does not draw the main ideas together, restate the thesis or expands the scope very well.
    
    The conclusion draws the main ideas together, restates the thesis and expands the scope well.
    
    The conclusion draws the main ideas together, restates the thesis and expands the scope very well.
    
    The conclusion draws the main ideas together, restates the thesis and expands the scope extremely well.
    
    Using sources
    Referencing of sources
(in-text, end-text)
    Information from sources is not well paraphrased or quoted. Sources have been insufficiently acknowledged through in-text and end-text references and/or too many sources are used without acknowledgement.
    
    Information from sources is not well paraphrased or quoted. Sources have been insufficiently acknowledged through in-text and end-text references.
    
    Information from sources is well paraphrased or quoted and appropriate in-text and end-text references are provided for many sources.
    
    Information from sources is very well paraphrased or quoted. Appropriate in-text and end-text references are provided for most sources.
    
    Information from sources is very well paraphrased or quoted. Appropriate and accurate in-text and end-text references are provided.
    
    Critical evaluation of sources and voice
    Information is taken from source(s) without any interpretation or evaluation. The writer’s voice is not strong.
    
    Information is taken from source(s) with little interpretation/evaluation.
Viewpoints of experts are taken as fact, without question. The writer’s voice could be stronger.
    
    Information is taken from source(s) with some interpretation /evaluation, but not enough to develop a coherent analysis. Not enough questioning of experts. The writer’s voice is strong.
    
    Information is taken from source(s) with enough interpretation/evaluation to develop a coherent analysis or synthesis.
Viewpoints of experts are subject to questioning. The writer’s voice is very strong.
    
    Information is taken from source(s) with enough interpretation/evaluation to develop a comprehensive analysis or synthesis. Viewpoints of experts are questioned thoroughly. The writer’s voice is very strong.
    
    Language use
    Flow (coherence, cohesion)
    The text is difficult to follow. Ideas need to be organised more clearly and linked together more with transition signals.
    
    The text needs to flow more easily with more clearly organised paragraphs and more frequent use of appropriate transition signals.
    
    Ideas are relatively well organised in paragraphs and the use of transition signals improves the flow of the writing.
    
    Ideas are well linked to each other through clear organisation and effective use of transition signals.
    
    Ideas are very well linked to each other and the writing is very easy to read through the use of highly effective transition signals.
    
    Vocabulary
    Very few academic and topic specific terms are used.
    
    Some academic words and topic specific terms are used.
    
    A range of academic words and topic specific terms are used.
    
    A wide range of academic vocabulary and topic specific terms are used throughout the essay.
    
    A wide range of academic vocabulary and topic specific terms are very well used throughout the essay.
    
    Sentence structure, grammar and punctuation
    There are major problems with sentence structure, grammar and punctuation, which make the meaning of the writing difficult to follow.
    
    There are some problems with sentence structure, grammar and punctuation, which may interfere with the meaning of some sentences. However, the meaning of most sentences is relatively clear.
    
    The essay is generally written in well-structured, well-punctuated sentences, and there is some sentence variety. Minor grammatical e
ors in the assignment do not interfere with the meaning of the writing.
    
    The essay is written in well-structured, well-punctuated sentences, and there is sentence variety. There are very few grammatical e
ors in the assignment.
    
    The essay is written in well-structured, grammatically accurate, well-punctuated and sophisticated sentences, and there is great sentence variety.
    
    
Comments /30
Written Response to Feedback
    
    N
Below 5
    
    P
5 – 5.9
    
    C
6 – 6.9
    
    D
7 – 7.9
    
    HD
8 and above
    
    Context and Purpose for Writing
    Task completion. Appropriate use of personal and academic language style
    The task is not successfully completed.
The reflection is written with language and content that is not appropriate for personal reflection or communication in an academic context.
    
    The task is successfully completed in some aspects. The reflection is written with language and content that is not so appropriate for personal reflection or communication in an academic context.
    
    The task is fully completed in terms of both content, organisation and language. The reflection is written with language and content that is appropriate for both personal reflection and communication in an academic context.
    
    The task is very successfully completed.
The reflection is written with language and content that is very appropriate for both personal reflection and communication in an academic context.
    
    The task is excellently completed in terms of both content and critical discussion. The reflection is written with language and content that is totally suited to both personal reflection and communication in an academic context.
    
    Content development
    Explanation of key changes made
    Key changes made to the essay, based on feedback, are not explained in a clear, concise and direct manner.
    
    Key changes made to the essay, based on feedback, are explained but not so clearly, concisely or directly.
    
    Key changes made to the essay, based on feedback, are explained in a clear, concise and direct manner.
    
