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Chapter 3 Issues of Budgeting and Control: Objectives After completing the assigned readings and activities, you should be able to: 1. List and describe the key purposes of budgets (page 98) 2....

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Chapter 3 Issues of Budgeting and Control:  Objectives
After completing the assigned readings and activities, you should be able to:
1. List and describe the key purposes of budgets (page 98)
2. Describe the types of budgets and explain how each is used in the budgeting process (pages 98-99)
3. Describe the various ways of classifying expenditures (pages XXXXXXXXXX)
4. Discuss the benefits of performance budgets (pages XXXXXXXXXX)
5. Describe the key phases of the budget cycle (pages XXXXXXXXXX)
6. Explain why budgets are generally prepared on a cash basis (pages XXXXXXXXXX)
7. Explain how SLG entities report budget-to-actual comparisons (pages XXXXXXXXXX)
8. Discuss how budgets enhance control (pages XXXXXXXXXX)
9. Model the means by which SLG entities incorporate budgets into their accounting systems (pages XXXXXXXXXX)
10. Demonstrate how an encum
ance system prevents overspending (pages XXXXXXXXXX)
11. Describe the circumstances under which budgetary and encum
ance entries are most beneficial (page 125)
Omit: How does budgeting in NPF organizations compare with that in governments? (page 114)
Ch 3 Videos
Budgetary Accounting Overview 8:51 min:  https:
Budgetary Accounts:  4:16 min: https:
Note:  Omit the transactions for the Enterprise Fund (go back to this is Granof  Ch 9)
Excellent YouTube Video on budgetary/encum
ance accounting 8:40 Min:  https:

Main Study Guide for 11 Objectives of chapter 3
Below are 11 Objectives
For each of the 11 Chapter 3 objectives, prepare a study guide.  This study guide should help you prepare for Exam 1.  Use your own words - avoid merely copying the words from the text.  Instead of copying directly from the text, organize and discuss the objectives.  Again, you are creating an exam study document for yourself.  When appropriate, show journal entries.  Be sure to list new account titles and discuss these.   Be accurate as you use your words. Do not merely make an outline - provide na
ative (substance) to the study guide.
Below answer is used to put in Discussion Board
Make at least 2 separate postings about the material covered in Chapter 2.  Make substantial postings - go beyond making a general comment or posing a general question.  As you work with the videos and the study material, discuss the content.  This includes a discussion of how you worked with the practice items, developed study tools, overcame confusion, etc.  The postings must be made on at least 2 separate days.
Postings must (1) be accurate, (2) be substantial - avoid vague remarks, and (3) relate to the covered objectives:
The discussion board for Ch 2 is closed. Students need to work on Ch 3.
To answer these questions Book Link is below:
Login – XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXXPassword : Newyork2018

