Anju Lata answered on
Mar 30 2020
Running Head: LEARNING APPROACHES
In psychology, there are mainly two kinds of learning approaches: Associative and Nonassociative. When we learn something new by pairing a stimulus with certain behavior, it is known as Associative learning, for example, Classical Conditioning and Reinforcement. When there is no pairing of behavior with the stimulus, it is Nonassociative learning style. Examples of this type of learning include Habituation and Sensitization (MIT, 2018).
1. HABITUATION & SENSITIZATION
Habituation is a reduction in response to a stimulus following recu
For example, when we hear a new sound in our environment, it may attract our mind initially but later on, we get habitual to it and do not respond to it with that intensity. This decline in response is known as Habituation (Che
Habituation is one of the most familiar kinds of learning, eliminating all the unnecessary stimuli and concentrating only on really important things. For example, when you listen to a loud banging sound from your nea
y locality for the first time, you immediately get concerned about it and try to enquire where this sound is coming from. But over the days when you hear the same sound again and again after a regular interval of time, you get habitual of it and your attention level reduces (Che
Sensitization is a tendency of increased response to a stimulus following recu
ent confrontations. Suppose you are in a class where the lecturer says OK after every sentence. You get more i
itated and annoyed as you repeatedly hear his statements ending with OK. This is an example of increased sensitivity (annoyance and i
itation) towards a stimulus (repeated pronunciation of OK) (MIT,2018).
A reflex action is an involuntary motor response of body towards a particular stimulus. For example, when we smell a perfume around us, it suddenly attracts our attention. In this case, perfume is stimulus and our attentive pleasant experience towards the smell is reflex action (BBC,2014).
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING IN DAILY ACTIVITIES
Classical Conditioning is a kind of learning approach in which a previously neutral stimulus like a bell when gets associated with an unconditioned stimulus (like food), produces an exactly similar response like that produced by an unconditioned stimulus (food). This process is known as conditioning of Unconditioned stimulus when combined with a neutral stimulus. In Pavlov’s classic example of a dog, initially, the animal does not respond to sound of the bell in any way. It is neutral for him. But the repeated pairing of bell sound with the presentation of food induces salvation in dog whenever the sound of the bell is played.
Example: Whenever we see a cockroach around us, it frightens us. The cockroach is a neutral stimulus which associates with emotions like fear, develops conditioning of cockroach with fear and anxiety.
Consider the experiment of Pavlov with dog and food. Before the conditioning process, the incidence of Unconditioned stimulus (food) alone was sufficient to induce salvation (Unconditioned Response) in the dog. Neutral stimulus like whistling alone did not induce any conditioned response (CR) or salvation in the dog. During the process of conditioning, when the food (UCS) was recu
ently presented before the dog immediately after playing whistling sound, it produced salvation (UR). After the completion of learning through conditioning, the conditioned stimulus (whistling sound) which was earlier known as neutral stimulus is enough to generate conditioned response (salvation).
Thus, Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) is a naturally occu
ing stimulus. Unconditioned Response (UR) is a response produced by Unconditioned Stimulus, Neutral Stimulus is a stimulus not related to any response, and Conditioned Stimulus (CS) is new stimulus now producing a response (earlier unrelated and neutral). Conditioned Response (CR) is the response generated by Conditioned Stimulus (CS).
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND ADVERTISING