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someTitle Both family systems and family-centred approaches to early childhood intervention recognise and take into consideration family and cultural diversity in order to ensure that intervention...

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Both family systems and family-centred approaches to early childhood intervention
ecognise and take into consideration family and cultural diversity in order to ensure
that intervention practices are sensitive to and respectful of family beliefs, desires,
and preferences. This is accomplished, to a large degree, by the relationships early
childhood practitioners have with families and family members, and especially rela-
tionships that support and strengthen family competence and confidence.
Early childhood intervention is now practised throughout most of the world
(e.g., European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice, 2015; Guralnick, 2005; New &
Cochran, 2007; Odom, Hanson, Blackman, & Kaul, XXXXXXXXXXIn many countries,
and especially those that differ considerably in the ethnic, linguistic, and reli-
gious makeup of their citizens (Fearon, 2003), such diversity demands highly
individualised practices in order for early childhood intervention to be culturally
sensitive and competent. Within this diversity, however, is one common feature:
the family (however defined) as the primary social context for child learning and
development, and carer-child interactions as sources of variation in child learning,
development, and socialisation. As noted by Richter (2004), caregiver sensitivity
and responsiveness to child behaviour shapes and influences social acculturation
where these “nurturing caregiver-child relationships have universal features across
cultures, regardless of differences in specific child care practices” (p. 3).
The importance of caregiver-child interactions is no doubt the reason so many
approaches to early childhood intervention place primary emphasis on influencing
caregiving practices, and why supporting and promoting caregiver competence
and confidence are viewed as a primary way to have capacity-building and empow-
ering consequences. The chapters in this section of the book include insights
and guidance for adopting practices that strengthen carer-child and family-
practitioner relationships from family systems and family-centred approaches to
early childhood intervention.
References
European Commission/EACEA/Eurydice XXXXXXXXXXEarly childhood education and
care systems in Europe. National information sheets – 2014/15. Eurydice facts and
figures. Luxembourg: Office of the European Union.
Part III
Understanding families
and family-early
childhood practitioner
elationships
Sukkar, H., Dunst, C. J., & Kirkby, J. (Eds XXXXXXXXXXEarly childhood intervention : working with families of young children with
XXXXXXXXXXspecial needs. Retrieved from http:
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74 Families and family-practitioner relationships
Fearon, J. D XXXXXXXXXXEthnic and cultural diversity by country. Journal of Economic
Growth, 8(2), 195–222. doi:10.1023/A: XXXXXXXXXX
Guralnick, M. J. (Ed XXXXXXXXXXThe developmental systems approach to early interven-
tion. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
New, R. S., & Cochran, M. M XXXXXXXXXXEarly childhood education: An international
encyclopedia (Vol. 1). Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Odom, S. L., Hanson, M. J., Blackman, J. A., & Kaul, S XXXXXXXXXXEarly intervention
practices around the world. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Richter, L XXXXXXXXXXThe importance of caregiver-child interactions for the survival and
healthy development of young children: A review. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health
Organisation, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development.
Sukkar, H., Dunst, C. J., & Kirkby, J. (Eds XXXXXXXXXXEarly childhood intervention : working with families of young children with
XXXXXXXXXXspecial needs. Retrieved from http:
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Family systems across Australia could be classified as complex, as they are diverse
in structure and representation due to significant change in fertility options, the
life expectancy of time spent in relationships (demographically speaking) and a
sense of the shifting social, cultural and economical values of Australia in the
present day (De Vaus, XXXXXXXXXXNo longer are we portrayed as the “typical,” homo-
genous, traditional, nuclear family presented back in the 1950s era of Australia.
Families are diverse and this is highlighted and considered within a myriad of
further information or even influence, such as gender, culture, marital status,
children; who can be
ought into the family system through biological parent-
ing, step-parenting, adoption, or perhaps assisted through in vitro fertilisation
(IVF), which enables the eggs of a woman’s ovary to be removed and fertilised
with sperm through laboratory processes, and then the fertilised egg is returned
ack into the woman’s uterus (IVF Australia, XXXXXXXXXXThere are also children
who come under the guardianship of family members such as older siblings and
grandparents as well as family friends. The reasons for these a
angements are
complex and may include parental deaths, the inability of a parent/s to ca
y
out adequate parenting, court rulings or simply decisions by biological parents
who are struggling for any number of reasons. When I refer to “complex” family
systems, it derives from a place of respect and interest associated with the diverse
nature of families across the States and Te
itories of Australia. Our diverse nation
is recorded predominantly through the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)
information.
