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Select and describe an experience of a therapeutic relationship you had with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve one issue that was important for them. Alternatively, you can use...

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Select and describe an experience of a therapeutic relationship you had with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improveone issuethat was important for them. Alternatively, you can use the example case scenario that was provided to you (you will need to contact the module co-ordinator for this). Critically discuss at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that you could potentially use in that situation. Select one of these helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks and describe in detail why you find it the most appropriate to use in the situation. Finally, critically reflect on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context. This will be developed as a critical review (2500 words).

This second assignment should consist of6 parts:

1.Introductionof the topic of the critical review [Approximately 100 words]

2.Identification and descriptionof an experience of a therapeutic relationship with a person/ patient in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them. State the reasons for selection. If you where provided with a case scenario then describe the case scenario that you were given and explain how you would build a therapeutic relationship with the person that the case is for. [Approximately 500 words]

3.Critical discussionof at leasttwo helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworksthat could potentially be used in that situation.Choose from the four interventions discussed in Unit 4.[Approximately 700 words]

Unit 4 - Therapeutic interventions - The theory of Carl Rogers

1. Overview

In this week's materials we will be taking a closer look at the theory of Carl Rogers. We already touched upon some core elements in Roger's theory in previous units, as we explored the role of person-centredness and the importance of empathy. Here we will look at the clinical applications of the person-centred approach that Roger's proposed.

Unit 4 - Therapeutic interventions - Egan's Helping Model

1. Overview

In this unit, we will explore the therapeutic interventions which may be used either subconsciously by the individual through the use of psychological defence mechanisms or through a helping strategy conducted by the therapeutic practitioner. Progressing beyond these, the unit will also consider the value of skilled interventions which could benefit the patient/client during a crisis. All types of therapeutic interventions can be important in supporting the roles of health care professionals whose goal is ultimately optimal patient care. Therefore all health care professionals who have direct care with patients or clients require a good knowledge of the variety of therapeutic interventions which are easily available to the practitioner or may be accessed. It is equally important that the competent health practitioner is aware of his/her own professional capabilities and uses client referral suitably. Health practitioners should not offer a skilled intervention to a client for which they are not appropriately qualified.

In this week’s materials we will look at the role of defence mechanisms, we will discuss the difference between a helping strategy and a skilled intervention and we will explore Gerard Egan’s helping model.

4. Description of how touse one of these helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks and explanation why it is the most appropriate to use in the situation. [Approximately 700 words]

5.Critical reflectionon the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context. If encountering a similar situation in the future would what could be done differently? [Approximately 500 words]

6.Conclusionto summarise the key aspects of the critical review. [Approximately 100 words]

Reading List - Therapeutic Communication

Books

1. Egan, G XXXXXXXXXXThe Skilled Helper: A Client Centred Approach.10th Edition. Andover: Cengage Learning.

2. McLeod, J XXXXXXXXXXCounselling Skills: A Practical Guide for Counsellors and Helping Professionals. Maidenhead: Open University Press.

3. Sully, P XXXXXXXXXXEssential Communication Skills for Nursing and Midwifery. Edinburgh: Mosby Elsevier.

4. Beebe, S.A., Beebe, S.J. and Redmond, M.V XXXXXXXXXXInterpersonal Communication: Relating to Others. Harlow: Allyn and Bacon.

Articles for Communication

1. Swain N, Gale C. A communication skills intervention for community healthcare workers reduces perceived patient aggression: A pretest--postest study. International Journal Of Nursing Studies [serial online]. September 2014;51(9): XXXXXXXXXX.

2. Patel B. Communicating across cultures: proceedings of a workshop to assess health literacy and cross-cultural communication skills. Journal Of Pharmacy Practice & Research [serial online]. March 2015;45(1):49-56.

3. Sheldon L. Communication in oncology care: the effectiveness of skills training workshops for healthcare providers. Clinical Journal Of Oncology Nursing [serial online]. June 2005;9(3):305-323.

4. Tregoning C. Communication skills and enhancing clinical practice through reflective learning: a case study. British Journal Of Healthcare Assistants [serial online]. February 2015;9(2):66-69.

5. Kim E, Kim C. Comparative effects of empathic verbal responses: Reflection versus validation. Journal Of Counseling Psychology [serial online]. July 2013;60(3):439-444.

6. Lasley J. Developing Empathic Communication Skills Through Service Learning: A Qualitative Case Study. Radiation Therapist [serial online]. Fall XXXXXXXXXX;26(2):106-115.

