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Question 1: Define the terms 'angina' and 'heart failure', and discuss the major pathophysiological features of each condition [500 words]. Question 2: Pick either Heart failure or angina . Identify...

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Question 1: Define the terms 'angina' and 'heart failure', and discuss the major pathophysiological features of each condition[500 words].

Question 2:Pick either Heart failure or angina. Identify the main class of medications used in the treatment your chosen condition and discuss the pharmokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of each class[500 words].

Answered Same Day Jun 01, 2021


Tanaya answered on Jun 04 2021
146 Votes
Running Head: HSNS263        1
HSNS263        2
Table of Contents
Question 1    3
Question 2    5
References    8
Question 1
Angina Pectoris is a well-known manifestation of the myocardial ischemia. The condition occurs when the demand for oxygen supply exceeds the required volume. There are three aspects, which help in the determination of myocardial oxygen. They are the heart rate, intra-myocardial tension on the cardiac wall. With the increase in the demand for oxygen, the responses of the heart rate also increase. In some cases, there is also an increase in the left ventricular afterload and preload.
With an increase in the heart rate, the end-diastolic volume will increase (Salazar et al., 2017). This will result in raising the preload in the left ventricle. Under this circumstance, the systolic blood pressure, as well as the arterial stiffness, will enhance the blood pressure resulting in the stiffness within the arteries. As a result, the afterload in the left ventricle increases. Hence, this even increases the oxygen demand within the myocardia. Hence, when the blood supply within the heart is compromised, it builds up the atherosclerotic plaque. This is also known as coronary artery spasm. At times patients can have both the condition.
The pathophysiology of Angina is highlighted by the process when oxygen is delivered to the heart through larger blood vessels. These larger blood vessels are categorised into arterioles and arteries, which further
anches out in the form of capillaries. In normal condition, the healthy heart will have no resistance in the blood flow within the epicardial vessels. However, in the case of atherosclerotic plaques, the flow of blood is impeded.
However, the autoregulation process is compensated by a certain degree. Most of the mediators are involved in the perfusion process aided by adenosine. Adenosine is a vasodilator. Other than adenosine, there are other mediators, which include nitric oxide, ca
on dioxide, hydrogen ions and prostaglandins. This obstruction, in the blood flow, results in the formation of Angina.
Heart failure (HF) is a condition, when the patient suffers from a ventricular dysfunction. The failure in the left ventricle results in the shortness of
eath as well as fatigue. While in the right ventricle, accumulation of fluid is observed in the peripheral and abdominal region. Both the ventricles can accumulate fluid or one. In most of the cases of heart failure, the initial diagnosis...

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