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Most public health and wider health science journals report some form of statistics. The ability to understand and extract meaning from journal articles, and the ability to critically evaluate the...

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Most public health and wider health science journals report some form of statistics. The ability to understand and extract meaning from journal articles, and the ability to critically evaluate the statistics reported in research papers are fundamental skills in public health. Paper 1: Lam, T., Liang, W., Chikritzhs, T., & Allsop, S XXXXXXXXXXAlcohol and other drug use at school leavers' celebrations. Journal of Public Health, 36(3), XXXXXXXXXXRetrieved from: http://jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2013/08/26/pubmed.fdt087.full.pdf+html Read the Lam et. al XXXXXXXXXXresearch article and answer the following questions: 1. This paper presents two hypotheses. State the null and alternative hypothesis for each one, and describe the independent and dependent variables for each hypothesis. 2. What kind of sampling method did they use, and what are the advantages and disadvantages of recruiting participants in this way? 3. What are the demographic characteristics of the people in the sample? Explain by referring to the descriptive statistics reported in the paper. 4. What inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this study, and why? 5. What is the odds ratio for engaging in unprotected sex (compared with those who engaged in safety strategies with the greatest frequency)? Interpret this by explaining what the odds ratio is telling us, including any variables that were controlled for in the model. 6. How representative do you think the sample is of the national population of schoolies? Explain why. Paper 2: Wong, M. C., S., Leung, M. C., M., Tsang, C. S., H., . . . Griffiths, S. M XXXXXXXXXXThe rising tide of diabetes mellitus in a Chinese population: A population-based household survey on 121,895 persons. International Journal of Public Health, 58(2), XXXXXXXXXXRetrieved from: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.laureate.net.au/10.1007/s XXXXXXXXXXy Read the Wong et. al XXXXXXXXXXpaper and answer the following questions: 1. Describe the aims of the study. Can either aim be restated in terms of null and alternative hypotheses? Describe these where possible. 2. What are the demographic characteristics of the people in the sample? Explain by referring to the descriptive statistics reported in the paper. 3. What inferential statistics were used to analyse data in this paper, and why? 4. What did the researchers find when they adjusted the prevalence rates of diabetes for age and sex? 5. Interpret the odds ratios for self-reported diabetes diagnosis to explain who is at the greatest risk of diabetes. 6. What impact do the limitations described by the researchers have on the extent to which the results can be trusted, and why?
Answered Same Day Jun 22, 2021

Solution

Paulami answered on Jun 24 2021
145 Votes
Running head: HEALTHCARE
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HEALTHCARE
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Name of the University:
Table of Contents
Article 1    3
Answer 1    3
Answer 2    3
Answer 3    4
Answer 4    5
Answer 5    6
Answer 6    6
Article 2    8
Answer 1    8
Answer 2    8
Answer 3    8
Answer 4    9
Answer 5    9
Answer 6    9
References    11
Article 1
Lam, T., Liang, W., Chikritzhs, T., &Allsop, S. (2014). Alcohol and other drug use at school leavers' cele
ations. Journal of Public Health, 36(3), 408-416.
Answer 1
Null Hypothesis: The average consumption of standard drinks in Australia while the event of the school leaver is considered as a null hypothesis.
Reason: The usage of alcohol along with other drugs at the cele
ations seems to be the reflection of the bigger as compared to the general numbers of hours to drink which are there for consumers.
Alternative Hypothesis: The amount of consumption of drinks every hour is considered as alternative hypothesis.
Reason: At least one outcome was experienced as negative in maximum number of results attributing to alcohol along with the other drug.
Dependent and Independent variables: Number of Males and females are dependent variables for both the hypothesis. Consumption of alcohol is considered as independent variable for both the hypothesis.
Answer 2
The sampling was done using two part survey designed self report methodology. This helped in facilitating bottlenecked survey administration.
Advantages of recruiting participants in such a way:
· Helped in analyzing components separately and individually
· It helped in assessing intentions
· Helped in understanding the scenario at the cele
ation
· Supported both pre-cele
ation as well as post-cele
ation survey
· Individual’s data were incorporated and paired wherever possible
Disadvantages of recruiting participants in such a way:
· Not all participants were able to complete the code of the survey
· Pre and post- events survey were eventually incorporated
· Paired and unpaired respondents were also taken into consideration
Answer 3
The first survey was conducted by young people planning for attending the program (n = 541; 56% women; 91% 17 years and 9% 18 years; 87% private school enrollment). This pre-Cele
ation Interview is available face-to-face online. Half (52%) had been online for two months from the day before the ceremony. Online paperwork was 15.4 minutes [95% CI (14.79, 16.49), n = 215 (sellers removed). The remaining paper surveys visited Rottnest Island on the first day of the festival with five pages. Blank surveys and information were given along the way completing the surveys accumulated when the boat was towed. Post Graduate Survey 405 women (50% women; 94% 17 years and 6% 18 years and over; 92% attended private school. There was availability of second surveys online, with the majority (86%) attending the event on the last day, a team of 27 researchers Interview testing (conducted online face-to-face) was administered by multifactorial analysis, but the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test did not show key differences to predict or report real use of alcohol for all methods.
Descriptive statistics refereed in the report:
That research is made to be analyzed as entities separately - one explores intentions and the other is done in cele
ations. Since the total
oadcasters on the island are 1466, ∼37% was surveyed for the survey which is pre-cele
ated along with 28% for post-event survey. While retrieval is not the best form of research, anonymous code has been created for you in two tools to combine personal data where possible. All participants did not complete the code, and a survey of 120 participants before and after the end of the study was linked (62% women). Due to the relatively small sample size of the sample, the...
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