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PowerPoint Presentation MIS741 Topic 10 –Sustainability and digital transformation Dr. Emilia Bellucci and Dr. Craig Parker 1 Learning objectives At the end of this topic you will be able to: Use...

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PowerPoint Presentation
MIS741 Topic 10 –Sustainability and digital transformation
Dr. Emilia Bellucci and Dr. Craig Parker
Learning objectives
At the end of this topic you will be able to:
Use ethical frameworks to analyse, and argue a position on, ethical dilemmas associated with digital transformation support for sustainability
Compulsory readings
Go to the Resources tab in CloudDeakin, then access the Learning resources section, then access this week’s topic guide, and then read the Compulsory Readings from the textbook and, where applicable, additional readings.
Overview of sustainability and the role of digital transformation
Triple bottom line (TBL)/ Corporate Social Responsibility

Organisations tend to focus on economic sustainability, but typically at the expense of social and environmental responsibility
Triple bottom line (TBL) perspective of sustainability includes 3 components: The natural environment, society and economic performance
Economic performance (Profitability)
Social performance (people)
Environmental performance (planet)
We can read this diagram by considering people and planet in addition to profit for a sustainable future. The effects on the environment and stakeholders should be incorporated in business decision-making, leading to more sustainable outcomes.
It is argued that long-term profitability is achievable by balancing social and environmental goals (Porter and Kramer 2006)
Dao, V, Langella I, ca
o, J, 2011, from green to sustainability: information technology and integrated sustainability framework. Journal of strategic Information Systems, 20p 63 – 79 "
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Why is CSR important?
What negative impacts can organisations have on the natural environment?
Negative impact on the land and natural resources?
Negative impact on water systems?
Negative impact on the air?
What negative impact can organisations have on the social environment?
Local communities?
Disadvantaged/minority groups?
Developing economies?
Sustainable digital transformation (Loeser et al. 2017)
Environmentally responsible (“green”) IT
Reducing the environmental impact of DT – e.g.:
Coal fire electricity (e.g. data centres, computers) => ca
Electronic waste going to landfill (e.g. hazardous chemicals)
Indirect (e.g. less natural resources, forests from printing)
Pollution/harm caused by IT infrastructure manufacturers
Environmentally responsible (“green”) IS
DT (e.g. AI) enabling environmental initiatives – e.g.:
educe a company’s environmental impacts
Reduce a physical artefact’s and/or service’s environmental performance (e.g. buildings, electricity grids)
Support the creation of innovative green products
What green IT approaches could be used to reduce these impacts?
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Sustainable digital transformations
Socially responsible IT
Reducing the social impact of DT – e.g.:
Harm to those making DT hardware/software (e.g. low wages, child labour, health and safety issues).
Harm to those using DT hardware/software (e.g. ergonomic issues).
Socially responsible IS
Using software/AI to enable social initiatives – e.g.:
educe a company’s social impacts.
Supporting charity and community organisations.
Using digital transformations (e.g. social media) to educate society about social responsibility.
Addressing the “digital divide” – explored late
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What would you do?
Consider an organisation
An Internet Service Provide
Top management is sceptical about CSR
They fear CSR will affect profit margins
Draw up a plan on what you will need to do
What initiatives would you suggest?
How would you convince them to implement these initiatives?
Should organisations only invest in sustainable digital transformations that will make them more money/profits?
Do organisations have responsibilities beyond profits?
Role of digital transformations to enable sustainability?
How can virtualisation and cloud services organisations help business customers to reduce their environmental impact?
How can artificial intelligence/machine learning help organisations reduce their negative environmental/social impact?
UN sustainability goals
17 sustainability goals – e.g. relating to
Poverty, hunger, health, education, land, affordable/ quality water and energy, climate change, work conditions, responsible consumption, inequalities.
Not legally binding but governments are:
Expected to create national frameworks
Should there be global accountability?
If so, should it be based on stronger economies contributing more resources?
There are high expectations regarding digital developments to contribute to the SDGs such as improving people’s lives: 1.6 billion people could benefit from more accessible, affordable, and better quality medical services through e-healthcare, while connected car solutions could save up to 720,000 lives annually and prevent up to 30 million traffic injuries. This helps ensure healthy lives and therefore could contribute to achieve SDG #3 (GeSi XXXXXXXXXXAlso solutions for open education through the Internet, such as MOOCs are expected to increase education around the world. A possible contribution to SDG#4, which calls for inclusive and equitable quality education to promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. Moreover, in the environmental field it is called for a resilient infrastructure, to promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. Therefore, solutions could enable greenhouse gas emissions reduction and drive market transformation for renewables, cutting ca
