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1. The total lifetime of the Sun is close to 10 billion years. Estimate the lifetime of a star three times as massive as the Sun, and explain why it is likely or unlikely for complex, multi-cellular...

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1. The total lifetime of the Sun is close to 10 billion years. Estimate the lifetime of a star three times as massive as the Sun, and explain why it is likely or unlikely for complex, multi-cellular life to be able to evolve on a planet in the habitable zone around that star. 2. What were the factors that may have contributed to the remarkable explosion of diversity and functionality during the Cambrian Era? Why did this happen only in the Cambrian period, some 3 billion plus years after life first arose on the planet? That is, why did it take so long? 3. Why have most SETI searches been carried out at radio wavelengths? 4. What is a stromatolite, and why is it important for our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth? 5. What is a “hot Jupiter”? How do hot Jupiters violate the expectations that we might have for Jovian planets, based on the nebular hypothesis for the formation of the solar system? How might we preserve the nebular hypothesis and still be able to explain hot Jupiters? 6. What is a “super-Earth” and in what ways might it present a more challenging environment for complex life to subsist than the Earth. Are there any ways in which a super-Earth might be a better habitat than the Earth? 7. Can interstellar travel be seriously considered as a viable solution to overpopulation on the Earth? Why or why not? What might be other, reasonable motives to undertake interstellar travel? 8. What are the underlying assumptions of the “Fermi Paradox”? 9. If the Galilean satellites of Jupiter always keep the same face pointed toward Jupiter because they are tidally “locked on” to Jupiter, how can they be heated by tidal friction? 10. What are the advantages of liquid water over other possible liquids as a medium in which life might have arisen? 11. What lines of strong evidence led investigators to conclude that the KT extinction occurring 65 million years ago was caused by the impact of a large body, perhaps an asteroid, 10 – 15 km in diameter? How do we know that this event occurred exactly 65 million years ago? 12. How is RNA different from DNA and how is it similar? What is the usual role of RNA? … of DNA? What are some of the reasons why many scientists think that life may have started with RNA as the carrier of genetic information, rather than DNA? 13. If intelligence has obvious survival advantages for a species, why didn’t it emerge more quickly during the course of evolution? What are some of the costs of advanced intelligence? 14. What are the three branches on the tree of life, and which branch are we on? What characteristics differentiate the organisms on our branch from the others? 15. What are the four major categories of robotic spacecraft? Which of these is the most complex, and why? 16. Mars is a barren planet with no standing liquid water anywhere on its surface. Why, then, is there so much interest in Mars as an abode for life? What kind of life might be present there, and where might it reside? 17. What characteristics define a “life” form? 18. What are the metabolic requirements of life? 19. Silicon is an abundant element that has a chemistry similar to that of carbon. Consequently, some have discussed the possibility of silicon-based life elsewhere in the cosmos. What are the major drawbacks of silicon as an alternative to carbon-based, organic chemistry as the basis for life? 20. By measuring the relative abundances of two stable isotopes of oxygen – 16O and 18O – in some fossil deposit, or in an ice core, or in a coal bed, or in some sedimentary layer, what can one determine about the conditions that pertained at the time those deposits were laid down? Why do these isotopes make that kind of measurement possible? 21. What is the evidence that the abundance of atmospheric oxygen rose from a very low value before about 2.7 Gyr ago to a substantial fraction of its present abundance over a period of about 2 billion years? 22. Some multiple-celled organisms existed prior to the Cambrian epoch. Why is the fossil record for such organisms relatively poor? What kind of fossils are present from the pre-Cambrian era? 23. What is a “molecular clock”, and what can it be used for? What are some of its pitfalls? 24. What are 4 problems that plants had to cope with in making the transition from the sea to land, and what evolutionary developments allowed them to cope with those problems? 25. Why did animals suddenly begin to diversify only in the Cambrian period, some 3 billion plus years after life first arose on the planet? 26. What positive feedbacks have probably amplified the heating of the Earth’s atmosphere during periods of global warming? 27. What are the two key pieces of evidence that the Moon was created in a collision between some Mars-sized body and the Earth? Do we know when the Moon was created? If so, how do we know? 28. What are the three requirements for a planetary magnetic field, and how does the Earth meet them? 29. What is the evidence that Europa has a substantial liquid ocean under its surface layer of ice? What might be responsible for keeping that ocean in liquid form? 30. What is the evidence that Enceladus, a moon of Saturn, has liquid water underneath its icy surface? 31. Describe the landscape of the continents during the Cambrian Era. What organisms were the first to adapt to living on land? What kinds of organisms came later, and in what order? 32. Titan satisfies many of the requirements of a habitable body (what are they?). What is the biggest drawback of Titan as an abode for life? 33. What defines a habitable zone around a star? What assumptions go into the notion of a habitable zone? Where in the solar system might there be life outside of the traditionally-defined habitable zone? What constrains the habitable zone of the Galaxy? 