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WEL203A: Chronic Illness and Disability
Chronic Illness and Disability
Week 11: Disability Policies
I begin today by acknowledging the Kaurna* people, Traditional Custodians of the land on which we are learning today.
I pay my respects to their Elders past, present and emerging.
I extend that respect to Aboriginal and To
es Strait Islander peoples here today.
Belinda Golder Kngwa
eye | My Country
*Adelaide, SA.: https:
Acknowledgement of Country
Subject Textbook
The textbook is a later version of the book identified in the study guide :
Falvo, D. R., & Holland, B. E XXXXXXXXXXMedical and psychosocial aspects of chronic illness and disability (6th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning. https: XXXXXXXXXX
Look through the textbook - explore sections where causes and factors contributing to disability are considered
Additional readings are also noted:
in the study guide – there are quite a few identified this week
In these slides
Consumers and their rights
Specific rights for the people living with disability
Organizations in Australia for consumers’ right
The types and complex causes of neglect and abuse of people who are sick or living with disabilities
Key aspects of Attention-Deficit Disorde
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Chronic fatigue
ief look at “sick building” syndrome
Week 10 Recap
Week 11
Discussion Forum
Please check you BB > Week 11 > Discussion Forum
Reply to the question (200 words) and your friends’ post (100 words)
Support your response with logic, evidence and pre-readings
Use citations
eferences accordingly
Discussion Forum – Week 11
The NDIS promised to transform Australian lives for the better. But there are still some issues and concerns regarding its implementation. The complaints about the scheme reached record levels. In your view, what needs to be done to make the NDIS a more responsive, person-centred scheme? Discuss
Week 11
Disability Policies
Readings for this week:
Week 11 Readings
See Readings in Blackboard
Some readings are in this slide-set
Contents for week 11
Disabilities Fact Sheet (WHO)
WHO response to disability
Disability policies in Australia
Australia’s Disability discrimination Act 1992
Australia’s Disability Strategy 2021 – 2031
National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS)
Overview, roles and responsibilities
Support provided
Issues and concerns
This week we focus on the different policies and supports related to disabilities in Australia and supports
There are over 1 billion people in the world who are living with some forms of disability
Significant increment of people living with disability due to demographic trends and high prevalence of chronic health conditions.
COVID-19 affected the people with disability to a greater extent.
People with disability are experiencing stigma and discrimination in society, and often inside the health system – leading to poor quality health services.
Urgent need to scale up the disability inclusion in all levels of the health system, especially in the primary health care level.
Disability Fact Sheet
iers to health care for people with disabilities
Attitudinal ba
iers – stigma and discrimination from health service providers, lack of policies to accommodation, barely involved in decision making about the provision of health services to people with disability
Physical ba
iers – accessibility and transportation, buildings not friendly, inaccessible rooms and toilets, fixed-height furniture
Communication ba
iers – problem with people having hearing impairment, vision impairment, information presented in complicated way/use of jargon
Financial ba
iers – less affordable health services for people with disability from LMIC
Disability Fact Sheet
Disability inclusion in the health sector
Disability is both social and health issue
Actions are needed towards disability inclusion in health sector – need to be incorporated while formulation strategies and action plans related to disability
Government should realize the importance of disability inclusion to achieve the overall health goals at national and global level
For people with disability, government should focus on
Universal health coverage without financial hardship
Protection during health emergencies
Access to cross-sectorial PH interventions, such as WASH services
Disability Fact Sheet
According to WHO,
Disability inclusion is critical in achieving universal health coverage because person with disabilities are:
three times more likely to be denied health care
four times more likely to be treated badly in the health care system
50% more likely to suffer catastrophic health expenditure.
Disability inclusion is critical in achieving better protection from health emergencies because people with disability are affected
directly due to increased risk of infection and ba
iers in accessing healthcare
indirectly due to restrictions to reduce spread of virus (e.g., disruptions in support services)
Disability Fact Sheet
According to WHO,
Disability inclusion is critical in achieving better health and well-being because people with disabilities are:
4–10 times more likely to experience violence
at higher risk of nonfatal injury from road traffic crashes
Children with disabilities are:
three times more likely to experience sexual abuse
two times more likely to be malnourished.
Disability Fact Sheet
Committed to improve the access and coverage of health services for people with disability
Promoting the inclusion of disability in national health programs among member states
Developing guidelines to strengthen disability inclusion within health system
Building capacity among health service providers and policy makers
Facilitating the collection and dissemination of disability-related data and information
Contributing to the United Nations Disability Inclusion Strategy (UNDIS) to promote “sustainable and transformative progress on disability inclusion through all pillars of work of the United Nations”.