7. Watts M. Substance abuse: how the healthcare assistant can help. British Journal Of Healthcare Assistants [serial online]. November 2009;3(11):552-554.

8. Mirhaghi A, Sharafi S, Bazzi A, Hasanzadeh F. Therapeutic relationship: Is it still heart of nursing?. Nursing Reports [serial online]. January 2017;7(1):4-9.

Articles for Skilled Helper model (Gerard Egan)

1. Riggall S. The sustainability of Egan’s Skilled Helper Model in students’ social work practice. Journal Of Social Work Practice [serial online]. March 2016;30(1):81-93.

Articles for Person-centred Therapy (Carl Rogers)

1. Hill C, Nakayama E. Client-centered therapy: where has it been and where is it going? A comment on Hathaway (1948). Journal Of Clinical Psychology [serial online]. July 2000;56(7):861-875.

2. Glauser A, Bozarth J. Person-Centered Counseling: The Culture Within. Journal Of Counseling & Development [serial online]. Spring XXXXXXXXXX;79(2):142-147.

3. Demanchick S, Cochran N, Cochran J. Person-centered play therapy for adults with developmental disabilities. International Journal Of Play Therapy [serial online]. 2003;12(1):47-65.

4. Kensit D. Rogerian theory: a critique of the effectiveness of pure client-centred therapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly [serial online]. December 2000;13(4):345-351.

5. Sulzer S, Muenchow E, Potvin A, Harris J, Gigot G. Improving patient-centered communication of the borderline personality disorder diagnosis. Journal Of Mental Health [serial online]. February 2016;25(1):5-9.

6. Doherty M, Thompson H. Enhancing person-centred care through the development of a therapeutic relationship. British Journal Of Community Nursing [serial online]. October 2014;19(10):502-507.

Articles for Motivational Interviewing

1. Feldstein Ewing S, Apodaca T, Gaume J. Ambivalence: Prerequisite for success in motivational interviewing with adolescents?. Addiction [serial online]. November 2016;111(11): XXXXXXXXXX.

2. Rehman H, Karpman C, Douglas K, Benzo R. Effect of a Motivational Interviewing-Based Health Coaching on Quality of Life in Subjects With COPD. Respiratory Care [serial online]. August 2017;62(8): XXXXXXXXXX.

3. Mullin D, Saver B, Savageau J, Forsberg L, Forsberg L. Evaluation of online and in-person motivational interviewing training for healthcare providers. Families, Systems, & Health [serial online]. December 2016;34(4):357-366.

4. Miller W, Moyers T. Motivational interviewing and the clinical science of Carl Rogers. Journal Of Consulting And Clinical Psychology [serial online]. August 2017;85(8):757-766.

5. Secades-Villa R, Fernánde-Hermida J, Arnáez-Montaraz C. Motivational interviewing and treatment retention among drug user patients: a pilot study. Substance Use & Misuse [serial online]. July 2004;39(9): XXXXXXXXXX.

6. Carr D. Motivational Interviewing Supports Patient Centered-Care and Communication. Journal Of The New York State Nurses Association [serial online]. January 2017;45(1):39-43.

7. Östlund A, Wadensten B, Kristofferzon M, Häggström E. Motivational interviewing: Experiences of primary care nurses trained in the method. Nurse Education In Practice [serial online]. March 2015;15(2):111-118.

8. Day P, Gould J, Hazelby G. The use of motivational interviewing in community nursing. Journal Of Community Nursing [serial online]. June 2017;31(3):59-63.

9. Rueve M, Maphis L. Using Motivational Interviewing to Improve Health Behaviors in Psychotic Patients. Psychiatric Times [serial online]. May 2016;33(5):1-6.

Articles for Transactional Analysis

1. Lawrence L. Applying Transactional Analysis and Personality Assessment to Improve Patient Counseling and Communication Skills. American Journal Of Pharmaceutical Education [serial online]. November 2007;71(4):1-5.

2. Martin C. Transactional analysis: A method of analysing communication. British Journal Of Midwifery [serial online]. September 2011;19(9):587-593.

CATEGORY 2: Rubric for Marking

Rubric – for Marking Grid/ Feedback Sheet

Marking and Feedback Criteria

A1

100-90%

Exceptional

A2

89-80%

Outstanding

A3

79-70%

Excellent

B1

69-60%

Very Good

B2

59-50%

Good

C

49-40%

Satisfactory, Competent

D

39-30%

Unsatisfactory

E

29-1%

Very Unsatisfactory

N

0%

Topic not addressed

Weighting

(% of 100)

Introduce the topic of the critical review.