34. What are the essential differences between a star, a brown dwarf, and a planet? At approximately what masses are the dividing lines between these categories? 35. When did predation first arise on the Earth? 36. How might plate tectonics favor the habitability of a planet? 37. What is the history and expected future of solar energy output? Has it been constant, and if not, why has it been changing, and what effects have those changes had on the Earth? What effects are they expected to have in the future? 38. Jupiter’s atmosphere probably has an abundance of organic molecules. Why, then, is Jupiter not a particular propitious place to for life to have arisen? 39. In what ways have humans, for better or for worse, taken control of the process of evolution on our planet? 40. The Sagan-Drake equation is a device for telling us what we need to learn before we can reliably estimate how many technological civilizations there are in the Galaxy. Explain. 41. Give three of the many hypotheses that can be offered to account for the fact that no extraterrestrial civilization has yet been encountered or observed. 42. Give three of the many serious consequences of prolonged global warming. 43. Most stars are in multiple star systems. What consequences can this multiplicity have for habitability, and in what kinds of multiple star systems is it likely that the multiplicity has only a minimal effect on the habitability? 44. What methods have successfully been used to detect exoplanets? 45. How can carbon isotopes reveal the presence or absence of ancient life on our planet? 46. What is believed to have been the root cause of the Permian-Triassic mass extinction? What other factors may have contributed to the severity of that event? 47. What was the importance of the Miller-Urey experiment for our understanding of the initial conditions for the evolution of life on Earth? 48. What is the “snow line” and what relevance does it have for planet formation. 49. What role is played by dark matter in the formation of structures in the universe? Give examples of what this question means by “structures”. 50. What is the very probable root cause of our planet’s sixth mass extinction? 51. What was the cause of the Earth’s 5th mass extinction? With this in mind, comment on how chance plays an important role in evolution. 52. When did the oxygen content of the Earth’s atmosphere first reach levels comparable to the current level? 53. When did the oxygen content of the Earth’s atmosphere become high enough to be toxic to many of the earliest, anaerobic single-celled organisms, forcing them to live in anoxic, confined environments? 54. What are the banded iron formations, and what can they tell us about the natural history of the Earth? 55. What is the earliest evidence for fossil life forms? What is the earliest evidence of any kind that life was present on Earth? 56. What are the advantages of aerobic metabolism, as compared with anaerobic metabolism? 57. What role might the Moon have played in the evolution of life on the Earth? 58. If there is life on Mars, what would you judge would be the most likely manifestation of it? That is, what terrestrial analog would you point to as a possible “cousin”? 59. What energy sources might be available to life on Europa? 60. Fill in the blank: All early life must have been ____ organisms, because the Earth’s atmosphere was oxygen-free during it’s early years. 61. What is the earliest known fossil of a once-living organism, and when did it live? 62. What are viable ways that we might encounter intelligent extraterrestrial civilizations besides exchanging direct, purposive communications? 63. If the ocean was such a good environment for organisms for hundreds of millions of years, why was there an evolutionary impetus to move to land? 64. What characteristics of a signal coming from somewhere in the cosmos might lead us to conclude that it does not have a natural origin? 65. Why doesn’t Mars have plate tectonics? 66. How can we determine global average temperatures during the past million years or so? 67. What adaptations did animals need to evolve in order to migrate from sea to land? How did that differ for plants? 68 What is the difference between the ice ages that have taken place over the past few million years, and the “Snowball Earth” episodes that occurred between 750 and 580 million years ago? 69. What are the Milankovich cycles, and what effect do they have on the ice ages? 70. Why is it likely that planets are rare around stars that are more than twice as old as the Sun? (hint: think of the role and the origin of heavy elements) 71. How can gravitational lensing be used to find planets? What is the lensing signature of a planet? 72. Who, or what, are the Denisovans? What genetic relationship do they bear to homo sapiens? 73. Describe what is meant by convergent evolution. What factors might cause two unrelated species to undergo convergent evolution? 74. Dim stars have small habitable zones, but any planet in the habitable zone in a dim star faces two problems that reduce its habitability. What are those two problems? On the other hand, what are two reasons why there is now a lot of interest in looking for signs of life on planets orbiting stars that are much dimmer than the Sun? 75. How and where did life survive the Earth’s “Snowball Earth” episodes, and how does that relate to the situation on Europa? On both Europa and Snowball Earth, where would life forms (or possible life forms) get the energy needed for their metabolism? 76. Explain the role of positive feedback loops in giving rise to a runaway greenhouse effect, or in amplifying the relatively weak forcings of the Milankovitch cycles. (see also question #68)
Answered Same Day Jun 06, 2021

