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Write an essay on one of the following topics: Question 1 1. Why do academics focus on reliability in writing and how does this relate to principles of observation? In your response to this question,...

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Write an essay on one of the following topics:
Question 1
1. Why do academics focus on reliability in writing and how does this relate to principles of observation?
In your response to this question, you should make reference to features of academic writing discussed in the unit –see Brick et al. on reliability.  You should also use a number of examples from academic articles to illustrate your key points.  
*Lecture 8
Answer from lecturer “What I am refe
ing to are the ideas set out in lecture 8 and introduced by Hanson and Chalmers in the required readings.  In summary, I am talking about how the observable world can be revealed from a range of perspectives including different theoretical perspectives.  What we know affects what we see.”
Required Reading:
Chalmers, A 2013 ‘Science as knowledge derived from the facts of experience’, What is this thing called science?, 4th edn, University of Queensland Press, St Lucia, 2013, pp. 1-17.
Hanson, N R 1958, ‘Observation’, Patterns of Discovery: An Inquiry into the Conceptual Foundations of Science, Cam
idge UP, Cam
idge, pp. 4-24.
Recommended Reading:
Graves, H 1995, ‘Rhetoric and reality in the process of scientific enquiry’, Rhetoric Review, 14(1), pp XXXXXXXXXX.
Goode, E, & Ben-Yehuda, N 2009, ‘Enter the moral panic’, Moral panics: The social construction of deviance, 2nd edn, Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 21-33.
Question 2
2. Why is it important to analyse the relationship between texts and images when studying academic writing?  
Address this question using examples of academic writing (journal articles and books) that contain images or diagrams.  In addition to analysing the structure of the images, you should examine how they are both framed by the text and presented as evidence.  
*Lecture 9
Required Reading:
Kress, G R & Van Leeuwen, T 2006, ‘Na
ative representations: Designing social action’, Reading images: the grammar of visual design, 2nd edn, Routledge, London & New York, pp. 45-78.
Recommended Reading:
Bateman, John 2014, ‘Text-Image Relationships in Perspective’, Text and Image, Taylor and Francis, pp. 5-29. http:
ebookcentral.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/li
monash/detail.action?docID=1699268
Boeriis, M & van Leeuwen, T 2017, ‘Vectors’, in O Seizov and J Wildfeuer (ed.) New Studies in Multimodality : Conceptual and Methodological Elaborations, Bloomsbury Publishing PLC, pp. 15-35.
Lemke, J L 1998, ‘Multiplying meaning: visual and ve
al semiotics in scientific text’, Reading Science, Routledge, London, pp XXXXXXXXXX.
Martinec, R & Salway, A 2005, ‘A system for image–text relations in new (and old) media’, Visual Communication, 4(3), pp. 337–371.
Question 3
3. What role does stance play in academic writing and how does it vary across the disciplines?
To answer this question, it is important that you provide many examples of types of stance (hedges, boosters, attitude markers, etc.) from journal articles and books written within different academic disciplines.
*Lecture 7, (Ken Hyland)
Hyland, K 2013, ‘Instructional discourse’, in K Hyland (ed.), Discourse Studies Reader: Essential Excerpts, Bloomsbury, London, pp XXXXXXXXXX.
Graff, G & Birkenstein, C 2010, ‘“And yet”: distinguishing what you say from what they say’, They say, I say: the moves that matter in academic writing, 2nd edn, WW Norton, New York and London, pp 68-77.
Nygaard, L 2015, ‘The “I” in (social) science’, Writing for scholars: a practical guide to making sense & being heard, 2nd edn, Sage, Los Angeles, pp. 34-57.

WORDS WORK: Academic skills for University
ATS1297 - Academic Writing
Lecture Seven: Academic Voice
*
Writing in response to others
*
debate
Academic writing requires that authors respond to existing debates and previous works
*
What ‘others say’
The writer must learn to respond to what other people say, this should be:
    linked to the writer’s own position on a debate
    presented early in the essay to indicate the essay’s direction
    lucid and without distracting detail (Graff and Birkenstein p. 21).
The debate can be introduced in a number of ways:
    an anecdote or quotation
    a summary of the state of the field (Graff and Birkenstein pp. 20-22)
    a reference to a key write
    an indication of findings
    through the description of a disputed concept
*
Introducing debate - example
‘The common refrain that is heard in elementary discussions of quantum mechanics
is that a physical object is in some sense both a wave and a particle, with its wave nature apparent when you measure a wave property such as wavelength, and its particle nature apparent when you measure a particle property such as position. But this is, at best, misleading and, at worst, wrong’ (Stenger cited in Gillen 157).
