TMGT602 Assessment 3 Annotated Bibliography Introduction: In this paper we set to define what is workplace diversity, various kinds of diversity, type of effects of diversity on organization, diversity management to have positive outcome; management of diversity in workplaces has become an important issue not only for legal reasons but also business reasons. In Today’s world organizations those want to achieve sustainability need to have knowledgeable and sustaining employees who be involved in achieving long term goals and objectives as a result they need to work as a team with minimum conflict. In this paper we have critically analysed the above-mentioned factors in the light of previously done research and also will try to explain why diversity management is important in case of achieving team work. Annotated Bibliography Number Sherry K. Schneider and Gregory B. North Craft, 1999, “Three Social Dilemmas of Workforce Diversity in Organizations: A Social Identity Perspective”, Journal of Human Relations Vol 52, No. 11, pp. 1445–1467. In this article Sherry and Gregory discussed three relationship dilemmas faced among organizations who strive to attain and sustain workforce diversity. The authors have used secondary data to establish a cultural diversity framework, an extensive use of literature review has been used to identity the three dilemmas of the diversity. Their research focuses the identifying a conceptual framework through literature review as there was none at when they began this research. This article is useful as this tries to assign roles of organizations’, managers’ and Individual’s responsibility in a diverse environment in achieving better outcome from workforce diversity. The limitation of this paper is they did not use any primary data in their research rather they have decided to consider the expert opinion as true and carry further research, as a result, the paper has limited scope and this paper also does not refer to the certain domain such as multinational organization where diversity is at its peak. This research paper is important for our research as this paper has tried to establish a conceptual framework in the domain of workforce diversity in organization and defines the responsibilities of Organization, its manager and also employees. (Schneider & Northcraft, XXXXXXXXXXShashi Bharti, 2015, “Workplace Diversity: Issues and Challenges”, International Journal of Commerce and Management Research, Volume 1; Issue 2; December 2015; Page No XXXXXXXXXXIn her research paper Shashi identified individuals in terms of their demographic attributes, mentioning everyone as unique she suggested that diversified employees are very effective in terms of workforce productivity, however, the Human Resources professions may need to deal with them in dealing change, adaptability and communications. The Aim of the paper was to develop a theoretical framework in understanding the workplace diversity through identifying issues and challenges. A wide range of literature review has been performed this the paper; no survey data was collected to carry out this research. This paper covers some important areas of diversification, identifying the benefits from multiculturism she suggested that there are several benefits of having diverse employees, benefits such as idea generation, productivity boosting, lower turnover, better customer service, better goodwill and access to new markets. Although this paper describes the situations of the MNC’s but it does not cover area of local workforce. This paper is based on having diverse workplace in market places but this paper does not cover the organizations aspects such as operations or productions or defence where customer service is not vital. Nevertheless, the research paper is very important as it shows that more cultural diversity has a much more higher learning curve than a less culturally diverse organization as a result managing and retaining cultural workforce and getting them work as a team helps boosting productivity and knowledge of any organization (Bharti, XXXXXXXXXXBarbara Mazur, of Politechnika Białostocka, 2010, “Cultural Diversity in Organisational Theory and Practice” , Journal of Intercultural Management, Vol. 2, No. 2, November 2010, pp. 5–15. Barbara set to evaluate the advantages and the disadvantages of diversity in organizations. Mentioning that we live in an asymmetric world where we have 03 people all around the world, she mentioned that management of diversity have become eminent in case of organizations striving for greater productivity and competitive advantages. However, the engagement of managers and commitment of organization is very crucial, they must strive for change and become open for change. In this paper Barbara explains the demotions of Diversity, dimensions include Primary, secondary and tertiary level of diversification. The limitation of this research is limited to polish companies. Poland is not culturally diverse as Australia or the US as a result the research outcomes has limited use in our research. Nevertheless, the research materials that are used in the paper can be beneficial for our domain of research. Throughout her research Barbara tied to prove diversity as a good enabler, however, at the end she mentioned diversity has no or limited affect in terms of productivity but it brings a goodwill for the company. (Mazur, 2010) Diwakar Singh, “Managing Cross-cultural Diversity: Issues and Challenges in Global Organizations”, IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, 2008, PP XXXXXXXXXXDiwakar in his research paper opened