Great Deal! Get Instant \$10 FREE in Account on First Order + 10% Cashback on Every Order Order Now

Muddled, who is enrolled in ACFI2003, is having trouble understanding the concepts underpinning Question 1 of the Major Assignment. Muddled says: "I’m confused. I understood the first lecture and...

Muddled, who is enrolled in ACFI2003, is having trouble understanding the concepts underpinning Question 1 of the Major Assignment.

Muddled says: "I’m confused. I understood the first lecture and thought this course would be a walk in the park but now I am freaking out as new terms are being introduced in every lecture topic.

The loaf of bread example that was used in the first lecture was easy to understand: we costed the loaf of bread by tracing direct materials and direct labour to the loaf and then applied the remaining costs as overhead. I could see from the diagram showing T-accounts how materials, labour and overhead are utilised in the production of bread, and how they were transformed into WIP and finished goods.

But Question 1 does not fit the template I have developed for the loaf of bread example. For a start, Question 1's information on the combining process provides data on WIP, units completed and transferred out. It also has material, labour and overhead being added to production at different times. I understand that. But I cannot, for the life of me, figure out what 'equivalent units' are, and why they are necessary. Why is Question 1 so much more complicated than the bakery example?

I decided to memorise the calculation for equivalent units as I had given up trying to understand what it meant. The calculation involves manipulating the 'physical flow of units of production'. I do not understand the difference between the 'physical flow' and 'equivalent units.'

I could get the gist of job costing – for instance, in a construction site, you have different contracts that have been undertaken, and all I have to do is to trace direct materials and direct labour to each contract, and apply overhead to each contract. Why is the manufacture of herbicides (in Question 1) not costed in the same way?

While I was struggling with job and process costing, the course introduces actual and normal costing. I get actual costing, but do we need normal costing in an organisation? I think it just complicates matters by jumbling up actual and estimated figures. I think organisations provide management with stewardship accounts that are based on objective verifiable evidence."

Required (The rubric on page 5 will be used to mark this question):

ACFI 2003 is based on the following fundamental costing principle: cost-management systems should reflect the fact that different costs are relevant for different purposes. It means that the design of a costing system should represent the unique characteristics of the production process. Muddled does not "get" this; it is far too abstract for him.

You are asked to help Muddled by explaining how this fundamental costing principle affects the way in which job and process costing systems are designed/constructed. Write an essay which compares job and process costing systems. Your essay should be in plain English. Your essay must be broken down into the following subheadings (2.1) to (2.4) below:

2.1) Your essay should explain the axiom, "different costs are relevant for different purposes" by briefly describing the process and job costing systems, and explaining the production context in which each system produces relevant and useful information for management.

2.2) In explaining the axiom above, you are required to explain the following differences between job and process costing systems:

2.2.i) The cost object for job costing is a contract, but the cost object for process costing is the process (or department). Explain the rationale for choosing these different cost objects for each system.

2.2.ii) How are costs accumulated under each costing system?

2.3) Then explain the following costing concepts that are found in process costing: 'equivalent units' and 'transferred in costs.' Why are these concepts not used in job costing?

2.4) Lastly, describe actual and normal cost-management systems. The indirect nature of overhead costs makes them difficult to control. Which system better enables management to control overhead costs? Explain.

Answered Same Day Dec 26, 2021

Solution

Robert answered on Dec 26 2021
“Different costs are relevant for different purposes.” is a relevant axiom. That is the simple
eason why there are so many methods of costing. Two of these methods are called Job costing
and Process Costing respectively. Under the concepts of Job costing , the cost is computed with
eference to specific job as a whole. Under process costing, every process is treated as a different
cost center and each process manager has a responsibility to control costs of his own process.
Under process costing, the accumulation of cost is first ca
ied process wise and ultimately final
product cost gets computed in the last process only. Under job costing, cost is computed only in
context of output created from a single customized process whereas under process costing, the
input is required to pass through two or more processes before it becomes a final output. Hence
under process costing it is desired to ascertain the cost per unit at the completion of each process.
Under job costing, no intermediate cost controls are intended whereas in process costing cost
control is planned at the level of each process manager. Even incomplete production (Work in
progress) gets due importance under process costing.
Under both the systems, the cost objects are different. Under job costing, the cost object is a job
due to their customized nature. Under process costing the cost object is departments or processes.
It is so due to the specific cost nature for each department. Job costing is suitable for the
industries which produce products as per customer's order like restaurant, car repair shop.
Process costing is perfect for the industries where mass production is done like sugar industry,
chemicals industry.
Under job costing, all the costs are accumulated and ascertained on the completion of the job
whereas in process costing , the costs are ascertained at the completion of each period and thus
cost accumulation takes place process wise for each period. There is a need to identify normal
losses, abnormal losses and abnormal gains. No cost is allocated towards the normal loss
whereas the cost is certainly allocated for abnormal items.
Following points further explain the differences in JOB COSTING and PROCESS COSTING-
1. MEANING- Job costing is a basic method of costing where work comprises separate
contracts, jobs and batches authorized by specific orders or contracts. Process costing is
another basic costing method where costs are charged to the multiple processes and
operations and then are averaged over the units that got processed.
2. APPLICATION- Job costing applies when the production is ca
ied as per specific orders
of the customers. Process costing applies when the production is ca
ied on continuously
due to homogeneous products.
3. DEPENDENCE IN PRODUCTION- Under Job costing, all jobs being done are
independent of each other whereas in Process Costing, there is involvement of continuous
flow and the products do not retain their individuality.
4. COST DETERMINATION-...
SOLUTION.PDF