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INF609: Systems of Systems Engineering: Assignment 1 and 2 Assignment Title: Systems of Systems and Systems of Systems Engineering: Identifying Key Research Challenges The emergence of Systems of...

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INF609: Systems of Systems Engineering: Assignment 1 and 2

Assignment Title: Systems of Systems and Systems of Systems Engineering: Identifying Key Research Challenges

The emergence of Systems of Systems and Systems of Systems Engineering is largely driven by global societal needs including energy-water-food nexus, population demographics, emissions and global climate, community security and safety, resource utilization, transport, globalisation of economic and social activity, etc. The scale, complexities and challenges presented by these global drivers and the emergence of SoS require us to go beyond traditional Systems Engineering approaches and practices. Systems engineers face major challenges as the scale and complexity of SoS poses unique challenges. While current existing Systems Engineering techniques and approaches have coped well in dealing with single-centric systems, they cannot be simply scaled-up to deal with challenges posed by the emergence of SoS. Indeed, the discipline of ‘systems engineering’ as is currently practiced offers little guidance. Also while the study of ‘complex systems’ offers some tools, it has no coherent approaches that are capable to deal with the scale and complexity of SoS.

Therefore, the challenges laid down by the multidimensionality of these global problems including the interconnectedness of decisions across different policy sectors require new ways of thinking, new systems engineering approaches, evolving or scaling-up existing approaches The emergence of Systems of Systems (SoS) and Systems of Systems Engineering (SoSE) presents a potential for solving many of these challenges.

The other related, but distinct, area in which many of the systems engineering research challenges are similar to SoS is Cyber-Physical Systems. These are special types of systems of systems (e.g. Smart City) that are concerned with the increasing use of embedded software and, in particular, the direct and real-time interface between the virtual and physical worlds. It is predicted that by 2020, connected devices will potentially explode to 50 billion, outnumbering connected people by a ratio of six to one. The opportunities and challenges resulting from this amplified connectivity will influence nearly everything, nearly everyone and nearly everywhere. The emergence of Internet of Things is a global phenomenon. However, this convergence of the physical and virtual worlds presents challenges of technological complexity and dangers to personal privacy and security. The kind of complexity caused by such a large network systems of systems will be too difficult to maintain and evolve well. There will also be a disruption of business models established in the 20th century most notably in finance, health care, utilities and energy, transport and logistics, manufacturing, agriculture, etc. The convergence of Cloud Computing, Internet of Things and Big Data as an ecosystem poses major challenges to be met in a wide range of issues, from privacy and security, to the governance of these complex systems as well as changing the security landscape. In many ways, Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) share similar challenges with Systems of Systems (SoS). For example, uncertainty in the environment, security attacks, and errors in physical devices and in wireless communication pose a critical challenge to ensure overall system robustness, security, and safety. Also due to the amplified connectivity, modern societal world is already a System-of-Systems and as citizen, we have no choice with each individual citizen having their own SoS providing individual services.

The intention of this assignment is to identify critically systems engineering research challenges in SoSE. The assignment, encourages you to speculate on possible directions and the challenges faced by the research and systems engineering community that needs to start now in order to be relevant tomorrow. The emphasis is on long-term challenges in SOSE research, and ideas for attacking these challenges. The assignment is particularly looking for submissions that envision innovative solutions to cross-disciplinary challenges. So, you are encouraged to present truly visionary concepts

Some of the challenges include:

Requirements Engineering, Processes, Techniques and Tools, Modelling Approaches; Security, Requirements Traceability, Emergence Engineering, Trade-off Analysis, Standards, SoS Architectures, The Open Approach to SoS Engineering, SoS Modelling and Simulation, SoS Network Enablement, SoS Validation and Verification, SoS Qualification and Assurance, Management, Control and Operation of SoS, Complex Socio-Technical Features of SoS, SoS Performance Measurement, SoS Technical and Engineering Governance, Risk Mitigation in SoS, Training, etc

Assignment Task:

This assignment is therefore seeking for a paper reporting case studies, experience reports, practices, approaches, techniques, and guidelines. The paper will be judged on the articulation of challenges that reach beyond the current state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice, and on the likelihood that the ideas proposed can address those challenges and define new research directions

The assignment is in two parts.

PART A: 70% - Due 8th July 2018. This part to be single-authored, i.e. no co-authorship

In this part of the assignment please discuss the current state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice in Systems of Systems Engineering and Systems-of-Systems and then identify some long-term challenges in systems engineering research. You should then propose some ideas for overcoming those challenges and report some case studies, experience reports, practices, approaches, techniques, and guidelines that address the likelihood that the ideas proposed can address those challenges and define new research directions.