Exceptional introduction of the topic.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Outstanding introduction of the topic.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Excellent introduction of the topic.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Very good introduction of the topic.

Well above the threshold standard.

Good introduction of the topic.

Clearly above the threshold standard.

Satisfactory introduction of the topic.

At the threshold standard.

Unsatisfactory introduction of the topic.

Marginally below the threshold standard. Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

Very unsatisfactory introduction of the topic.

Well below the threshold standard. Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

Topic not addressed.

Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

5

Identify and describe an experience of a therapeutic relationship you had with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them.

Exceptional description of an experience of a therapeutic relationship with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Outstanding description of an experience of a therapeutic relationship with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Excellent description of an experience of a therapeutic relationship with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Very good description of an experience of a therapeutic relationship with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them.

Well above the threshold standard.

Good description of an experience of a therapeutic relationship with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them.

Clearly above the threshold standard.

Satisfactory description of an experience of a therapeutic relationship with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them.

At the threshold standard.

Unsatisfactory description of an experience of a therapeutic relationship with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them.

Marginally below the threshold standard.

Very unsatisfactory description of an experience of a therapeutic relationship with a person/ patient/ client in order to help them improve an issue that was important for them.

Well below the threshold standard.

Topic not addressed.

Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

15

Critically discuss at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that you could potentially use in that situation.

Exceptional discussion of at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that could be potentially used in that situation.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Outstanding discussion of at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that could be potentially used in that situation.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Excellent discussion of at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that could be potentially used in that situation.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Very good discussion of at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that could be potentially used in that situation.

Well above the threshold standard.

Good discussion of at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that could be potentially used in that situation.

Clearly above the threshold standard.

Satisfactory discussion of at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that could be potentially used in that situation.

At the threshold standard.

Unsatisfactory discussion of at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that could be potentially used in that situation.

Marginally below the threshold standard.

Very unsatisfactory discussion of at least two helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks that could be potentially used in that situation.

Well below the threshold standard.

Topic not addressed.

Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

30

Consider one of these helping skills approaches/ models/ frameworks and explain why you find it the most appropriate to use in the situation.

Exceptional explanation of the selected helping skills approach/ model/ framework to use in the described situation.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Outstanding explanation of the selected helping skills approach/ model/ framework to use in the described situation.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Excellent explanation of the selected helping skills approach/ model/ framework to use in the described situation.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Very good explanation of the selected helping skills approach/ model/ framework to use in the described situation.

Well above the threshold standard.

Good explanation of the selected helping skills approach/ model/ framework to use in the described situation.

Clearly above the threshold standard.

Satisfactory explanation of the selected helping skills approach/ model/ framework to use in the described situation.

At the threshold standard.

Unsatisfactory explanation of the selected helping skills approach/ model/ framework to use in the described situation.

Marginally below the threshold standard.

Very unsatisfactory explanation of the selected helping skills approach/ model/ framework to use in the described situation.

Well below the threshold standard.

Topic not addressed.

Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

30

Critically reflect on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context.

Exceptional refection on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Outstanding refection on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Excellent refection on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Very good refection on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context.

Well above the threshold standard.

Good refection on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context.

Clearly above the threshold standard.

Satisfactory refection on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context.

At the threshold standard.

Unsatisfactory refection on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context.

Marginally below the threshold standard.

Very unsatisfactory refection on the lessons that can be learnt from using such an approach in that context.

Well below the threshold standard.

Topic not addressed.

Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

15

Provide a conclusion to summarise the key points of your critical review.

Exceptional conclusion to summarise the key points of the critical review.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Outstanding conclusion to summarise the key points of the critical review.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Excellent conclusion to summarise the key points of the critical review.

Exceeds the threshold standard by a significant margin.

Very good conclusion to summarise the key points of the critical review.

Well above the threshold standard.

Good conclusion to summarise the key points of the critical review.

Clearly above the threshold standard.

Satisfactory conclusion to summarise the key points of the critical review.

At the threshold standard.

Unsatisfactory conclusion to summarise the key points of the critical review.

Marginally below the threshold standard.

Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

Very unsatisfactory conclusion to summarise the key points of the critical review.

Well below the threshold standard.

Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

Topic not addressed.

Please seek advice from marker and Effective Learning Service.