*
Summary and disputed concept
‘The common refrain that is heard in elementary discussions of quantum mechanics
is that a physical object is in some sense both a wave and a particle, with its wave nature apparent when you measure a wave property such as wavelength, and its particle nature apparent when you measure a particle property such as position. But this is, at best, misleading and, at worst, wrong’ (Stenger cited in Gillen 157).
    Reference to debate
    Summary of opposing claim
Counter claim
*
Responding to possible critics
‘Unrelenting skeptics
might compare the dark matter of today with the hypothetical, now defunct “ether”, proposed centuries ago as the weightless, transparent medium through which light moved. […]
But dark matter ignorance differs fundamentally from ether ignorance. While ether amounted to a placeholder for our incomplete understanding, the existence of dark matter derives not from mere presumption but from the observed effects of gravity on visible matter.’ (Tyson and Goldsmith cited in Gillen 171).
    Opposing group
    Summary of opposing position
    Contention
*
Using data to link to a debate
    Common debate structures:
    ‘The results of X contradict
efute Y’s conclusion that ……
    X’s findings call into question the widely accepted theory that ……’
    Not necessarily oppositional
    ‘Our data support/confirm/verify the work of X by showing that ……
    By demonstrating ……, X’s work extends the findings of Y.
    Our data are consistent with X’s hypothesis that’ (Gillen p. 165)
*
Personal voice
*
Using ‘I’
*
Brick, Herke and Wong (pp XXXXXXXXXXargues that we can still use the personal pronoun ‘I’ in academic writing to:
set out the structure of an essay or article
    ‘My presentation has four parts’
to state forcefully how the writer’s opinion differs from others working in the field (p. 17).
    ‘Some people, like myself,’
    ‘I believe that the scholarship’
to indicate and explain the academic’s relationship to the research (p. 18).
    ‘I previously believed’
    ‘My illness was the starting point for reconsidering research in cancer care’
Setting out a position – indicating stance
Personal voice can be used to highlight the author’s position:
‘Researchers have different attitudes about this scientific debate. Some people, like myself, are fascinated to find that the very issues that grip us today were clearly discussed and argued 100 years ago – with insightful observations about the directions psychology should take. Other people find historical statements to be either obviously i
elevant (because there were no computer models back then) or merely expressions of opinion (because they are often philosophical). I agree that the weight of the argument should rest, where possible, on the models and methods of today. Nevertheless, I believe that the scholarship of cognitive science and AI needs to be improved, and this entails at least laying out the historical trends and opposing camps.
My presentation has four parts’ (Clancey p. 46).
*
*
Stance
What language features contribute to a position in academic writing?
*
Creating Flow through stance
‘One way in which the reaction to plagiarism may be regarded as a moral panic is the disproportionality between the ‘threat’ and the reaction to it. Bowden XXXXXXXXXXargues that plagiarism is a serious problem and has become incredibly widespread due to the availability and ‘ease’ of copy/paste technology. However, it is difficult to be sure how much of a problem plagiarism is in universities now. Some studies (Walker, 2010) suggest that up to 30% of students in a group of 528 students plagiarised ‘to some extent’ in their written work, while other studies have suggested much lower figures of deliberate ‘cheating’ (Sheard et al XXXXXXXXXXHayes and Introna XXXXXXXXXXsuggest that the lower figure is probably more accurate, as the higher figures are based on wide definitions of plagiarism. Wide definitions of plagiarism define ‘poor’ or inadequate referencing’ as the same thing as ‘cheating’ or plagiarism with the intent to deceive the marker about who actually wrote the essay. As a result, surprisingly plagiarism is not as significant a problem as some people think, and clearly doesn’t need as much attention and concern as it gets. Many lecturers are in fact extremely wo
ied about the amount of time taken up in trying to detect and deal with plagiarism (Sutherland-Smith, 2005).’ (Johnson 2015)
*
Framing and Linking language
*
‘One way in which the reaction to plagiarism may be regarded as a moral panic is the disproportionality between the ‘threat’ and the reaction to it. Bowden XXXXXXXXXXargues that plagiarism is a serious problem and has become incredibly widespread due to the availability and ‘ease’ of copy/paste technology. However, it is difficult to be sure how much of a problem plagiarism is in universities now. Some studies (Walker, 2010) suggest that up to 30% of students in a group of 528 students plagiarised ‘to some extent’ in their written work, while other studies have suggested much lower figures of deliberate ‘cheating’ (Sheard et al XXXXXXXXXXHayes and Introna XXXXXXXXXXsuggest that the lower figure is probably more accurate, as the higher figures are based on wide definitions of plagiarism. Wide definitions of plagiarism define ‘poor’ or inadequate referencing’ as the same thing as ‘cheating’ or plagiarism with the intent to deceive the marker about who actually wrote the essay. As a result, surprisingly plagiarism is not as significant a problem as some people think, and clearly doesn’t need as much attention and concern as it gets. Many lecturers are in fact extremely wo
ied about the amount of time taken up in trying to detect and deal with plagiarism (Sutherland-Smith, 2005).’ (Johnson 2015)
In academic writing, the most commonly used framing language includes:
    Hedges
    Reporting ve
s
    Linking language
Less common:
    Boosters
    Attitude markers
Stance and position
The writer does not just present information, s/he position themselves relative to other voices.