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Vinay answered on Jun 09 2021
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    1. The total lifetime of the Sun is close to 10 billion years. Estimate the lifetime of a star three times as massive as the Sun, and explain why it is likely or unlikely for complex, multi-cellular life to be able to evolve on a planet in the habitable zone around that star.
    “Cycle / second limits evolve through the stellar post MS, each in an effective stellar flux at the height of the planet's atmosphere, additionally as an o
ital distance from the star because of the dynamic SED of the star's property and physical property, several times. we tend to derive a parameterization to encrypt the post-main sequence “The HZ distances to grid stars old enough to be cu
ently in the post-main sequence mistreatment (Sun - A5) the constants provided in the table Our parameterization includes only the dynamic portion of RGB, over most planets it retains its atmospheres wherever D is the distance (in AU) and t is stellar age for star metallic stars (in Gyr). The effective stellar flow at the limits of the post-MS-HZ discussed in the diagram decreases across the RGB by ~ 22% for F1 and five hitter in the M1 stellar type. These two stellar types support the maximum and minimum modification of physical property for our grid of stars in several ways. The co
espondent will increase over the helium flash and reduce over the subsequent AGB, several times, the area unit forty-two and sixty-nine for the M1 and eight for the stellar type F1. Note that the time scales of stellar evolution differ for the various stars. The o
ital distance of the post-MS-HZ limits changes with time. The internal associate at the outer edges of the Tending of the post-MS / second cycles for an A5 star is initially fixed at three and seven AU, at the beginning of RGB, before moving to twenty-eight and seventy-two AU at the top. RGB (total duration: ~ fifty Myr). when argon flashes, the unit area of the inner and outer edges is at half a dozen and fourteen AU, several times at the beginning of the AGB, extending to seventy-two and 192 AU across the top of the AGB (total duration: ~ 183Myr) . As internal and external edges of our Sun post MS unit cycles / second area are recorded for the first time in the first.3 and 3.3 AU before increasing to a few and six and 123 AU over the top of the RGB (total duration: ~ 850 Myr). Throughout the AGB, the post-MS / second cycles are moved to five and three AU for thirty-nine and ten and ten AU, in a variable manner (total duration: ~ one hundred and sixty Myr). the post-MS / unit area cycles of the second parts in the first configuration at zero.3 and 0.9 AU and double increase in thirteen and thirty-four AU by the upper part of RGB (total duration: ~ nine Gyr). Second, it is not necessary for all times to evolve over the post-MS part. Life could have started in the Nursing Associate in the first habitable atmosphere (for example, throughout the pre-MS part of the star, so as to be a captive surface surface, or remain asleep until the surface conditions allow it to move towards planet surface again, as in stars excessively «post-EM part.”(Бонев and Александров, 1993)
D= at4 +bt3 +ct2 +dt +e
    