Your paper should be in IEEE double column format and should not exceed 10 pages including all text, references, appendices and figures. Papers that fail to conform to these requirements will be rejected without review.


Submissions will be reviewed by at least two members. The main criterion for acceptance will be the originality and innovation in the ideas presented and their underlying intuitions, and for the validity of the argumentation.

The assessment will be performed according to the following criteria: originality (25%); relevance, soundness and the rationale for the proposed ideas (25%), appropriate consideration of relevant literature (25%), and quality of presentation (25%).

PART B: 30% - Due 1st Week of September 2018

Paper Presentation to an open invited audience in a conference setting. In this part of the assignment, you should prepare a professional power point oral presentation on your research paper. Your presentation should 30 minutes long including questions from the audience. The assessment will be performed according to the following criteria: quality of presentation (25%); clarity of presentation in line with the submitted paper (20%); quality and handling the Q & A session (30%); presentation style (25%)

Answered Same Day Jun 01, 2020


Amit answered on Jun 14 2020
113 Votes
Challenges in system engineering with SoSE and SoS
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Abstract – Initially, the defense applications developed by U.S. Departments are most based on the use of SOSE (System of Systems Engineering) methodology. In modern days, the problems which are not related to defense systems like health care, rescue and searching of missing individuals, exploration to space, networks used for global communication, air transportation etc. are also heavily making use of this SOSE concept. The SOSE is not limited to monolithic systems of system engineering but because of used SOS concept is also used in development of complex systems. The used domains and different levels of considerations make it involved to define the uncertainty requirements of constituent systems. It can easily solve the complex problems of SOS. The concept of system engineering mainly focus on developing the right system but on other hand selection of right system with satisfying requirements is focused by SOSE.
Both SE (system engineering) and SOS (system of systems) are inter-related terms but the covered areas of study are totally different. The operations and related developments of certain monolithic applications are mainly addressed by SE where as the operations and related developments of certain monolithic applications through programming are mainly addressed by SOSE. It can be said that optimization of individual product is assured by traditional SE while the SOSE looks for interacting legacy of different systems and newly developed system collectively for satisfying the different objectives of the developed program. The decision makes can use SOSE to understand the different possible impacts of different made choices on costing, technical performance, flexibility and extensibility with respect to time. So, the complete architectural solution of SOS problems is designed by the decision makes of SOSE.
The existing literature of different applications is based on different domains and methodologies, so, developing a single concern on bases of SOSE to all architectural problems of SOS is not possible. Thus, Dr. Daniel makes a recommendation to divide the complete method in three different phases: define the problem with abstract, select the model and make analysis to behavior pattern of application.
The SOS (system of systems) is a collection of different set of application which is made to complete any task which any individual system is not able to perform. The goals, required resources, and management activities for each system are performed by them only. The SOS is responsible to set the collective goal for all these applications. The coordination among all different applications is also managed by SOS and this coordination management is main goal of SOS. Any permanent phenomena is not developed and defined by SOS but integration and coordination of systems is ca
ied out to define the costing, efficiency and robustness for specific goals. Each process has a different impact on defined goals of SOS. So, in modern time, the SOS and SOSE collectively performing the desired goals of architectural problems set for military and nor military applications.
Keywords: SOS, SOSE, SE, traditional systems.
I. Introduction:
The SOSE is not the newly developed discipline but it is available and serving from the beginning of twenty-first century to develop the complex systems. Most of the complex systems of modern time are developed with help of SOS and SOSE concept and methodology. As it is known that SE is well established area of computer science, so, SOSE is making representation of challenges present in used system engineering to the global level. The use of socio-economic and socio-technical phenomena shows its state of art and state of practice to modern systems. In 1998 Mr. Maier has developed five different characteristics to represent SOS and SOSE. These are just the characteristics not any functional criteria to define the development of SOSE and SOS [1]. These five characteristics includes the independent management of all component systems, impendence of all operations performed by component systems, distribution of component systems on geographical bases, emergent behavior of component systems and different development processes to identify the managerial and operational independence. If any system does not justify any two characteristics as above listed, then, it is not said to be SOS based system.
