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Topic 1: Reproduction (10 marks total) Considering Shela Sexton’s current circumstances, describe the role of testosterone prior to the commencement of estradiol and spironolactone therapy...

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Topic 1: Reproduction (10 marks total)

Considering Shela Sexton’s current circumstances, describe the role of testosterone prior to the commencement of estradiol and spironolactone therapy and explain whether you expect her testosterone levels to be different to normal because of the therapy. Your discussion should include the homeostatic regulation of male reproductive physiology and the relevant, glands, cells, and hormones. (10 marks)

Topic 2: Urinary system (5 marks total)

Describe the role of the kidneys in maintaining fluid balance with reference to the role of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Considering Shela Sexton’s circumstances and urinalysis results, discuss whether she is at risk of not maintaining homeostatic fluid mechanisms. (5 marks)

Topic 3: Digestion/metabolism (8 marks total)

The night after consuming more carbohydrate in the one meal than the last month combined, Shela Sexton has abdominal cramps, flatulence, and diarrhea and quickly needs to find a toilet. Link these symptoms to undigested carbohydrate and explain the defecation reflex. (4.5 marks)

State the hormone that would have been MOST active in maintaining Shela Sexton’s blood glucose levels after her carbohydrate loaded dinner. Explain your answer. (3.5 marks)

Topic 4: Pharmacology (7 marks total)

Shela Sexton is taking spironolactone (which is considered a prodrug) tablets for androgen blocking as part of hormone replacement therapy.

Discuss the route of administration of spironolactone, and its likely bioavailability. Justify your response by discussing whether the drug would be subjected to hepatic first pass and how this is a benefit for spironolactone. In your answer, you will need to relate back to the case study. (4 marks)

Discuss the effect of spironolactone on elimination of other drugs. In your answer, you will need to relate back to the case study and clinical results for Shela Sexton. (3 marks)

Answered 5 days After May 12, 2023


Dr Insiyah R. answered on May 17 2023
5 Votes
Reproduction    1
Topic 2: Urinary System    3
Topic 3: Digestion/metabolism    3
Topic 4: Pharmacology    4
Reference    5
The gonads, adrenal cortex, and pituitary gland all create hormones essential for controlling the reproductive system. Males and females both produce gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) throughout puberty, and it encourages the anterior pituitary gland to generate and release the hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) (Walker & Cooke,2023). Due to their ability to regulate gonads, ovaries, and testes in both males and females, these hormones are called gonadotropins. While LH increases the gonads' hormone production, FSH promotes gametes' formation in both males and females. Gonadal hormone overproduction decreases GnRH production through a negative feedback loop. Males' sperm cells grow more quickly, thanks to FSH. A hormone produced by the testes called inhibin inhibits the production of FSH (Schiller, Ben-Shaanan & Rolls,2021). LH is also known as an interstitial cell-stimulating hormone because it encourages the synthesis of androgens (sex hormones) by the interstitial cells of the testes. Some athletes use synthetic hormones that improve muscular function to enhance their performance. One of the most well-known performance-enhancing substances is anabolic steroids, a kind of the hormone testosterone found in the male sex. Steroids are utilised to aid with muscle mass development (Walker & Cooke,2023). Erythropoietin, which stimulates the synthesis of red blood cells and human growth hormone that can help in muscle mass development, are other hormones commonly utilised to improve athletic performance. The majority of performance-enhancing medications are prohibited for non-medical use. Synthetic hormones frequently have serious, i
eversible, and perhaps deadly adverse effects. Androgens can lead to several side effects, including liver disorders and tumours, enlarged prostate glands, incontinence, early epiphyseal cartilage closure, testicular atrophy, infertility, and weakened immune systems. These chemicals frequently put the body under higher physiological pressure than it can tolerate, which can have unpredictable and harmful results. Stroke, heart attack, and altered cardiac function have all been linked to the use of these substances (Vannuccini et al.,2020).
Testosterone is a hormone primarily produced by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and in smaller amounts by the ovaries in females and the adrenal glands in both sexes. In males, testosterone plays a critical role in developing and maintaining secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial and body hair, deepening of the voice, and muscle mass. It also plays a role in maintaining bone density, sperm production, and sex drive (Walker & Cooke,2023).
In females, testosterone is produced in smaller amounts but still plays a role in maintaining bone density, muscle mass, and sex drive. However, high female testosterone levels can lead to masculinisation, including developing male-pattern...

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