    2. What were the factors that may have contributed to the remarkable explosion of diversity and functionality during the Cam
ian Era? Why did this happen only in the Cam
ian period, some 3 billion plus years after life first arose on the planet? That is, why did it take so long?
    “The Cam
ian Explosion can be a development that encompasses the dramatic appearance of various metazoans with bi-mineralized skeletons, an increase in the complexity and behavior of animals, a revolution of substrates that organized the registration of matter and also the development of marine biodiversity ecosystems with complicated food networks.The relative importance of external factors, such as the increase in the element or the chemistry of salt water changes6–9, biological factors, such as the influence of animal i
igation and feedbacks between the two, are still unclear. Likewise, the connection between the Ediacaran and Cam
ian biotas remains unsolved, with some arguments that the Cam
ian explosion includes a 'deep root' within the Ediacaran terminal or that the main part of the 'Cam
ian explosion' was the assembly of Nama (~ 550– 541 Ma), or appeared even earlier on the Avalon-White ocean boundary at ~ 561 Ma14. In addition, although it has been conjectured that metazoan extinction or turnover events occu
ed at ~ 551 Ma13.15 and at the Ediacaran / Cam
ian border at ~ 541 - 540 Ma there is no agreement on the precise type of these dynamics, that is, their temporal order, or causes the duration of the beginning of the Cam
ians to the Siberian Platform in Russia, with important radiometric dates (numbered; radiometric dates from Siberia are in bold), international chronostratigraphy (ICS) and stages and zones accepted by the Siberian Platform. Radiometric dates of 127.93; 294; 395, 496; 597; 698–100; 730; 8101 The right column shows numbered time units, each c. 2.5 Myr in length. dysfunction = Ediacaran. three = Cam
ian Series three, pars. Changed.”(Zhuravlev and Wood, 2018)
    
    3. Why have most SETI searches been ca
ied out at radio wavelengths?
     “Research by Extrate
estrial Intelligence (SETI) on radio frequencies concentrated - historically on normal slowly astronomical modulated band signals. The assumption of activating the Nursing Associate is that each of the robust radio sources (> 1Jy) is already being used by astronomers with a natural origin. The statement is not fully supported by existing exhibitions. Some robust radio sources may display a message hidden, disguised, or hitchhiking, a robust natural supply. While several different pulses and sources can be tested for repetitive power modulation, the authors do not appear to be alert to previous work tests for codings that use, for example, constant power modulation from displayed sources. The last is the focus here. Suppose the ET builds strong information about the cause, transmitting a small rate between 103 and 109 cycles per second. For most radio telescopes, this transmitter is indistinguishable from a natural time supply as a result of square time fluctuations, too small to be seen in normal detectors. However, these same signals can be detectable by the car, co
elating an amplitude and a section of the electric field, also called field autoco
elation detection (FAC). Here, we have a tendency to present or what we believe to be the main radio exploration for detecting advanced signals for abuse in the TSI.
Hypothesis1. The electric fields emitted from the many robust radio sources previously discovered with flow> 1 Jy of square measure modulated with a continuation pattern directly by extrate
estrials or thanks to some physics still unknown.
.Hypothesis2. Many exoplanets emit artificial signals of moderate bandwidth (for example, one MHz) that were not verified in time surveys or in initiated ETI band searches. If these signals contain repetitive structure, they will be detected by autoco
elation.”(Harp et al., 2018)
    
     4. What is a stromatolite, and why is it important for our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth?
    “Stromatolytes normally found in ca
onaceous sequences of the aeon are one of the evidences of aeon life. they are varied, found in abundance, and sometimes graphics associated with them produce microscopic fossils. These microfossils are an excellent supply of our information about childhood. Stromatolites have been used together in biostratigraphy. In India, structures similar to those cu
ently considered stromatolites were observed by McClelland in the early 19th century (1834, registered as ring characteristics). As a peculiar isolated and laminated sedimentary rock, while W. H. Auden documented and recorded these structures in the Vindhyan Basin only as ellipsoidal bodies. No systematic study was ca
ied out until the 1960s. Investigations in the late 1960s uncovered records of deep stromatolite occu
ences within the Asian country's eon rocks. LED continued research for stromatolite discoveries, even in younger Gondwana sediments from the marginal Talchir Maritime Formation later infe
ed to be of H2O origin. Despite the profound occu
ences of stromatolytic structures in the Asian nation and together in alternative elements of the planet, efforts were not made to verify them consistently in the middle of the 20th century. the purpose of this article is to trace the studies of stromatolites in the Asian nation and the way the Indian team qualified the developments that take place in the field of stromatolite studies in alternative elements of the planet. It jointly summarizes Indian contributions during this field of study. Despite the various aspects of studies in the past,stromatolites, even at the moment, are the maximum enigmatic quantity they were not at the beginning of part of the last century. in his book "stromatolites", comment that Kalkowasky "coined and outlined a stromatological word; however, there is a growing concern and concern about its use., nature (biogenic / a biogenic), formation (addition / production), abortive organisms ( bacteria / cyanobacteria; prokaryotes / eukaryotes), permanent (general fossil / fossil index), biostratigraphic potential (mileage), classification (binomial phytological system / sediment / geometric nomenclature) and economic importance (primary / secondary improvement), commercial performance indicator (rods / real / proxy) etc., far from solution. Earth's history is involved in hypotheses, exhibitions and awards. Understanding the Sun-Earth-Moon, as well as in the Earth's rotation. earth science ages.”(Sharma, 2008)
    