up a topic of globalization and how companies are doing business in a global environment, mentioning one of the main reasons of such globalization is for outsourcing he suggested that managers should be culturally sensitive, in case of promoting creativity and motivation over flexible leadership. The paper has been prepared based on data collected from secondary sources, sources such as Journals, internet, Books, previously conducted research has been used as source. The scope of this paper is limited to international business operations, this includes concept of culture, issues and challenges in managing cross culture diversity and recommended strategies in managing diverse workforce. This research is useful to our domain as this covers the importance of teamwork in a globally diverse organization. In this paper he further discussed the barriers of cultural adaptations, barriers such as: Parochialism, Individualism, Ethnocentrism, Cultural Distance and Cultural Shock. He further suggested how to overcome cultural barriers. Since this paper covers the barriers to achieving cultural diversity and also suggests the solution 04 to the situation the paper is very important and crucial for our research (Singh, XXXXXXXXXXShaveta Dhuppar 2015“Managing Workplace Diversity: Challenges and Strategies” International Journal of Research, Volume 2, Issue 3, Page: XXXXXXXXXXIn her research paper Shaveta recognizes that management of Cultural diversity is a big challenge, but there is a little concern in managing such diversity. She set to derive strategy in managing such strategic scenario where management of diversity is least concern. This research paper has been prepared in the light of systematic review of other literature; thus, secondary source of data has been used in this research. The author has taken a broad range of research aim where she went beyond nationalism in managing cultural diversity. She mentioned even within a particular nation there is diversity of culture as many people has different orientation to religion, language, sex and races. The issues in managing cultural diversity is to minimizing the discriminations that can happened in the workplaces. There should be certain diversity initiatives in managing such conflicts. Initiatives incudes effective communication, change management, conflict, generation gaps and so on. The limitation of this paper is lack of valid sources in managing cultural diversity. Respecting one as individual and respecting the difference can be beneficial for workforce. Because of regulation everyone should be treated equally. Since the workplace is diverse the management needs to manage this diverse workforce for their strategic and future success (Dhuppar, XXXXXXXXXXKelli Green, Mayra López, Allen Wysocki, Karl Kepner, Derek Farnsworth, and Jennifer L. Clark; 2002, ‘Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools1’, HR022 report. Kelli et. al. in the publication expressed that globalization is at its peak and as a result the workplace diversity is increasing in the global workforce framework. Capitalizing diversity to become profitable in the business world is a must 06 objective foe organization. The aim of the paper is to define diversity and also to give a brief advantage of diversity, it also suggests the challenges that is caused by diversity. Then the paper suggested the tools and technique that will be used to manage the work place diversity challenges. The used tools are important for our research as organizations should manage workplace diversity and align the employees work together in case of gaining competitive advantages. Among many Managers responsibility in managing workplace diversity is prominent; it is important to note that not only managers, but every employees participation in managing diversity is crucial. At the end she mentioned that respecting the difference is important for everyone. Management of diversity is important as this brings safe working environment for the organization. In conclusion they mentioned the need of individuals training in managing diversity is eminent. (Green, et al., 2002) Carolyn M. Clancy and David N. Tornberg, 2007,“TeamSTEPPS: Assuring Optimal Teamwork in Clinical Settings”, American Journal of Medical Quality, Volume: 22 issue: 3, PP: XXXXXXXXXXThe paper is base on teamwork and diversity in the sector of healthcare and military. In the paper they have thoroughly evaluated two organizations: agency for HealthCare research and quality (AHRQ) and Department of Defence (DoD). The aim of the research was to achieve the pioneer quality in providing healthcare. In the paper they evaluate the training and practical of training that they developed a program call TeamSTEPPS. This training program was designed to develop team strategies to enhance performance ensuring patient safety. This paper is very useful for our research as this has the elements of diversity in workplaces and also has the importance of team work to achieve the beat practices. However, the limitation of this paper is the proximity of the category of organizations. In the conclusion they mentioned that it is much more important in becoming team of experts rather than becoming the expert team in providing excellent healthcare (Clancy & Tornberg, XXXXXXXXXXDiscussion: Before we began, we need to understand what is Diversity. Diversity is a created phenomenon where an individual claim to belong to a particular social group, this is a subjective matter (Mazur, XXXXXXXXXXAnother definition of diversity is valuing employees or people in the scale of age, class, race, gender