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Dear students Here are some guidelines for your projects. I hope this will helps you a lot during your project. Enjoy it Project Title Abstract Table of Contents Introduction o Why your topic and...

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Dear students
Here are some guidelines for your projects. I hope this will helps you a lot during your project.
Enjoy it
Project Title
Table of Contents
o Why your topic and specifically project is important (convince me!)
o What you will talk about or do?
o Overview of the rest of your paper (section 2 covers...section 3 presents...)
Background and literature (much more in depth than the proposal literature overview)
o problem being addressed
o Any relevant and specific information – literature/statistics, resources, context and
o What other people had to say on this topic(s)
(be sure to cite your references, and quote as appropriate)
o You are expected to discuss the books and papers that you include in your
eferences. You must also cite them. Include a
ief rationale explaining why you
thought it was useful.
o What other people did on this topic (or related topics)
o Problems and shortcomings of their work
o How your work is different and better
o Your approach to the problem
o What you did
o Design and strategies
- what you already had (and where it came from)
- what you added/changed
- may include diagrams, images
o What did/didn't work?
o Include graphs, equations, pictures, etc. as appropriate
o Outcomes or results
o Limitations
o Challenges
o Any changes that had to be made from the original proposal and why and how?
Include relevant observations, measurements, and statistics if appropriate.
What happened – what was the final outcome and how did you know that you
achieved what you did achieved – relate to project proposal
o Try to draw together the intro, background, and project sections.
o How do they all relate together? (They may appear to be disjointed sections to an
unfamiliar reader).
o Restate important results and outcomes
o What was accomplished?
o What was learned?
o How does this project
ing together the learning that you have from the degree as
a whole (this alludes to the fact that this is a ‘Capstone’ subject?
o What you would have done differently?
o Future work?
o You should include a number of books and papers that were useful. Cite the
ooks that you used
o Australian Harvard and references should be no more than 6 years XXXXXXXXXX).
o Anything you found useful
o Include textbooks from other subjects in your degree if you want to
Illustrate your report with images

More information for the project
I have made some changes in my topic, it goes as
“Effectiveness of educating nursing staffs on preventive measures of pressure injury to
educe pressure injury”
This project should be ca
ied out using SMART goal.
The main aim of this project is to educate nursing staff and increase their knowledge and awareness
on prevention of pressure injury and reduce the rate of pressure injury in 6 weeks.
My participants was AINs (assistant in nursing), Medication nurse working in a selected aged care.
Pretest was conducted using questionnaire and based on the outcome educational intervention was
Convenient sampling was done as it is not possible to educate all nursing staffs employed in a
facility. (I am not sure about sampling so please co
ect it)
Power point presentation handout and flyers were distributed and posters were kept in residents
and staff room as reminder.
Proper education was given on implementation of existing pressure injury checklist developed by
facility itself to reduce rate of injury. Checklist include skin care, repositioning, condition of skin,
if any dressing then that need to be changed or not, application of moisturizing.
Before the educational intervention the pressure ulcer injury rate was 14% and after education
intervention and proper use of checklist, repositioning and use of moisturizing lotion, although
there is not dramatically change after 6 week there were just 2% of new cases of pressure injury
and good healing of existing pressure injury. ( Actual data was not collected it’s just an assumption
ut have to make sure that actual intervention was ca
ied out including education session and
data collection).
Note- This is just a roughly figure you can make changes in best possible way to get good
esult. I have attached my project proposal with feedback. I hope this will make you clear
what I want to do in my project.
Answered Same Day May 11, 2020