    5. What is a “hot Jupiter”? How do hot Jupiters violate the expectations that we might have for Jovian planets, based on the nebular hypothesis for the formation of the solar system? How might we preserve the nebular hypothesis and still be able to explain hot Jupiters?
    “Since the primary traffic detections of the Tending Associate extra solar planet, the nea
y large extra solar planet, or hot Jupiter, the population has shown itself to be enigmatic. it had been recognized early that many of these hot Jupiter’s had radii greater than expected in the usual models, considering only the cooling of an initial state of high entropy (for reviews, the main traffic detections of the extra solar planet Associate in Nursing, the nea
y extra solar planet The population of a large planet, or "hot Jupiter", proved to be enigmatic, it was recognized from the beginning that many of these hot Jupiter’s have radii greater than expected in the usual models, considering only the cooling from of a high entropy initial state. radius diagram of the hot-Jupiter sample is shown in the figure with cooling models presumed variable amounts of stellar incident over-plotted.”(Komacek and Youdin, 2017)
    
     6. What is a “super-Earth” and in what ways might it present a more challenging environment for complex life to subsist than the Earth. Are there any ways in which a super-Earth might be a better habitat than the Earth?
    “A substantial amount of analysis is conducted and resources are spent to search for planets that could be habitats for greater stellar life. Engineers and astronomers developed expensive instruments and huge ground-based telescopes, such as the HARPS (High Precision Speed Spectrograph) on the 3.6 m ESO telescope, and therefore the Spectrograph Echelle Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle (UVES) on the te
ibly massive telescope (VLT) , and launched the domestic telescopes of painters and uranologists with the specific objective of perceiving and characterizing Earth-sized planets. Even bigger facilities are being planned or built, like the extraordinarily massive ecu Telescope (E-ELT) and therefore James We
's Telescope house (JWST), associated that a growing community of scientists is operating to unravel not just the empirical, but in addition to the theoretical and laboratory challenges. On the theoretical front, the stellar habitable zone (HZ) design has been widely used to determine habitable planets without a doubt. To the confusion of some, planets that reside at intervals of one star cycle per second are generally called habitable planets. However, a planet within the cycle per second does not need to be habitable in the sense that there are at least some niches that leave the existence of liquid surface water. Naturally, since the Earth is the only populated world that we all know, this object is sometimes a reference for studies on habitability.” (Fowler, 2019)
    
    7. Can interstellar travel be seriously considered as a viable solution to overpopulation on the Earth? Why or why not? What might be other, reasonable motives to undertake interstellar travel?
    “The instruments are being designed a lot thanks to the discovery and characterization of Earth-like planets and spectroscopic signatures of life in Earth-like atmospheres. However, alternative worlds offer conditions that are very suitable for all times to emerge and evolve. In addition to the planets, the moons may well be habitable, to search for a habitable ultimately associated with an established world, a conception of characterization that is bio central rather than geo or partial is necessary. Many reliable international thermostats, which prevent states associated with the ice ages, would prevent an existing scheme from undergoing mass extinctions, which can slow or frustrate devolution. There should be part and processes of earth sciences whose interaction constitutes a thermostat that creates a super habitable planet. Triggered by recent discoveries of super-te
estrial planets in or near stellar Hertz, mechanisms for using atmospheric CO2 and CH4 are designed for probably water-rich planets. freezes and although it does not have direct contact with the rocky interior. In these worlds, the associated Earth-like ca
on silicate cycle is unlikely to operate, as there would be no weathering with ca
on dioxide. As an alternative, networks of aggressive water molecules can attract ca
on dioxide gas as guest molecules, a chemical known as ca
on clathrate and provide a good environmental condition thermostat, moderating the levels of H2O and ca
on dioxide gas in super- water-rich land. . similar clathrate mediation was achievable for CH4 instead of ca
on dioxide that is, alkane series clathrate. Clathrate convection may well be a good mechanism for moving CH4 and / or ca
onic acid gas from the iron-silicate core of a water-rich planet through an aggressive ice sheet in the ocean and, finally, into the atmosphere.”(Fowler, 2019)
    
