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Answered Same Day Apr 01, 2020 ITC542 Charles Sturt University


Dr answered on Apr 04 2020
135 Votes
Question 1. Compare and contrast the OSI reference model with the TCP/IP networking model. Which one do you think is more useful when working with and describing networks and why?
There are two models and standards of the data communication system through the communication systems. These two standard models are Open System Interconnection (OSI) and Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) (Frenzel, 2013). OSI model is proposed by International Standardization Organization (ISO) and TCP/IP Model is proposed by Department of Defense under the DARPA Project.
OSI model is conceptual standards of the communication system that defines the standards of the communication protocols and devices. TCP/IP is real model of the protocol stacks and implemented version of the protocol stack. There are seven layers of the OSI model but there are only 5 Layers in the TCP/IP model. These two differences are major standard differences between the OSI and TCP/IP models. There are also many differences between these two models. Some of the important difference between these two models are as follows.
A. Reliability of communication with OSI model is guaranteed but, it is not guaranteed with the TCP/IP model. TCP/IP Model offers two different protocols at its transport layer like Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Thus, when upper layer such as application layer uses the UDP then reliability in context of guaranteed delivery of packets from source machine to destination machine is not offered. TCP is reliable as it offers guaranteed delivery of packets from source to destination machine.
B. The stack of OSI contains seven layers such as Application, Session, Presentation, Transport, Network, Data link, and Physical Layers whereas TCP/IP model contains only five layers like, Application, Transport, Network, Data link and Physical. Thus, in TCP/IP protocol stack application, presentation and session layers are combined and a single layer of Application Layer is being established.
C. The standards, Interface and protocol specifications are defined under the OSI whereas in TCP/IP these are not defined. The use of protocol depends upon the type of application and service requirements.
D. The protocols under the OSI model is technology dependent so that there is change of the protocols with change in the inherent technologies but, there is no change of the protocols even the technology is being changed.
E. Fitting the protocols at specified layer in OSI model creates problem whereas with TCP/IP all the protocols are already fitted with specified layer.
F. TCP/IP model is simple model and less complex but OSI model is not so simple and management of communication standard is difficult.
G. OSI always offers the connection oriented service so that there is guarantee of the delivery of packets whereas TCP/IP offers both connection oriented and connectionless services. Thus, the connection service is dependent on the type of services and quality of service parameters of communication requirement.
H. Finally, TCP/IP model is real implemented version of protocol stack and OSI is a framework or specification of the standards of protocols.
Question 2. Complete the following Hands-On Projects from the prescribed textbook (Pyles, Carel & Tittel 2017),
1. Hands-On Project 2-3
Brief Steps:
· Web Portal http: is opened under Google Chome web Browser.
· IPV4 Radio button is selected.
· In IP address field the IP address is typed.
· In BM drop down box, 24 ( – 254 hosts) is selected.
· The result is presented under snapshot below.
The screenshot of this work is presented below.
2. Hands-On Project 2-5
Brief Steps:
· Web portal http: is opened in web
owser google crome.
· By default the class C radio button of subnet calculator is selected and IP address available with IP address field.
· Maximum subnet drop down box is selected and value 4 is selected. The result that are asked given as follows.
Subnet Mask =
Subnet bits = 2
Mask Bits = 26
Host per subnet = 62
Host address range = –
Broadcast address =
The screenshot of this hands on project work is presented below.
Now, next step gives the following results.
Brief Steps:
· Now Radio button of...

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