    Key changes made to the essay are explained
comprehensively, delivering all relevant information necessary for full understanding.
Answered Same Day Jul 30, 2020

Solution

Kuldeep answered on Jul 31 2020
130 Votes
Running head: Challenges of providing public goods
Challenges of providing public goods in developing versus developed countries
Student number: 33388492
Murdoch University
Introduction
In contrast, most countries in Asia, Africa, and in Latin America have natural resources for example bauxite, diamonds, gold, and oil, rather than other nations in developed countries. However, among these resource potentials, most countries are said to be in a state of poverty and are lagging behind in providing basic services to enhance citizen’s lives. So why is the service inadequate? In fact, some studies emphasize that global development interventions always aimed at promoting government as well as institutional structures have become the root cause of many emerging problems affecting the development of the whole world. On the contrary, some studies suggest that co
uption in developing countries; weak institutional systems, population diversification and ethnic polarization mask the full delivery of the public services. Amusingly, although both views have different views, they raise fundamental questions that affect the creation of basic public goods within the developing countries. In view of the divergence of views, this paper will demonstrate that although the implementation of international policies may pose special challenges, most of the issues or challenges affecting the supply of public items or goods are intrinsic in developing countries. Therefore, this paper discusses key challenging challenges, for instance, international development regulations, policies, co
uption, incomplete communication as well as lack of citizen participation, demographic and ethnic divisions, and institutional moreover political systems are completely responsible for the inadequate supply of public goods and services in the developing countries. This paper will first analyze the concept of public services or goods furthermore collective action issues in the provision and distribution of public resources and assets. In the concluding analysis, it will provide a
ief overview of the main challenges or issues discussed
iefly in this essay.
Challenges of providing public goods in developing versus developed countries
Public goods in its simplest form are defined as benefiting the entire community through the services provided by individuals or government agencies; these include schools, good roads, medical facilities, clean water and strong defense. It is worth noting that public goods have two key characteristics. On the one hand, individuals cannot be deprived of the right to enjoy benefits, even if they refuse to donate and cannot be distributed among individual members. In addition, several researchers claim that due to the indivisibility as well as non-exclusive nature of general collective goods or items, the provision should involve everyone's actions, whether voluntarily or through some form of incentive. Hence, it is significantly noting that as public goods or items cannot be smoothly shared, individuals can access them without ba
iers, so people mostly have the incentive not to participate in the acquisition of the public goods. Nevertheless, even if individuals are motivated to participate, claims that if the group is large and separate, the issue of collective action will inevitably hinder the provision of such services. As a result, externalities, free riders, competition in addition to tragedy issues have increased. Similarly, Fishburn & Kemp, argues that even if the contributors are smaller and closer, the self-interest of individual rationality will constitute a communal action problem, particularly if they believe that their interests are lower than their contribution. Thus, if an individual's rational choice reduces the incentive to provide services to everyone, Malone concludes that most of the states must make sure that their citizens have access to such kind of services that are needed to promote their healthcare and well-being. Therefore, people will mostly argue that the provision of public related goods in collective or less developed countries, collective action and the rational choice of interests of individuals, groups, and countries may present some challenges. To this end, the next paragraphs will address the challenges of consistent assumptions about public goods as well as collective action issues.
It is worth noting that most developing countries provide public goods for example clean water to drink, good schools, hospitals, roads, and a secure environment that improves the well-being and health of citizens. An important factor that affects the production moreover distribution of goods and services in developing countries is co
uption. Several studies have also shown that the
oad co
uption at the state as well as on the local levels in developing countries is a major obstacle to providing adequate and sustainable public goods and services. For example, VediHadiz wrote in the book “Localization of Power in the Post-Expatriate Indonesia” that increasing co
uption in the Indonesian decentralization plan is hindering the terms of important public services to the community. According to (Pe
ow & Olson, 1973), Indonesia’s decentralization is considered a method of improving the supply of the public goods by devolving resources moreover power to the local authorities after the collapse of Soehar to command in 1998; but so far, the author said that the process is for the community. There is too little motivation to create a basic service. For example, there is evidence that Indonesia lost approximately $2.35 billion in 2002 due to co
uption activities by government officials and local authorities (Jakarta Post 2004, cited in Vedi 2010). In this regard, people will say here that decentralization as a process of strengthening the community actually limits their growth in Indonesia. Co
uption can affect the motivation to invest or contribute to public goods. The co
uption of Liberian community leaders by tracking the input flows associated with development interventions and measuring these inputs before and after these inputs are given to the heads. We then use the “gap” between these measurements (“missing input”) to explain changes in villager investment behavior. Investment behavior is measured by two simple manual field experiments. The main result is that co
uption (i) undermines incentives for voluntary contributions to local public goods; and (ii) private investment that may reduce the number of individuals seeking rent in real life. We also provide weaker evidence that co
uption has a different impact on investment and contribution to public goods: this impact may be gender-specific and seems to change with the accessibility of the community.
Insufficient supply of basic public goods is making Africa's development slower and more unfair. A large part of this problem involves supply management at the local level. This paper provides an interim report on multinational research to clarify the institutional sources of changes in local public goods supply. Of particular concern are improving maternal mortality, water, and sanitation, promoting markets and businesses, and...
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