    8. What are the underlying assumptions of the “Fermi Paradox”?
    “To debate Fermi's contradiction, a minimum of one definition must agree: sometimes it is life, intelligence or civilization. However, creating distinctions between these ideas could, in itself, associate unjustified assumptions. A system is taken into account alive if it decreases or maintains its internal entropy, increasing the entropy of its su
oundings. A system is considered intelligent if its actions aim to maximize its future freedom of action. A living system aims to attenuate the dispersion of its detected states, while victimizing these sensations to infer external states of the planet. The three definitions above the square measure the equivalent on scales relevant to Fermi's contradiction. Proof: Initial, allow us to take into account a system that maximizes your future freedom of action. once given a set of alternative methods, this system can select the track that maximizes an average of short-term directions, weighted by the variety of long-term methods that they create accessible. However, accurate integration on semi-permanent methods needs complete data on all factors that are likely to affect the system, that is, zero dispersion of the detected states. as dispersion will increase, the accuracy of path integration will only decrease. Therefore, as of the Second, maintaining or decreasing the interior entropy of a system needs a continuous increase in its external entropy. Therefore, the system ceases to live when its energy reservoir runs out or seeks additional energy within the external environment. And, as any action will increase entropy, seeking additional energy long enough is to love maximizing future freedom of action. Therefore, follows from a pair of. the semi-permanent average of surprise (also known as "free energy") is entropy ", wherever" periodicity implies that the average time of any measurable system operation converges (almost certainly) over a sufficient amount of time ". Considering the time scales relevant to Fermi's contradiction, we tend to conclude that a pair of 1 follows a pair of 3. An agent is an associated entity that complies with any of the equivalent definitions and A is the set of all agents potential. Civilization is then described as an associated whimsical non-empty set of A.”(Berezin, 2019)
    
    9. If the Galilean satellites of Jupiter always keep the same face pointed toward Jupiter because they are tidally “locked on” to Jupiter, how can they be heated by tidal friction?
    “However, now there is a game changer: after years of timid insinuations, NASA is, for the first time, seriously planning to send humans to Mars after 2030 (First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars, 2015; Obama, 2016; National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act, 2017), including chartering a previous planning study to support Mars water in situ resource utilization for eventual human missions (ME- PAG, 2016). In addition, given the rapid advances in space flight technologies by other national space programs as well as within the private sector, it is not out of the realm of possibilities that other stakeholders may precede NASA in completing human missions to Mars and the moment that an astronaut sets foot on Mars, Planetary Protection policies as we conceive them today will no longer be valid as microbial contamination from the human visitors will be unavoidable humans will increase not only the number (a human being is a collection of roughly 70 trillions of cells and bacteria; however, microbial invasion is not simply a matter of numbers) but also most importantly the diversity of microorganisms flying to Mars”(Fairén et al., 2017)
    
    10. What are the advantages of liquid water over other possible liquids as a medium in which life might have arisen?
    “Water is the most abundant liquid on Earth and, together, the substance with the greatest variety of anomalies in its properties. it is a requirement to maintain and intrinsically an almost vital subject of cu
ent analysis in chemical and chemical physics. Despite its simplicity as a liquid, it is an incredibly rich section diagram in which different types of ice cream, amorphous phases and anomalies reveal a path that points to physical science distinct from its supercooled liquid state that also hides several undisclosed secrets . are designed to clarify the abnormal properties that increase powerfully within the supercooled region. Among them, the second critical state of affairs has been investigated extensively and, at this point, most experimental evidence experiences the cu
ent state of affairs. ranging from te
ibly low temperatures, an existence line between a high density amorphous section and a low density amorphous section would continue on a very close existence line between a high density and low density liquid section, ending at a liquid-liquid junction , LLCP. When approaching this LLCP from the region of a phase, an intersection is found in the science and dynamics of physics. this is often mentioned, supporting an image of a temperature-dependent equili
ium between a high-density liquid and a low-density liquid, favored by various entropy and total heat, resulting in the same image as the physical science of bulk water. The nucleation of ice is mentioned further, as this is often what severely impedes experimental investigation of the planned LLCP neighborhood..”(Gallo et al., 2016)
    