WHO Response to Disability
See more resources at
Disability Strategies and Action Plans by Country/Area
Disability Laws and Acts by Country/Area
Disability fact sheet and policies across countries
Australia’s Disability Strategy 2021 – 2031
The Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (Cth) (DDA)
Disability policies in Australia
The act defines Disability, in relation to a person, means:
total or partial loss of the person’s bodily or mental functions; or
total or partial loss of a part of the body; or
the presence in the body of organisms causing disease or illness; or
the presence in the body of organisms capable of causing disease or illness; o
the malfunction, malformation or disfigurement of a part of the person’s body; or
a disorder or malfunction that results in the person learning differently from a person without the disorder or malfunction; or
a disorder, illness or disease that affects a person’s thought processes, perception of reality, emotions or judgment or that results in distu
ed behaviou
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
Disability is
oadly defined within the Disability Discrimination Act ”to include physical, intellectual, sensory, neurological and psychiatric disabilities as well as including people who may have a disease and people with an imputed disability (i.e., being treated as if you have a disability). People like relatives, friends, and carers are also protected if they are discriminated against because of their association with a person with disability.”
Australian Human Rights Commission, A
ief guide to the D.D.A, ‘Who does the D.D.A protect?’ XXXXXXXXXXhttps:
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
Disability discrimination is when a person with a disability is treated less favourably than a person without the disability in the same or similar circumstances.
The definition of “disability” used in the DDA is
oad. It includes physical, intellectual, psychiatric, sensory, neurological and learning disabilities. It also includes physical disfigurement and the presence in the body of disease-causing organisms, such as the HIV virus.
The DDA covers disabilities that people have now, had in the past, may have in the future or which they are believed to have.
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
See DDA Fact Sheet Available at
It is unlawful to discriminate against someone with disability in the following areas of life:
Access to premises used by the public
Provision of goods, services and facilities
Buying land
Activities of clubs and associations
Administration of Commonwealth Government laws and programs
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
Section 7 of the DDA makes it unlawful to discriminate against a person because of a disability or the disability of an associate, such as a friend, partner, carer or family member of the person.
Section 8 of the DDA states that discrimination is also unlawful where it occurs because a person with a disability:
uses a palliative, therapeutic or assistive device
is accompanied by a carer, interpreter, reader or assistant
is accompanied by a guide or hearing dog or other trained assistant animal.
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
See DDA Fact Sheet Available at
What the DDA does?
The DDA implements Australia’s international human rights obligations under the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities as well as obligations relating to non-discrimination under other treaties, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.
The DDA also protects people against harassment because of their disability, in employment, education or in getting or using services.
The DDA provides a mechanism for individuals to make complaints and seek redress for disability discrimination in certain areas of public life, including education. If a person believes they have been discriminated against they can make a complaint to the Australian Human Rights Commission about discrimination.
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
See DDA Fact Sheet Available at
DDA and Schools
The Australian Government supports the right of children with disability to have the same educational opportunities as other children.
All state and te
itory education providers, including government and non-government schools, must comply with the DDA and the relevant disability discrimination legislation of their state or te
All education providers must also comply with the Disability Standards for Education 2005.
Disability standards can be made in the areas of employment, education, public transport services, access to premises, accommodation and the administration of Commonwealth laws and programs.
Disability Discrimination Act 1992
See DDA Fact Sheet Available at
The National Disability Strategy 2010–2020 was the original Strategy by which all levels of governments in Australia are committed to a unified, national approach to building inclusion for people with disability.
The strategy was about creating a more inclusive society that enabled Australians with disability to fulfil their potential as equal citizens.
The original strategy replaced by the Australia’s Disability Strategy XXXXXXXXXX
The new strategy emphasizes on inclusive and accessible Australian society where all people with disability can fulfill their potential as equal members of the society.
People with disability needs the equal access and same level of services and facilities in terms of healthcare, education, housing, justice, transport, and so on.
Inclusion and access is critical to achieve the best outcomes for people with disability.
Australia’s Disability Strategy 2021 – 2031
The Australian, state and te
itory, and local governments are committed to work together to support people with disability to reach their full potential, as equal members of society
Australia’s Disability Strategy XXXXXXXXXXis a national level strategy.
State and te
itory governments have their own disability plans (or are developing plans)
Local governments (councils) also have disability plans
Australia’s Disability Strategy 2021 – 2031
an inclusive Australian society that ensures people with disability can fulfil their potential, as equal members of the community
provide national leadership towards greater inclusion of people with disability 
guide activity across all areas of public policy to be inclusive and responsive to people with disability 
drive mainstream services and systems to improve outcomes for people with disability 
engage, inform and involve the whole community in achieving a more inclusive society.