Mayank answered on May 15 2020
134 Votes
Effectiveness of Educating Nursing Staffs on Preventive Measures of Pressure Injury to Reduce Pressure Injury in Elderly Patients
Pressure injuries are one of the serious recognized and an international patient safety problem in frail elderly. Data suggest these injuries results in high number of mo
idity and mortality due to increased number of elderly population along with huge financial expenditure every year that has been increasing continuously. These injuries results in severe complications, affects quality of life, prolong the hospitalization, affecting the patient and their family’s high discomfort, anguish, and economic burden because of expensive treatment (Boyko, Longaker and Yang, 2018). Different systemic factors are responsible for elderly people injuries like skin aging, chronic diseases, functional impairment, malnutrition and infections that are contributing to the appearance of the injuries and activate development.
The aim of the present study was to educate the nursing staff using various standard remedies in order to reduce the hospital acquired pressure injuries in the elderly hospitalized patients through quality improvement process and the new technologies such as foot-, heel-, and elbow-padding devices along with the egg crate mattresses, advanced air mattress, various pressure relieving devices, such as cushions, change in position, skin lu
ication and adequate calorie intake that would significantly help to reduce the rate of pressure injury in 6 weeks. Further, hospital administration, primary physician and the nurse, concerning pressure ulcers must implement zero-tolerance policies, which help to reduce the number of cases. The treating physician familiar with the diseases of the immobile patients and the systemic factors leading to pressure ulcers should apply all available preventive measures.
The standard practice was provided along with the training, steps to overcome the injuries, reporting style, feedback system, etc. to the nursing staff as the method used in this study.
The data collected showed a significant improvement using the measures adopted by the nurses to decrease the arte of mo
idity and mortality in elderly hospitalized patients. Nursing staff have implemented methods such as the use of tissue viability team, pressure ulcer prevention, team senior nursing management, and respiratory therapists within the admitted wards to avoid such injuries during the stay of elderly patients in hospitals.
The data suggested that monthly hospital acquired pressure injuries cases has been increased, which were recorded and collected by the tissue viability department during 6 week study period. These data was including the records of hospital and home acquired pressure injuries, which have reduced the life expectancy of the elderly population. The incidence rate was recorded and high fluctuation were recorded during two month study period. A total of 20 cases, out of which 16 were from hospital acquired pressure injuries, while out of which 8 were found to be from the elderly hospitalized patients. It has been found that the como
idities along with continuous aging process leads to immobility that in combination are the predisposing factor pressure injuries in elderly populations. In order to study the root cause, root cause analysis (RCA), which was ca
ied out by the hospital team. They found that all the 8 patients has very restricted mobility and were being in tabulated and ventilated. In addition, 4 patients were reported with dia
hea, while due to restricted mobility, skin got co
osive, and urine and faeces co
osive effects results in pressure injuries. Besides, another reason for pressure ulcers was found that was related with the medical devices caused by oxygen bi-level positive airway pressure masks.
Pressures injuries are mostly the localized skin injury or underlying tissue which are usually over a bony areas. Some predisposing factors such as low BMI, low protein, anemia, and low level of albumin are the factors, which results in serious complications of pressure injuries in elderly group. These injuries results due to some sort of pressure, or pressure in combination with the shear. The injuries can be categorized as pressure ulcer, 1-4 grades injuries, unstageable and deep tissue injury. Among the present category, pressure ulcers in our medical systems are the real medical problem. However, most of the modern equipment’s are developed but the trend of pressure ulcers has not been decreased (Baron et al., 2016). On the other side, the pressure injuries are continuously increasing, which is usually the most vulnerable complications, elderly, and weaken our medical society (Boyko, Longaker and Yang, 2018). Pressure ulcers are very expensive to treat for the patients, and also very painful, which is the main cause of high mortality (Kha
at et al., 2017). Extended life expectancy has enlarged the number of the aged population over 80 years, which directly take these group at higher risk for immobility and disability. However, research and advanced methods, medicines, etc. has significantly improved the systemic disorders understanding such as cardiac, pulmonary, diabetes, obesity, etc. This has significantly increased the overall life expectancy and lead to stop in more advanced stages of the complicated diseases. Co
espondingly, neurodegenerative conditions has been reported to be prolonged in patients with 70 years of age along with advanced dementia and continued Parkinson's disease.
Besides, high cases of injuries and mortality in any health care organization directly signifies bad quality and diminished patient quality of care (López et al., 2017). The multidisciplinary approach must be required to understand the multifactorial causes in order to prevent, assessment and management of pressure ulcers. Training and educating healthcare professionals would be major objective in order to ensure both the individual to understand and an also the team approach with their shared knowledge, skills and attitudes against the pressure injuries for their management. In order to prevent pressure ulcers, it is very important to educate the nursing staff because an older adults cases has been increasing in the population, people with a disability and cared people for the community. Peoples in residential and nursing home environments has develops pressure ulcers in long term facilities and also in acute care hospital settings. Preventive measures must be educated and implemented by the nurses to stop traumatic conditions such as hip fracture and deconditioning significant reported with high number of cases of pressured injuries. Besides, discharge against medical advice and early discharge of elderly patients who are already suffering from various diseases predisposes to develop different forms of pressure ulcers. This would increase the cost of care, prolonged hospitalization stay and higher mortality. The mortality rate after discharge was reported to be doubled in patients having pressured injuries with about 40% total mortality (Ackroyd-Stolarz, 2014).
However, most of the medical personals, doctors, allied health professionals, healthcare assistants, and healthcare professionals are involved in the care of the person at risk, but advanced training and education of the associated staff is very important to stop these continuing cases. Education, prevention, training, involved patients risk assessment, application of prevention strategies such as skin inspection and repositioning of the risk patients at regular intervals, examination of the causal factors responsible for the pressure injury expansion and the selection of appropriate pressure relieving available devices (McInnes et al., 2014).
In addition, nursing training and education which would help to recognize the injuries risk status and the reason for the same, which may be a higher risk due to a change in clinical status or due to some pre-existing clinical status of the patient that lead to him/her for greater risk of rising a pressure ulcer. Education and training towards prevention of pressure ulcer and associated factors were reported in case of Ethiopia (Nuru et al., 2015). All the above reasons are very important for nursing staff in order to minimize the cases of the injuries. Conventionally, nursing staff has been seen as one of the only responsible for managing and responsible for the cases of the pressure injuries, while now all the medical professional are equally responsible in some respect. Nursing student’s education in the undergraduate cu
iculum must be included along with her training and development. Pressure injuries in elderly results in several serious complications such as localized infection and expressed as cellulitis, invasion of the contagious soft tissue, osteomyelitis and high level of sepsis. These difficulties alters the healing process, and significantly increase the mortality. Besides, pressure injuries management subjects covering the detailed study must be updated in the circular of undergraduate medical students, which would help to educate and train the nurse during clinical exposure (Yue, Plummer and Cross, 2017). Geriatric medicine have mentioned training and full detailed of the pressure management but, these education must be included in all undergraduate training along with the nursing staff in ward environments, which would minimize the gap in addressing the future issues (Czekanski, 2016).
Nursing staff must be educated enough about the pathophysiology of the pressure injuries, which significantly helped her during clinical management. Pressure injury developed in a very short time of 30 minutes in case of high pressure in small area. This happed due to cut off or limiting blood supply along with oxygen and reduced cell nutrients that lead to hypoxia, which ultimately results in cell death and tissue necrosis (Mishra and Bhattacharya, 2015). Intensity and duration of pressure, and tolerance of the skin and supporting surfaces are the two major factors associated with increased risk of...

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