    11. What lines of strong evidence led investigators to conclude that the KT extinction occu
ing 65 million years ago was caused by the impact of a large body, perhaps an asteroid, 10 – 15 km in diameter? How do we know that this event occu
ed exactly 65 million years ago?
    “To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) cannot be placed within the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and the worlds within the cycle do not appear to be essentially habitable. Here, we tend to illustrate, however, the recu
ent warming of events will make te
estrial or icy worlds on the other side of the stellar cycle habitable. Scientists have developed language that neglects the potential existence of worlds that provide life with many more benign environments than Earth. We tend to decide these objects as super-habitable and discuss in which contexts this term can be used, that is, that the worlds tend to be much more habitable than the Earth. In the appendix Associate in Nursing, we tend to show why the principle of mediocracy does not usually logically justify why the Earth should be a very habitable planet or why different haunted worlds should look like the Earth. Super habitable worlds must be thought of for future observations of accompanying signs of extrate
estrial life. Considering a variety of physical effects, we tend to conclude that they tend to be a little older and much larger than Earth, where their host stars are possibly K dwarfs.”(Heller and Armstrong, 2014)
    
    12. How is RNA different from DNA and how is it similar? What is the usual role of RNA? … of DNA? What are some of the reasons why many scientists think
that life may have started with RNA as the ca
ier of genetic information, rather than DNA?
    “Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA is the hereditary material of most of the organisms. A majority of DNA is located in either the nucleus or nucleoid. Some may remain inside mitochondria and chloroplast as well. DNA ca
ies the genetic Sugar phosphate backbone in DNA is formed by nitrogenous bases and phosphate groups attached to the sugar deoxyribose. CH bonds in deoxyribose sugar are less reactive. Therefore, DNA is considerably stable in alkaline conditions. Four different nitrogenous bases can be identified in DNA: cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) and thymine (T). The two polynucleotide strands are held together by hydrogen bonds, forming between complement bases. Adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) whereas cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G). Thus, each strand is complementary. The two polynucleotide strands are further coiled to form a double helix. “Each strand in the double helix run in opposite directions, making the two strands antiparallel. The asymmetric ends of the strand are identified as 5′ and the 3′ ends. Major groove (22 Å wide) and minor groove (12 Å wide) can be found within the double helix.B form is the most common conformation of DNA within all organisms. The order which the four bases are a
anged along the backbone encodes biological information within DNA stretches called genes. DNA synthesizes an identical copy of the original DNA, for reproduction. DNA can be easily damaged by ultraviolet light Ribonucleic acid or RNA is mostly found in the cytoplasm. Some may be also found in the nucleus. Many viruses store their genetic information in RNA genomes. RNA has a vital role in the regulation and expression of genes. RNA is a polynucleotide composed of nucleotide monomers same as DNA. RNA has a much shorter strand compared to DNA. Ribose is the sugar which forms the sugarphosphate backbone. Ribose is much reactive due to the hydroxyl group at 2′ position of the pentose ring. Therefore, RNA is not stable in alkaline conditions. Due to the presence of 2′OH group, RNA exists in Aform. Aform geometry generates a deep, na
ow major groove and a shallow, wide minor groove. The four nitrogenous bases found in RNA are cytosine (C), guanine (G), adenine (A) and uracil (U). Unlike DNA, RNA exists as a single Stranded molecule most of the times but it can form double Stranded secondary structures such as hairpin loops by complementary base pairing; Adenine (A) pairs with uracil (U) whereas cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G).” (Panawala, 2017)
    