Australia’s Disability Strategy 2021 – 2031
Outcome Areas
Employment and financial security
Inclusive homes and communities
Safety, rights and justice
Personal and community support
Education and learning
Health and well-being
Community attitudes
Australia’s Disability Strategy 2021 – 2031
Employment and Financial Security
People with disability have economic security, enabling them to plan for the future and exercise choice and control over their lives
Australia’s Disability Strategy 2021 – 2031
Policy priorities
Increase employment of people with disability.
Improve the transition of young people with disability from education to employment.
Strengthen financial independence of people with disability.
https: g
Inclusive homes and communities
Outcome – People with disability live in inclusive, accessible and well-designed homes and communities
Australia’s Disability Strategy 2021 – 2031
Policy priorities
Increase the availability of affordable housing.
Housing is accessible and people with disability have a choice and control about where they live, who they live with, and who comes into their home.
People with disability are able to fully participate in social, recreational, sporting, religious and cultural life.
The built and natural environment is accessible.
Transport systems are accessible for the whole community.
Information and communication systems are accessible, reliable and responsive.
Safety, Rights and Justice
Outcome – The rights of people with disability are promoted, upheld and protected, and people with disability feel safe and enjoy equality before the law
Policy Priorities
People with disability are safe and feel safe from violence, abuse, neglect and exploitation.
Policies, processes and programs provide better responses to people with disability who have experienced trauma.
Policies, processes and programs for people
Answered 2 days After May 02, 2024


P answered on May 03 2024
5 Votes
Biomedical Model & Social models of chronic illness & disability
In this article, we dive into two important models shaping our understanding about chronic illness and disability: the biomedical model and the social model. From the Western medical origin, the biomedical model places that poor health conditions originate from physiological dysfunction, with clinical interventions that focuses on diagnosis and therapy (McLaren and Brydges, 2018). Alternately, the social model emphasizes the effect of social, natural, and underlying variables on ailment and disability experiences (Shakespeare, 2006). It recommends that disability isn't exclusively a consequence of individual impedances however it is associated with cultural mentalities, ba
iers, and inequalities. The two models offer unique insights into wellbeing, impacting the viewpoints of people, medical care suppliers, and policymakers.
Australia is as of now seeing a paradigm shift in medical services progressing from the customary biomedical model to more person-centered care approach (Australian Government Department of Health, 2020). This shift recognizes the biomedical model's limits in tending to the assorted necessities of people with ongoing chronic illness and disability. Patient-centered care focuses on fitting medical care administrations to individual requirements, preferences, and circumstances, advancing strengthening and dignity (Australian Government Department of Health, 2020). By fundamentally examining the biomedical and social models inside Australia's advancing financial structure, this article means to investigate their true capacities and requirements in fathoming constant ailment and handicap. Such examination is fundamental for illuminating healthcare practices, policy decisions, and cultural perspectives towards people with chronic illness and disability, ultimately striving for more comprehensive and equitable healthcare systems.
Section 2: Model 1 - Biomedical Model
Overview and Theoretical Underpinning:
The biomedical model, established in Cartesian dualism provides a framework for understanding heath and illness through biological processes (McLaren and Brydges, 2018). Starting from Descartes' idea of isolating the
ain and body, this approach accentuates the actual parts of infection while disregarding abstract encounters and psychosocial factors. Infections and disabilities are credited to explicit biological abnormalities, like microorganisms or hereditary transformations, with clinical mediations pointed toward focusing on these elements for reestablishing wellbeing. Nonetheless, the reductionist idea of the biomedical model misrepresents medical issue by disconnecting individual organic parts and ignoring the perplexing connections among biological, social, psychological, and environmental factors.
As awareness of its limitation grows, there's an eminent shift toward more all encompassing holistic healthcare approaches. Patient-focused care models, perceiving the need to think about patients' more extensive settings, are acquiring unmistakable quality. These models focus on individual preferences, inclinations, and objectives, encouraging a thorough way to deal with medical care benefits that recognizes patients' social, personal, and social foundations. By enabling patients and promoting autonomy, patient-focused care intends to upgrade care quality and further develop wellbeing results past the domain of biomedical interventions.
Possibilities and Limitations:
The biomedical model has worked with significant advances in clinical science and innovation, leading to improved diagnostic techniques, therapeutic strategies and preventive techniques (World Health Organisation, 2021). By studying the disease associated biological mechanisms, the clinical experts can foster targeted therapies to ease side effects and work on quiet results. Notwithstanding, the biomedical model's reductionist methodology will in general simplify...

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