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BUS XXXXXXXXXX Answer BOTH questions. Each question carries equal weighting. MAXIMUM TIME ALLOWED for writing answers: TWO to THREE HOURS Notes (1) This is not a traditional exam but is a “take home...

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BUS XXXXXXXXXX
Answer BOTH questions.
Each question ca
ies equal weighting.
MAXIMUM TIME ALLOWED for writing answers:
TWO to THREE HOURS
Notes
(1) This is not a traditional exam but is a “take home exam” or assignment. Please read all instructions carefully.
(2) You should read the questions and the articles before setting aside time (probably on a different day) to write your answers.
(3) This exam is “open book” but “researched” answers are not required and, in fact, no research should be undertaken; that is, you should write from your own understanding without references. SafeAssign checks submitted files for plagiarism so be careful to write in your own words and complete this assignment individually.
(4) Draw appropriate links to the economic theory you have learned in the course and do not offer unsubstantiated opinion.
(5) Use diagrams where appropriate. Hand-drawn ones are acceptable, being faster to draw, and may be scanned in (as pdfs, please – no other file formats!).
(6) The DEADLINE for upload of your answers is: FRIDAY 27 October by 11:59 pm. Please do not leave it to the last minute. Upload only WORD files or PDFs; NO other formats, including PAGES, please! If your file is unreadable, then it cannot not be marked.
1. A tax on sugar intended to shift consumption towards a healthier diet has been suggested and even implemented in some countries. Some people think that individuals should make their own choices and, if they prefer unhealthy products, the government should not interfere. On the other hand, those who become ill from obesity will impose costs on the health service so that others argue that the government has a role to play.
Read the following article:
http:
theconversation.com/why-the-government-should-tax-unhealthy-foods-and-subsidise-nutritious-ones-72790
Also study the estimates of own-price elasticities of demand for some different types of food provided in Table 1 and assume that they are reasonably accurate.
Table 1: Own-price elasticities of demand for some categories of food
    High or low calorie
    Food type
    Elasticity
    High
    Fruit and vegetables
    -1.128
    Low
    Fruit and vegetables
    -0.830
    High
    Grain, pasta,
ead
    -0.854
    Low
    Grain, pasta,
ead
    -0.292
    High
    Sweets and sugary snacks
    -0.270
    Low
    Sweets and sugary snacks
    -0.295
    High
    Dairy products
    -0.1793
    Low
    Dairy products
    -1.972
In about 200 of your own words (excluding any diagrams that you decide to draw), and making appropriate links to the economic theory you have learned in the course, provide arguments for or against food taxes/subsidies designed to encourage healthy eating and/or discourage unhealthy eating.
2. Read the article Flawed Fiscal Fundamentalism by Tony Makin, pages 21 to 29 of the document Fiscal Fallacies, which can be downloaded from The Centre of Independent Studies at:
https:
www.cis.org.au/publications/policy-forum/fiscal-fallacies-the-failure-of-activist-fiscal-policy
Each of the questions below contains a quote from Makin. Answer the question following each quote, in around 100 of your own words for each part, making appropriate links to the economic theory you have learned in the course.
(a) “The simple idea that by pumping up total spending, government can supplement depressed private spending and temporarily boost economic activity has appealed to economists and governments since the Great Depression of the 1930s.” (Page 22)
Explain this “simple idea” due to J.M. Keynes.
(b) “Separating out the automatic changes in the fiscal position from the discretionary ones is difficult, and it is impossible to assess the counterfactual of how the economy would have performed had there been no fiscal response.” (Page 24)
During a recession, automatic changes take place in the fiscal position (budget deficit/surplus). Why? Also give some examples of discretionary changes in the face of a recession and their effect on the budget.
(c) “What has been ignored in cu
ent debate is that fiscal contraction that targets wasteful government programs improves macroeconomic performance.” (Page 25)
Explain by what process a fiscal contraction could possibly improve macroeconomic performance.
(d) “The key question is whether Australia really needs fiscal ‘stimulus’ in the form of budgetary outlays when monetary policy is best placed to influence short-run macroeconomic activity.” (Page 26)
In what way can monetary policy be used to create economic ‘stimulus’ and why, does Makin argue, is it more effective than fiscal policy?
Page 2 of 3
Answered Same DayOct 25, 2019BUS702University of the Sunshine Coast

Solution

David answered on Dec 24 2019
52 Votes
1.
Elasticity is a useful concept for policy makers for deciding how effective would be the increase tax of commodity to its demand. Price elasticity of demand measures responsiveness of quanity demanded to change in the price of commodity. Theory of demand says that there exists inverse relationship between price of the good and its quanity demanded. When the price of a goods increase quanity demanded of that good decreased. Quantity demanded of a good increase when its price falls. This fundamental theorem of economics says that quanity demand of a good is responsive to change in its price. Price elasticity if demand measures this responsiveness of demand to changes in its price. Price elasticity is the percentage change in quanity demanded to percentage change in its price. Value of price elasticity says that if the value of price elasticity is greater than one the price elasticity of good is more or it is highly price elastic. If the price elasticity of demand is less than one the good is said to be price inelastic. When the demand for a good is price inelastic then...
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