    13.If intelligence has obvious survival advantages for a species, why didn’t it emerge more quickly during the course of evolution? What are some of the costs of advanced intelligence?
    “Behavior and characteristics learned in the extension of people affected considerably the evolution in the extension of species. Baldwin's impact on applications as individual responses to processes can damage targeted, non-random processes. Open comments from prominent peers postures conflict completely differently in relation to Baldwin's impact and definition. The operational definition of Baldwin's impact used this article: malleability can be a positive impact on evolution that affects the pressure of choice. This “permanent genetic variation is often chosen so that evolution proceeds in the direction of the induced plastic response. According to this definition, or Baldwin's impact describes an evolution of the target genotypic attribute that co
esponds to the plastic response induced by the environment at the composition level. In other words, an induced plastic response determines a direction in which the genotype evolves. This definition is particularly relevant when considering biologically galvanized optimization techniques. Plasticity is understood to influence the speed with which evolution converges to some "target" configuration. This work, in distinction, addresses the question of whether or not malleability during an alternately alternative scenario will cause the evolution of several genetic characteristics of the existence of Baldwin's result during a cyclical scenario and will determine the novel "Baldwin's deviation effect", that is, an attribute (generalist configuration) evolves as a result of malleability that does not co
espond to the plastic response evoked by a configuration that changes cyclically (specialized configuration) and also by the conditions under which it exists. A mathematical model verifies that the introduction of malleability in the composition alters the scenario of physical conditioning in a way that the configuration of the Renaissance man becomes the world ideal in the area of ​​genotypes. These results are relevant to the literature on the biological process Biology, as they expand the understanding of how phenotypic malleability influences evolution and presents a completely unique result caused by the interaction between learning and evolution. These results can also facilitate knowledge of the result of a rapid learning method in a slow learning method in another context, which includes an alternative element, for example, forming opinions in contexts where learning mediates speed from exposure to completely different. opinions”(Id, Bennati and Helbing, 2019)
    
    14. What are the three
anches on the tree of life, and which
anch are we on? What characteristics differentiate the organisms on our
anch from the others?
    “Early approaches to describe the tree of life distinguished organisms based on their physical characteristics and metabolic features. Molecular methods dramatically
oadened the diversity that could be included in the tree because they circumvented the need for direct observation and experimentation by relying on sequenced genes as markers for lineages. Gene surveys, typically using the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU RNA) gene, provided a remarkable and novel view of the biological world but questions about the structure and extent of diversity remain. Organisms from novel lineages have eluded surveys, because many are invisible to these methods due to sequence divergence relative to the primers commonly used for gene amplification. Furthermore, unusual sequences, including those with unexpected insertions, may be discarded as artefacts. The tree of life as we know it has dramatically expanded due to new genomic sampling of previously enigmatic or unknown microbial lineages. This depiction of the tree captures the cu
ent genomic sampling of life, illustrating the progress that has been made in the last two decades following the first published genome. What emerges from analysis of this tree is the depth of evolutionary history that is contained within the Bacteria, in part due to the CPR, which appears to subdivide the domain. Most importantly, the analysis highlights the large fraction of diversity that is cu
ently only accessible via cultivation-independent genome-resolved approaches.” (Hug et al., 2016)
    
    16. Mars is a ba
en planet with no standing liquid water anywhere on its surface. Why, then, is there so much interest in Mars as an abode for life? What kind of life might be present there, and where might it reside?
    “Cu
ently, neither liquid water nor the liquid
ine unit is stable on the surface of Mars; however, they may be present
iefly in very few areas of the earth. It is unlikely that pure liquid water will be present on the surface of Mars, even if
iefly, as a result of evaporation in the very dry atmosphere, inhibiting the formation of the liquid part, whenever the area of ​​temperature and pressure is high enough that the water do not freeze or boil. The exception to the cu
ent is that liquid water monolayers, called sub-cooled liquid surface water, can exist on most of the Martian surface. in very few places, there may be liquid
ine
iefly on the surface, as a result of the type of refrigerant temperature, close to ice or frost deposits, whenever sublimation can be stifled by the presence of almost saturated air.”(Martínez and Renno, 2013)
    
    17. What characteristics define a “life” form?
    “To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) cannot be placed within the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and the worlds within the cycle do not appear to be essentially habitable. Here, we tend to illustrate, however, the recu
ent warming of events will make te
estrial or icy worlds on the other side of the stellar cycle habitable. Scientists have developed language that neglects the...
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