In SOS based system, when different already existing systems are combined, then, emergence is considered as the most important characteristic to form SOSE for solving the architectural problems. The effective handling of all logical threads responsible to define the data, functions and system capabilities is main challenge associated with implementation of SOSE and SOS. As, SOS is combination of different interconnected systems, so any unintended behavior or any unexpected risk occu
ed from combination of different systems can result in complex behavior of final outcome or result. So, for safety of any SOS based system, handling of such behavior is main challenge. The
oad range of different possible circumstances is being handled by SOS in modern interconnected world. For further understanding and right executions, the SOS is further divided in different four categories as described below:
· Directed SOS: When the SOS is managed and created for justifying the desired specific purpose and all the related systems are acting as subordinates, then, directed SOS is formed. The operational independency is maintained by all subordinates individually. But the purpose of central management is archived by combined operations of all subordinates [3].
· Acknowledged SOS: When the SOS has a designated manager and well recognized objective which is fulfilled with resources of all subordinates, then, acknowledged SOS is formed. The objectives, developments, funding, independent ownership and used sustainment approaches are obtained from all different subordinates. Any change in SOS requires a cooperative agreement among subordinates and SOS.
· Collaborative SOS: When, the subordinate systems makes less or more interaction for completing the central purpose based on agreement, then, collaborative SOS is formed. The decision of denying or providing any service is taken by all subordinates. So, the standards can easily be maintained by enforcing the service challenges.
· Virtual SOS: When the authority of central management makes the agreement to define the purpose of developed SOS, virtual SOS is formed. The invisible mechanisms are mainly relayed to develop and maintain this SOS [2].
So, SOS provides an independent management and execution of different process to fulfill the central purpose of any complex system. The SOS types can also be combined to fulfill the central purpose. The used components and heterogeneity of subordinates are other components which can define the final outcome of any used or developed SOS.
II. Challenges in system engineering with SOSE and SOS:
The implementation of SOS and SOSE based systems is full of challenges. The main challenge is to handle the unnatural juxtaposition of different supporting systems to form SOS. The unnatural juxtaposition can lead to following challenges to system developers as listed below:
1. The reused systems to form SOS can lead to unavailability of desired results of final outcome.
2. The latent e
ors, related mismatches or any other bugs can be increased by unnatural juxtaposition.
3. The failure chances of SOS can also be increased by unnatural juxtaposition.
4. The ability of end user working on formed SOS will also decrease and it can lead to discern failures.
5. The use of self adaptive types of system will increase so methodology impacts, sustainability of formed SOS, and ambiguity of formed SOS will also decrease.
There are other different challenges which can be identified during implementation and development of any SOS. The methodology impacts, sustainability of formed SOS, and ambiguity of formed SOS defines these challenges to SOS designers. The other challenges associated with development of SOS are listed below [3 & 4]:
1. Ambiguity of SOS and SOSE: The mainly identified challenges associated with ambiguity of SOS and SOSE are supplied below:
· The maintenance of cycle time of project, over run of cost, handling of design e
ors, responsibility identification, and use of common semantic space for affected participants are main challenges associated with ambiguity of formed SOS and SOSE.
· The ensuring of accurate, adequate, and on time delivery of data to all subordinates on different locations and dime intervals is main challenge.
· The configuration management’s role will increase due to ambiguity, so, sustainability and productivity of developed SOS and SOSE can be affected.
2. Dynamic of social humans in SOS and SOSE: The interaction among individuals working on SOS will be increased, so, it can lead to operational e
3. Sustainability of developed SOS or SOSE: The developed SOS or SOSE has to manage the different design decisions related to development of different subordinates and judging them to final outcome of SOS or SOSE can lead to e
4. Methodology based challenges: The implementation of all subordinates is based on different methodologies and handling all different methodologies for forming a final outcome is big challenge.
III. Ideas to overcome occu
ed challenges:
The implementation of SOS or SOSE can lead to so many different challenges as described above. The occu
ed challenges must be solved to obtain the desired results from combination of all different subordinates helping to form the SOS or SOSE. The below table shows the methods to solve the occu
ed challenges as supplied below:
    Challenge identification
    Achievement of sponsor
    Variegate the related stakeholders
    Develop the group solution for identified complex challenge.
    What is the main challenge in implementing SOSE or SOS?
    What are the associated opportunities obtained by implementing SOSE or SOS?
    Use individual thinking to find opportunities by implementing SOSE or SOS.
    Requirements of system
    Proposition of delivered values
    Make measurements of SOSE or SOS effectiveness.
    Architectural or design challenges
    Define the final focus or outcome of SOS.
    Make your focus on complete system.
    Maintain the system availability to all desired operations. Make a testing of developed system yourself...

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