5%

Total

100

Answered Same Day May 31, 2020

Solution

Anju Lata answered on Jun 05 2020
144 Votes
THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION – CRITICAL REVIEW 13
ASSIGNMENT
CRITICAL REVIEW
THERAPEUTIC COMMUNICATION – CASE SCENARIO 1 AY 17/18 (T2)
INTRODUCTION
The therapeutic communication is the process of face to face interaction which emphasizes on improving the physical and emotional condition of the patient. The technique aims to strengthen the bond of nursing staff with the patient. The critical review presents a detailed identification and description of the case scenario of Mary and presents a descriptive overview of various types of stresses and wo
ies that she might be going through. The review evaluates two helping approaches- ‘The theory of Carl Rogers and Egan’s Helping Model’ and their role in enhancing the physical and emotional condition of Mary. The paper also presents a
ief analysis of the lessons learnt from these therapeutic interventions.
IDENTIFICATION & DESCRIPTION
The critical review identifies and describes the case scenario of Mary, who is 48-year-old obese woman being given treatment for hypertension and asthma. She cannot exercise more often due to hip bursitis. The hip bursitis is an inflammatory disease of bursa mostly found in women of age greater than 41 years and results in immense pain at the hip area that worsens with the activities like walking and standing (American Academy of Family Physicians, 2018). Being a teacher Mary might have to stand and walk throughout the day. Hip bursitis requires adequate rest to heal.
Symptoms of Asthma also affect all the dimensions of patient’s quality of life like walking, stepping up and down the stairs, and sleep (Barnes et al,2005). Mary might also be experiencing the similar symptoms in addition to
eathlessness.
For the last six months she has also developed peri-menopause and undergoes frequent hot flushes. In peri-menopause, the patient normally feels uneven fluctuations in the level of estrogen hormone. The other symptoms associated with the problem of peri-menopause are vaginal dryness and sleeping problems. The peri-menopause is also associated with mood swings, night sweats, i
itation and increased risk of depression (North American Menopause Society,2018). Mary might be experiencing all these symptoms. She is being provided hormone therapy but she does not seem accepting it. Mary’s mother died of Cancer two years back. As a medical practitioner in her clinical setting, we are discussing to replace the hormone therapy for Mary.
Hormone Therapy is one of the most effective treatments for the Peri-menopause symptoms like Hot Flashes and others. However, the long-term use of Hormone Therapy causes an increased risk of
east cancer, and development of blood clots in veins (North American Menopause Society,2018). Mary has a family history of Cancer. Her mother died of cancer so Mary is concerned about the increased use of Hormone therapy as she might be at increased risk of having attained cancer. This issue is also stressful for her as she is taking treatments for her peri-menopausal problem.
Mary is ma
ied and a mother of three children. She might have stresses related to her responsibilities towards them and the family. She is also a teacher and might have stresses related to her professional life.
Mary is Obese. The problem of obesity is characterized by increased risk of heart attack, diabetes, High Blood Pressure,
eathing problems, bone problems and asthma (Stanford Healthcare, 2018).
To develop a therapeutic relationship with Mary, the most important thing is she must have an understanding that this relationship is going to be reliable, safe, confident, consistent and extremely beneficial for her (Varcarolis,n.d.). The nurse must understand the behavior of Mary and maximize the communication skills to identify her personal strengths improve her growth. The therapeutic relationship must involve the communication of depressive feelings and thoughts; it must help the client in solving problems related her daily routine activities. It must encourage self dependence and self care. The needs of the client must be assessed adequately and alternate approaches of problem solving must be explored to develop new coping skills and encourage improvements in behavior.
CRITICAL DISCUSSION
1. Therapeutic Intervention: The theory of Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers proposed the role of person-centeredness and importance of motivation and empathy. The therapy was proposed in 1940 and is based on the approach that every person has the personal capability of growth and improvements which he termed as Self Actualization. The therapists can learn to identify the human potential by providing positive support to the patient. The intention of the patient is given due importance in directing the course of therapy. The therapists extend their coordination, support, and care to the patient so that the patient can find out his own solutions inside. Roger postulated six important factors which can stimulate positive improvements in the patients.
(a) There must be a positive relationship between the therapist and the patient to reflect the outcomes in the patient.
(b) There develops discrepancies between the actual experience of client and his self image which increases the vulnerability of client with anxiety and fears.
(c) Genuineness and trueness of therapist during the therapeutic relationship is also very important. The therapist must be sincere in his efforts.
(d) Unconditional positive regard of the therapist towards the patient is equally important. All the experiences of client whether positive or negative must be unconditionally accepted by the therapist.
(e) The therapist must understand the emotional...
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