The MOST important part - All students must understand the role and nature of the appropriations budget.  This budget is passed by the elected body (the governing body).  This can be the legislature, city council, county commissioners, board of trustees, etc. 
The APPROPRIATIONS budget represents the LEGAL AUTHORITY TO SPEND.  No one in the SLG entity can spend the taxpayers' money UNLESS it has been appropriated (approved by the elected body).
The SLG entity prepares a budget about 6 - 9 months prior to the end of the fiscal year.  This is sent to the elected body to review.  Changes are made.  The elected body then holds public hearings on the budget.  In
Iput is received from the residents of the SLG entity as well as creditors and other interested parties.  After these public hearings are held, the elected body vote on the appropriations budget - this results in the LEGAL AUTHORITY TO SPEND.
During the fiscal year, the elected body can amend the appropriations budget - increasing or decreasing line items in the budget.
Once the appropriations budget is passed (prior to the start of the fiscal year), the elected body can then set the property tax rates (based on the appraised value of the property).  The elected body considers the ESTIMATED sources of revenues and transfers, as well as any unassigned general fund balance to determine how much must be raised from property taxes.
The classification system allows decision makers to view specific accounts and allows the results of operations (actual ) to be compared to the budget amounts and to flow to the financial statements (actual amounts).  Based on the Chapter 2 lab, the reconciliation/comparison  schedules are not actual financial statements, but are presented in the CAFR to provide information to users.  The budget comparison schedule is shown on pages XXXXXXXXXXFind this schedule in your CAFR entity and see how it compares to the one in the text.
You also
ing up a great point from Chapter 2.  The Statement of Revenues, EXPENDITURES (all students must be comfortable with this modified accrual accounting -governmental funds - term), and Changes in Fund Balance (the residual for governmental fund - this residual is divided into the GASB 54 fund balance classifications) shows the 3 classifications of EXPENDITURES: pages 54 and 55 show Cu
ent Expenditures - note that these are divided by programs/departments/function; Debt Service Expenditures - principal and interest (modified accrual accounting recognizes principal repayments as EXPENDITURES); and Capital Outlay Expenditures (autos, buildings, furniture, computers, items with an estimated life of more than one year are recorded as EXPENDITURES under modified accrual accounting).
This the classification system allows the SLG entity to record the 3 categories of EXPENDITURES as (1) cu
ent, debt service, or capital outlay; (2) based on the department or program that incu
ed the EXPENDITURE; and (3) based on the object of EXPENDITURE - i.e. Public Safety - the cu
ent expenditures will be shown in the categories of salaries, supplies, equipment etc.  The director of Public Safety can view EXPENDITURES that apply to his/her specific function.  See the detailed listing of objects on pages XXXXXXXXXX.
The Statement of Revenues, EXPENDITURES, and Changes in Fund Balance will not show line items such as salary expenditures, rent expenditures.  These are known internally but are not needed on the external financial statements.  
For example:  The Chart of Accounts for ACC shows the account numbers:  V-WW-XXXXX-YYYY-ZZ.  Each part of the account numbers has a meaning.  XXXXX is the department (i.e. Accounting Education); YYYY is the type of EXPENDITURE - travel, supplies, salaries, etc; V is the type of fund - governmental, proprietary, fiduciary.   With our great computer systems, every transaction shows the co
ect account number and queries, reports, financial statements, and schedules can be prepared.

Lapsing (Appropriations/Purchase Orders) and How does this relate to governmental funds (General Fund, Special Revenue Fund, Capital Projects Fund, Debt Service Fund, and Permanent Fund) recording cu
ent financial resources
Before any purchase can be made, the elected body of the state or local government (SLG) MUST pass the budget.  That budget includes the appropriations - the legal authority to incur liabilities for purposes in the appropriations or statute ordinance.  Only the elected body - city council, county commissions, board of trustees, or legislature - have the authority to make appropriations.  These appropriations are specific (for example, if the appropriation is for X dollars for salaries for the police department, the police chief cannot use that appropriation to buy new police cars.  The authority to purchase police cars is given as a specific line item in the budget that was passed by the city council.  (During the fiscal year, the elected body can approve budget amendments - increase or decrease the amounts of appropriations.  Most SLGs have policies that allow the finance office (city manager) to approve budget transfers - i.e. transfer funds from the police salary appropriation to the capital asset acquisition appropriation.
The appropriations last for the fiscal year – unexpended appropriations LAPSE on the last day of the fiscal year. We have all heard of the mentality “Use it or lose it”. This is true, if appropriations are not turned into EXPENDITURES by fiscal year end, the amount cannot be spent. DO NOT confuse this with paying the vendors or employees. It is fine to pay a liability after the end of the fiscal year. That liability, however, must have been incu
ed within the appropriations. The VP of Finance should keep the elected body aware of unexpended appropriations. The elected body may be able to use these to set the new budget (Unassigned Fund Balance is available for future appropriations (see page 60) because there are no restrictions on this amount.
This should not cause managers to spend just for the purpose of using the appropriations. Good managers, at all levels, will look at the unexpended (See the Appropriations, Expenditures, and Encum
ances Ledger for the General Fund: Education Department on page 75 of the text, to determine if it is wise to spend or if funds could be transfe
ed to other areas (a budget transfer generally must be approved at the VP Finance or City Manager level). Work for the ‘greater good’ than just for spending.
Good managers will not wait until the very end of the fiscal year to issue purchase orders (This may be necessary for some areas – fire, emergency services, building services – or for urgent situations.). For routine purchases, it is wise to issue the purchase orders 6 – 8 weeks before fiscal year end – to give the process enough time (Allow purchasing to issue the POs, allow the vendors enough time to process the order, allow for shipping, if necessary, and perhaps, allow for a short back order period of time.).
Hopefully, everyone is comfortable with the fact that department managers are working to run the government for the fiscal year on the line item amounts that have been appropriated for the fiscal years. Using purchase orders and integrating the encum
ances and budget items into the accounting system allows managers to keep an eye on spending
Hopefully, this shows that no purchases can be made unless there is an appropriation.  Only the elected body can approve appropriations.  This is initially done when the budget is passed, but amendments can be made during the fiscal year.  Also, read the last paragraph on page 64.
Also, folks who have budget authority cannot overspend (more than the appropriation) or use appropriations for other uses (the police car example).  This could cause the person to lose the job, have to pay the amount out of pocket, or go to prison. 
Once the budget has passed, the budget authorities can start ordering goods and services.  There is a cycle
The first item is that the City Council (elected body) approves the fiscal year budget –thus the appropriations are now legal.  This illustration shows the journal entry to record the budget (which also include estimated revenues, estimated OFU and OFS
Answered Same Day Jun 05, 2020 Swinburne University of Technology