Hyland refers to this as stance, or the way:
    ‘academics annotate their texts to comment on the possible accuracy or credibility of a claim, the extent they want to commit themselves to it, or the attitude they want to convey to an entity, a proposition, or the reader’ (Hyland 2005, p. 178)
*
Answered Same Day May 31, 2021 ATS1297 Monash University

Solution

Abhinaba answered on Jun 03 2021
142 Votes
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEXTS AND IMAGES WHEN STUDYING ACADEMIC WRITING
Table of Contents
Introduction    3
Body    4
Conclusion    8
References    9
Introduction
Visual formulation has always been effective in devising the matters by drawing lines shunning the image and the text. Textual feed will gain its conscious framework whence worked upon it by incorporation of accurate images. These images will suffice the proficiency amidst the internal structure as well as the external ones by reiteration of the visual design. The profusion with rigour can accurately be pronounced by putting the learning process at the line of teaching. It will amplify the academic writing because of infusion taking place in between the image as well as text. It will help in the governance of educational components by inducing the psychological aspects, that will structure thought pattern in a considerably reasonable and comprehensible way.
Body
The image appears to matter to the text by suggesting some particular meanings that will help in evoking the profound attributes involving the material configuration. To cut it short in a simpler manner it can be said that eye appears to be the window of the soul that means the text. It works as a learning process since there appear to be many experts in the evocative visual framework that involves the educational systems or might be some other factors that enlighten oneducational psychology. It makes one believe about the picturesthat can be produced alongside the text. Consequently, making the function reasonable enough for performing an effective role in the academic writing. Due to the visual implications because it contributes in the process that intends to produce the text. It can be done in a manner that will linger in the mind of the readers that will captivate their senses and enamour them (Kress & Van Leeuwen, 2006). This will be an act of importance in the darkest of times when there occurs fast growing technology that the academic writing needs that will help in resulting of the production of let’s say dissertation papers or something like that. The enabling function that needs the visual sensation to work accurately by a matter of tour de force or something like that will involve the usage of images those will be deemed as co
ective measure. This entire thing will act in drafting a proper story and the creation requires much effort. One has to go head over heels to get a graphic designer, who will work on a commission basis. This entire thing requires a lot of a
angement, but this can be done for gaining a proper outcome. The graphic designer should work on his or her adobe Photoshop or maybe quark express and design the images by looking scrutinizing into the text. It will help in providing a crystal clear view about how images are to be incorporated into the text. Instead of just downloading images from google, one needs to work better and should give more and more effort to it. This effort will pay off surely when the graphic designer works for 24 by 7 behind the text, to get his personal life on line and deliver his job. He might have to risk his life, his family but he has to deliver the job anyhow. So for that he needs to study the text very observantly and minutely and work on the nitty grittier and develop the image, for avoiding any kind of collateral damage. The feasible outcome will thence be attained by attainment of the rationale of the oriental function. Since it focuses entirely upon the way a spectator gets affected by image. The orientation between the spectator and the producer needs to be clear and that cannot be just an eye-wash, it has to be believable. The alignment of linguistic notion involving the stance as well as engagement. One needs to be very clear about the methods that are being putting to use that will help the spectators in being observant and excited by studying all the visual imageries. The visual portrayal is very beneficial in
ewing the vigorous intent in a methodical way that adds toward the...
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