etc. (Green, et al., XXXXXXXXXXSo, diversity is heterogenicity of people in workplaces where they are categorized by different social scale. The importance of diversity has been discussed on the above annotated bibliography section where every author except Barbara has accepted the as a truth that diversity brings higher productivity for the organization, however, almost all of the authors has mentioned that management diversity is important in case of legal and reputation reason. Nevertheless, with analysis from above Annotated bibliography and if we go through the papers we can see certain benefits of diversity such as: Increased marketing opportunity, recruitment, creativity, business image (Green, et al., 2002), productivity boosting, lower turnover (Bharti, 2015), Improved Morale, Broader perspective and global impact (Singh, XXXXXXXXXXBecause of Increased human migration in the developed countries and because of global operation of large MNCs the diversity has become inevitable. Although it has its benefits but it also has several challenges where effecting management is required in case of managing diversity in workplace. The challenges of Diversity are: Discrimination, Communication, resistance to change, conflict, gender, harassment (Dhuppar, 2015), Parochialism, Individualism, Ethnocentrism, Cultural distance and Cultural shock (Singh, XXXXXXXXXXNow when the diversity is not taken care off it can create may issues those can not only damage an organization’s reputation but also can damage the productivity (Green, et al., XXXXXXXXXXManagement of diversity is challenging. Since every individual is unique managing every single person is also challenging. On the high level there are thee level on which diversity should be managed. The first is organizational level, where organizations will recognize that it has diverse employees and also the organizations will hire them on the equal opportunity law. Second is management level where the managers needs to accommodate such diversity carefully for every individual, lastly the most important part is participation of individual is important in case of managing workplace diversity (Schneider & Northcraft, XXXXXXXXXXAnalysing all the papers we have come to a solution that active involvement of management is a crucial element in managing diversity in the workplace. Now this involvement means they needs to make regulations about such diversification. Second most important aspect of managing diversity is each individuals’ training and participation in managing diversity (Bharti, XXXXXXXXXXGreen, et al., XXXXXXXXXXRespecting each individual as different and understanding individual uniquely is what is required to address such issue. Each of the staff members of the organization needs to be trained on how to respect others regardless their diversified social orientation (Dhuppar, XXXXXXXXXXTo understand the individual difference there are several steps those can be helpful in minimizing the cultural gap, knowledge about other culture, avoid cultural bias and development of cross-cultural skills (Singh, XXXXXXXXXXSince human migration are at its highest peak; diversity in society and workplaces is inevitable, understanding individual’s unique social orientation has become very important for everyone. If we expect someone to work and live with us closely then we need to understand them culturally. Share cultural believe with them and also respect their believe and then only individual will stand apart and include themselves in the social groups and workplace teams, as a result, we will get knowledge workers who will be able to contribute. Conclusion: In this paper we have identified diversity as individual’s socio-cultural heterogenicity. Because of global migration there is a peak in human migration, most of the developed nations are welcoming such migration, therefore, also experiencing high level of socio-cultural mixes. Individuals, who are migrating to another culture are suffering for cultural shock and cultural ambiguity, as a result, there is diversity. Since every individual is unique, understanding the unique individual has become much more important if we want to minimize the difference. Understanding this cultural difference and then treating every person based on their unique situation is needs to be done in welcoming the diversity. Understanding and accepting of this uniqueness is important to minimize the difference. If we expect them to work as a team it is time to respect and accept the difference. References Bharti, S., 2015. Workplace Diversity: Issues and Challenges. International Journal of Commerce and Management Research, 1(2), pp XXXXXXXXXXClancy, C. M. & Tornberg, D. N., 2007. TeamSTEPPS: Assuring Optimal Teamwork in Clinical Settings. American Journal of Medical Quality, 22(3), pp XXXXXXXXXXDhuppar, S., 2015. Managing Workplace Diversity: Challenges and Strategies. International Journal of Research (IJR), 2(3), pp XXXXXXXXXXGreen, K. et al., 2002. Diversity in the Workplace: Benefits, Challenges, and the Required Managerial Tools, Florida: The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Mazur, B., 2010. Cultural Diversity in Organisational Theory and Practice. Journal of Intercultural Management, 2(2), pp XXXXXXXXXXSchneider, S. K. & Northcraft, G. B., 1999. Three Social Dilemmas of Workforce Diversity in Organizations: A Social Identity Perspective. Human Relations, 52(11), p. 1445–1467. Singh, D., 2008. Managing Cross-cultural Diversity: Issues and Challenges in Global Organizations. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering, pp. 43-50.