For the purpose of representing the ABS data in an authentic and statistically
minded gathering of information, it is fair to highlight that there are people who
choose to keep their information exempt from such surveys (such as that which
is presented in the ABS data). This chapter will provide readers with a deeper
understanding and
oader context to represent our family compositions or per-
haps systems across Australia.
This chapter also explores how children from diverse families experience the
qualities, or perhaps disharmony in expressing their voice about their community,
identity and belonging. It investigates whether there is a disjunction between
5 Family composition and
family needs in Australia
What makes a family?
Sara Holman
Sukkar, H., Dunst, C. J., & Kirkby, J. (Eds XXXXXXXXXXEarly childhood intervention : working with families of young children with
XXXXXXXXXXspecial needs. Retrieved from http:
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76 Holman
policy imperatives and how diverse families experience such values and practices
encouraging their participation and relationships between educators and diverse
families. The early childhood policy frameworks promote an ideal practice, but
I am eager to discuss if such positive values are being enacted in practices towards
our diverse families within early childhood settings. The early childhood frame-
works suggest a
oad range of appropriate practices and are simply frameworks
for guidance. To interpret the frameworks and magnify the essence of their policy
intentions would also expose gaps and resistance to knowledge, practice and the
desire of families to convey their truth, beliefs and values without prejudice and
simply the need for acceptance without explanation.
Cu
ent family structures across Australia
Families are no longer defined by the nuclear structure, as was the case in the
past. Our children transition and interact amongst a reality that wa
ants a sincere
need to re-connect to the question: what makes a family?
“Families can be described or characterised as big, small, extended, nuclear,
multi-generational, with one parent, two parents, same sex parents, and grand-
parents” (Carpenter, XXXXXXXXXXDiscussions in this chapter will focus on an Austral-
ian context examining family systems and family dynamics across cu
ent early
childhood frameworks, Government policy and its implication in practice for
educators across the early years. The early childhood sector has responded to the
early years frameworks conservatively through both moral obligation and a need
to conscientiously utlilise the available frameworks according to direction from
the Government, funding and the requirement to present the National Quality
Standards (ACECQA, NQS, 2011) across Australia. This uniform approach by
the Federal Government is welcomed by many in the early childhood sector, yet
early childhood educators must reflect whether their responses are connected to a
genuine partnership with families or perhaps they have chosen to opt for a super-
ficial engagement where diverse families partner with early childhood services and
educators on the surface yet experience invisibility in family structure, functions
and true acceptance (Slattebol & Ferfolja, 2007).
The latest Australian Bureau of Statistics data from 2011 highlights that there
are 5,584,000 families across Australia (Australian Institute of Family Studies, n.d).
The majority of this number (close to 75% of this total number) represents couples
without children (37.8%) and couples with dependent children (aligning closely
with couples without children at 36.7%). The remaining 25% of the total number
of families across Australia include one-parent families with dependent children
(10.6%), couples with non-dependent children (7.9%), one-parent families with
non-dependent children (5.3%) and “other” family types (1.7%) (AIFS, n.d).
To understand these data, it is vital to understand five key definitions that relate
to family types as defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, which include
(1) Couple family; (2) Dependent children (3) Non-dependent child; (4) One-
parent family and (5) Other family (AIFS, n.d).
Sukkar, H., Dunst, C. J., & Kirkby, J. (Eds XXXXXXXXXXEarly childhood intervention : working with families of young children with
XXXXXXXXXXspecial needs. Retrieved from http:
ebookcentral.proquest.com
Created from csuau on XXXXXXXXXX:00:03.
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Family composition 77
A couple family is identified as “[a] family based on two persons who are in a
egistered or de facto ma
iage and who are usually resident in the same house-
hold. A couple family without children may have other relatives, such as ances-
tors, present. A couple family with children may have adult children and/or other
elatives present” (AIFS, n.d).
Couples with dependent children are “[a]ll family members under 15 years
of age;
Answered Same Day Jul 31, 2020 Swinburne University of Technology

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Akansha answered on Aug 02 2020
125 Votes
Strategies         1
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Contents
Strategies    3
References    4
Strategies
There are nine main strategies that support meaningful engagement and partnerships. They are:
1. Primary Carer Approach, where the educator becomes the primary carer of the child in need of the care.
2. Focusing on family strengths, where the educator is not focused on the weaknesses of the family, but on the strengths that are important.
3. Parent-professional partnerships, where the educator adopts a partnership with the family to make it easier for the...
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