Dr Insiyah R. answered on
May 27 2023
1. The socio-ecological model for health is a comprehensive theoretical framework that examines the complex interplay between individual, interpersonal, community, and societal factors that contribute to health and well-being. This model posits that mental health is influenced by a dynamic interaction of factors at multiple levels, ranging from individual biology and psychology to the
oader social, political, and environmental contexts (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2018). For example, individual factors such as genetics and personality traits may predispose individuals to develop mental disorders. However, interpersonal factors like family and social relationships can buffer or exace
ate the risk of mental health issues. At the community level, access to mental health services, social cohesion, and neighborhood safety can impact mental well-being. Finally, macro-level factors such as policies, socioeconomic conditions, and cultural norms can further shape mental health outcomes. An understanding of these complex and inte
elated factors is critical for developing multidimensional mental health promotion strategies to target various levels of the socio-ecological model (Baciu et al,2017).
Baciu, A., Negussie, Y., Geller, A., Weinstein, J. N., & National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). The state of health disparities in the United States. In Communities in action: Pathways to health equity. National Academies Press (US).
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). Theory at a glance: A guide for health promotion practice. Lulu. com.
2. Climate change represents a significant challenge both globally and locally. In the case of Bangladesh, a low-lying and densely populated country, the impacts of climate change are particularly pronounced, with increased risk of flooding, cyclones, and sea-level rise (Khan et al,2021). To mitigate climate change in Bangladesh, policymakers should prioritize investments into adaptive infrastructure, such as early warning systems, cyclone shelters, and coastal embankments. In addition, green technologies like renewable energy should be integrated into national development plans to transition away from fossil fuel dependence. Furthermore, Bangladesh should work in partnership with international organizations and other countries to enhance its capacity for climate change governance and finance and seek resources to help mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change (Khan et al,2021). Capacity building and community engagement in climate-resilient livelihoods, such as climate-smart agriculture, can also empower local communities to adapt to the changing environment and enhance their resilience.
Khan, M. R., Huq, S., Risha, A. N., & Alam, S. S. (2021). High-density population and displacement in Bangladesh. Science, 372(6548), 1290-1293..
3. Immunization programs play a critical role in preventing infectious diseases and promoting public health. However, population-based immunization programs can raise ethical dilemmas su
ounding individual autonomy, public good, and equality of access (Bester, 2015). One ethical debate relates to the tension between individual autonomy and public good. While vaccination programs aim to achieve herd immunity and protect populations, mandatory vaccination policies can encroach upon individual rights and liberties. Additionally, some individuals may have concerns about vaccine safety or religious objections to vaccination, which must be weighed against the
oader benefits of vaccination programs (Selgelid, 2016). Another ethical dilemma concerns equality of access to vaccination services. Disadvantaged groups, including those in remote locations or lower socioeconomic backgrounds, may experience greater ba
iers to accessing immunization services, leading to health inequities (Larson, Ja
ett, Eckersberger, Smith, & Paterson, 2014). Addressing these ethical dilemmas entails balancing competing values and considerations while designing and implementing immunization programs that maximize public health benefits, minimize harm, and promote equity.