Pulkit answered on Jun 08 2020
142 Votes
In order to manage business in a meaningful manner and estimation of future costs and revenues, budget preparation is necessary. The main purpose behind preparation of budget is to plan, control, administer, report and evaluate the business operations.
· Budgets help in planning the operations that business will do, resources which are required and their procurement and allocation. Budget helps in estimating costs and how much capital is needed and where to utilize it. It also helps in deciding the type of services, quantity and quality of services that the entity will provide.
· Budgets help in estimating the resources required and its utilization in effective and efficient manner. It is a guiding tool in decision making process. The resource flow can be administered and monitored by the management. The management with the help of budgets keeps an eye on the operations of the entity and ensures proper utilization of resources.
· With the help of budget reports can be furnished by the management on timely manner. Through budgets performance of the entity can be evaluated and comparison can be made with the competitors. Budgets helps in determining whether entity is performing according to its objectives or not and effectiveness and efficiency of its operations can be evaluated.
In short, the main purpose of the budget is to measure the actual performance with the budgeted one and in case of major discrepancy reasons behind such deviations is evaluated and such deviations are considered at the time of preparing budgets for future periods.
Types of budgets can be classified under 3 types. Both profits as well as non-profit motive organizations are required to prepare budgets and these vary from time to time.
The various types of budgets are as follows:
a) APPROPRIATION BUDGETS: These budgets are prepared with the intention to evaluate day to day operations of entity. It is also known as operation budget. i.e. it needs to be a balanced one. Stakeholders always look for appropriation budget because it tells the amount of revenue that will be generated to cover its expenditure and tax expenses. In government organizations these budgets are prepared for funding of capital projects, and the expenditure relating to debts.
) CAPITAL BUDGETS: It is in contrast with appropriation budgets because it may be prepared for more than one year unlike appropriation budgets which are generally prepared for one year. It is because the entity is required to forecast its capital requirements and sources are required to be planned in advance. It requires investment in long term assets like plant, land, building, machinery. Etc. and planning for such huge capital expenditure is required in advance. However, in government organizations these budgets can be included with appropriation budgets.
c) FLEXIBLE BUDGETS: In this type of budget, the estimates can be changed on the basis of level of volume. These are adjusted according with the volume and hence does not have...

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