on emissions by around 20% in 2030. A potential contribution to environmental protection is called for in SDG #13. In addition, we are facing challenges and opportunities in the markets including challenges and chances for producers, consumers, and stakeholders. Here, SDG #9 becomes relevant: it calls for a resilient infrastructure, promotes inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and fosters innovation. Also SDG #12 which urges to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns is to be considered. This only being a short summary of possible effects of digitalization on the SDGs, there are a lot more expectations in what digital innovation should and can contribute to sustainable development.
Despite all these optimistic viewpoints, we have to face and acknowledge
several facts, laws, and regulations and other roadblocks on the way to a sustainable
future matching with the UN SDGs. This publication gives insight into chances and
possibilities in crucial areas of digital development in the context of a more
sustainable world.
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Role of digital transformations to enable the UN goals?
How can artificial intelligence/machine learning help society make progress on the UN sustainability goals?
What other types of digital transformations have a role to play in helping governments achieve the UN sustainability goals?
Digital Divide
And the “Winner takes all” society
Digital divide: change and information
Digital divide - inequitable access to modern technology among groups in a single nation, or even entire nations
People who do not have internet access, mobile phones or personal computers are denied opportunities we take for granted.
These people will be unable to take advantage of the benefits that digital transformations have to offer.
Different dimensions (Pippa No
Global divide - % of people by country
without computer and internet access.
Social divide - % of people within a country
without computer and internet access.
Uneven economic development
The global digital divide results in inequality of access to digital transformation across global regions and internationally.
As capital moves from one place to another in search of the best return, we may see ‘nodes’ or centres of economic activity while other areas may have little power and provide little prospect
Top countries with high access:
Regions of the world and percentage of internet use (notice change column)
And yet .. Change is happening!! For example, mobile phone penetration in many parts of the developing world is substantial, and provision of cheap laptops is enabling change – see the % change numbers in the second reference at left.
Why a digital divide?
Many of these countries have inadequate telecommunications infrastructure.
Less than 25% of people in countries such as North Korea, Cuba, Somalia have mobile phones.
The primary language is not English.
English is the dominate language for business and science
Literacy is low and education is inadequate
Half of the population in poorer countries do not attend secondary school
The country’s culture may not make participating in the information age a priority.
The Social Divide
Internet use varies within wealthy countries
The extent to which people use the internet varies according to age, wealth and education.
Information rich (“haves”) versus poor (“have nots”) with latter being
Minorities, poorly educated
Reducing the Digital Divide
Can the internet help global/social development and equality?
The case of India – some initiatives http:
In China – a struggle http:
Australian survey
1st: looks at reasons why social media use is not high (though India is the second largest country – population wise). Lack of Infrastructure and language ba
2nd: "Their struggle to upgrade digital connectivity means they are losing out on all the social and economic rewards that go along with better ICT (information and communications technology) infrastructure."
China's ranking fell seven spots from last year to 58th, the report said, adding that "the sustained rapid economic growth of past years in some of these countries may be in jeopardy unless the right investments are made in ICT, skills and innovation."
3rd: Scott Ewing from Swinburne: He was refe
ing to the internet's 'network effect,' where the value grows as more people join (for example, a social network becomes a must-have when all your friends are using it).
"Five years ago when only half the population was online the disbenefit for being offline wasn't so great. Now, there's a real penalty for people who don't have access," Ewing said. "We're reaching a point where the internet is becoming integrated in everyday life, so those people who aren't able to access it don't even know what they're missing out on."
Swinburne's own research matches the ABS figures, he said, and added that many disconnected users would be seniors whose only income was government benefits.
4th : mainly disadvantages of rural communities because of remoteness from cities - however: But the experience so far has been more encouraging. Taking into account equipment failures, loss and damage, 17 of the 20 computers installed by early August last year were still operational at the end of April this year. In that period, researchers from the Centre for Appropriate Technology, who are leading implementation and maintenance, travelled out to the communities to provide training and upkeep. We went along on some of these visits to document how the project was going.
Reducing the Digital Divide
Internet kiosks (cafe)
Accessible by all; sometimes free
Enables Information sharing
Supports anti co
uption drives
Provision of education in rural areas
Microfinancing is giving loans to those who wouldn’t get a loan from a traditional bank. Interest is not as high (though still fairly high). Compare with the nimble ads in Australia – similar concept.
‘Winner takes all’ society
Disproportionate shares of wealth and resources : in USA “top 0.1% worth as much as the bottom 90%”
Those who “have” possess the resources to grow their wealth even more, and produce even greater inequality
Statistics like those above get even worse over time
Winner-takes-all society by
Answered Same Day Jun 08, 2021 MIS741 Deakin University


Sandeep Kumar answered on Jun 11 2021
111 Votes
Unit Code: MIS741 Unit Name: Ethics of Digital Transformation
Final Examination T1, 2020 (Exam Paper 1)
Unit Code: MIS741
Unit Name: Ethics of Digital Transformation
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